Browsing by Subject "CLINICAL-OUTCOMES"

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  • Cerlinskaite, Kamile; Javanainen, Tuija; Cinotti, Raphael; Mebazaa, Alexandre (2018)
    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening medical condition, where urgent diagnostic and treatment methods are of key importance. However, there are few evidence-based treatment methods. Interestingly, despite relatively similar ways of management of AHF throughout the globe, mid-term outcome in East Asia, including South Korea is more favorable than in Europe. Yet, most of the treatment methods are symptomatic. The cornerstone of AHF management is identifying precipitating factors and specific phenotype. Multidisciplinary approach is important in AHF, which can be caused or aggravated by both cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The main pathophysiological mechanism in AHF is congestion, both systemic and inside the organs (lung, kidney, or liver). Cardiac output is often preserved in AHF except in a few cases of advanced heart failure. This paper provides guidance on AHF management in a time-based approach. Treatment strategies, criteria for triage, admission to hospital and discharge are described.
  • Uusitalo, Valtteri; Kamperidis, Vasileios; de Graaf, Michiel A.; Maaniitty, Teemu; Stenstrom, Iida; Broersen, Alexander; Dijkstra, Jouke; Scholte, Arthur J.; Saraste, Antti; Bax, Jeroen J.; Knuuti, Juhani (2017)
    Background: We evaluated the prognostic value of an integrated atherosclerosis risk score combining the markers of coronary plaque burden, location and composition as assessed by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Methods: 922 consecutive patients underwent CTA for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients without atherosclerosis (n = 261) and in whom quantitative CTA analysis was not feasible due to image quality, step-artefacts or technical factors related to image acquisition or data storage (n = 153) were excluded. Thus, final study group consisted of 508 patients aged 63 9 years. Coronary plaque location, severity and composition for each coronary segment were identified using automated CTA quantification software and integrated in a single CTA score (0-42). Adverse events (AE) including death, myocardial infarction (MI) and unstable angina (UA) were obtained from the national healthcare statistics. Results: There were a total of 20 (4%) AE during a median follow-up of 3.6 years (9 deaths, 5 MI and 6 UA). The CTA risk score was divided into tertiles: 0-6.7, 6.8-14.8 and > 14.8, respectively. All MI (n = 5) and most of the other AE occurred in the highest risk score tertile (3 vs. 3 vs. 14, p = 0.002). After correction for age and gender, the CTA risk score remained independently associated with AE. Conclusions: Comprehensive CIA risk score integrating the location, burden and composition of coronary atherosclerosis predicts future cardiac events in patients with suspected CAD. (C) 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Penttilä, Tero; Lehto, Mika; Niiranen, Jussi; Mehtälä, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Lassila, Riitta; Raatikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Females with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been suggested to carry a higher risk for thromboembolic events than males. We compared the residual risk of stroke, bleeding events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Data from several nationwide registries and laboratory databases were linked with the civil registration number of the patients. A total of 54568 patients with data on the quality of warfarin treatment (time in therapeutic range) 60days prior to the events were included (TTR60). Gender differences in the endpoints were reported for the whole population, pre-specified age groups, and different TTR60 groups. During the 3.21.6years follow-up, there were no differences in the adjusted risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911.03, P=0.304] between the genders. Cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.780.88, P <0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.750.83, P <0.001) were lower in women when compared with men. There were no differences in the risk of stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality between the genders in the TTR60 categories except for those with TTR60 <50%. Bleeding events were less frequent in females (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.490.56, P <0.001). There were no differences in the risk of stroke between female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and risk of bleeding events were lower in females. Hence, female gender was not a risk marker for adverse outcomes in AF patients with proper warfarin therapy.
  • Baumgartner, Ana; Drame, Katarina; Geutjens, Stijn; Airaksinen, Marja (2020)
    Many patients, especially those with a high pill burden and multiple chronic illnesses, are less adherent to medication. In medication treatments utilizing polypills, this problem might be diminished since multiple drugs are fused into one formulation and, therefore, the therapy regimen is simplified. This systematic review summarized evidence to assess the effect of polypills on medication adherence. The following databases were searched for articles published between 1 January 2000, and 14 May 2019: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus. Medication adherence was the only outcome assessed, regardless of the method of measuring it. Sixty-seven original peer-reviewed articles were selected. Adherence to polypill regimens was significantly higher in 56 articles (84%) compared to multiple pill regimens. This finding was also supported by the results of 13 out of 17 selected previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses dealing with this topic. Adherence can be improved through the formulation of polypills, which is probably why the interest in researching them is growing. There are many polypills on the market, but the adherence studies so far focused mainly on a small range of medical conditions.
  • NBCS Collaborators; Escala-Garcia, Maria; Guo, Qi; Doerk, Thilo; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Nevanlinna, Heli (2019)
    BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using similar to 10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP
  • Jaakkola, Jussi; Jaakkola, Samuli; Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani; Husso, Annastiina; Juvonen, Tatu; Laine, Mika; Virtanen, Marko; Maaranen, Pasi; Niemelä, Matti; Mäkikallio, Timo; Savontaus, Mikko; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Valtola, Antti; Vento, Antti; Eskola, Markku; Raivio, Peter; Biancari, Fausto (2020)
    Whether the subtype of atrial fibrillation affects outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis is unclear. The nationwide FinnValve registry included 2130 patients who underwent primary after transcatheter aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis during 2008–2017. Altogether, 281 (13.2%) patients had pre-existing paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 651 (30.6%) had pre-existing non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 160 (7.5%) were diagnosed with new-onset atrial fibrillation during the index hospitalization. The median follow-up was 2.4 (interquartile range: 1.6–3.8) years. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation did not affect 30-day or overall mortality (p-values >0.05). Non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation demonstrated an increased risk of overall mortality (hazard ratio: 1.61, 95% confidence interval: 1.35–1.92; p0.05). In conclusion, non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and new-onset atrial fibrillation are associated with increased mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis, whereas paroxysmal atrial fibrillation has no effect on mortality. These findings suggest that non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation rather than paroxysmal atrial fibrillation may be associated with structural cardiac damage which is of prognostic significance in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
  • Mäkikallio, Timo; Jalava, Maina P.; Husso, Annastiina; Virtanen, Marko; Laakso, Teemu; Ahvenvaara, Tuomas; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Maaranen, Pasi; Kinnunen, Eeva-Maija; Dahlbacka, Sebastian; Jaakkola, Jussi; Airaksinen, Juhani; Anttila, Vesa; Savontaus, Mikko; Laine, Mika; Juvonen, Tatu; Valtola, Antti; Raivio, Peter; Eskola, Markku; Niemelä, Matti; Biancari, Fausto (2019)
    Aim: We investigated the outcomes of transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in Finland during the last decade. Methods: The nationwide FinnValve registry included data from 6463 patients who underwent TAVR or SAVR with a bioprosthesis for aortic stenosis from 2008 to 2017. Results: The annual number of treated patients increased three-fold during the study period. Thirty-day mortality declined from 4.8% to 1.2% for TAVR (p = .011) and from 4.1% to 1.8% for SAVR (p = .048). Two-year survival improved from 71.4% to 83.9% for TAVR (p <.001) and from 87.2% to 91.6% for SAVR (p = .006). During the study period, a significant reduction in moderate-to-severe paravalvular regurgitation was observed among TAVR patients and a reduction of the rate of acute kidney injury was observed among both SAVR and TAVR patients. Similarly, the rate of red blood cell transfusion and severe bleeding decreased significantly among SAVR and TAVR patients. Hospital stay declined from 10.4 +/- 8.4 to 3.7 +/- 3.4 days after TAVR (p <.001) and from 9.0 +/- 5.9 to 7.8 +/- 5.1 days after SAVR (p <.001). Conclusions: In Finland, the introduction of TAVR has led to an increase in the invasive treatment of severe aortic stenosis, which was accompanied by improved early outcomes after both SAVR and TAVR.
  • Koljonen, V.; Tuimala, J.; Haglund, C.; Tukiainen, E.; Vuola, J.; Juvonen, E.; Lauronen, J.; Krusius, T. (2016)
    Introduction: Burn anemia represents a common complication following a burn injury. Burn anemia etiology carries distinct features occurring at each stage of the post-injury and treatment periods resulting from different causes. We aimed to analyze the use of blood components in Finnish burn victims and to identify patient- and injury-related factors influencing their use. Methods: To study the use of blood products in burn patients, we used data collected from the Optimal Use of Blood registry, developed through co-operation between 10 major hospital districts and the Finnish Red Cross Blood Service. Burn patients 18years treated at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2005 and 2011 with an in-hospital stay 1day who received at least one transfusion during their hospital stay were included in this study. Results: Among all 558 burn patients, 192 (34%) received blood products during their hospital stay. The transfused cohort comprised 192 burn patients. The study cohort received a total of 6087units of blood components, 2422units of leukoreduced red blood cells, 1728units of leukoreduced platelets, and 420units of single-donor fresh frozen plasma or, after 2007, 1517units of Octaplas((R)) frozen plasma. All three types of blood components were administered to 29% of patients, whereas 45% received only red blood cells and 6% received only Octaplas. Transfused patients were significantly older (p Discussion: We show that Finnish adult burn patients received ample transfusions. The number of blood components transfused varied according to the anatomical location of the injury and patient survival. Whether the additional mortality is related directly to transfusions or is merely a manifestation of the more severe burn injury remains unknown.
  • Carpen, Timo; Saarilahti, Kauko; Haglund, Caj; Markkola, Antti; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri; Mäkitie, Antti (2018)
    To investigate the impact of primary gross tumor volume (pGTV) and nodal gross tumor volume (nGTV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and the difference in their role between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative patients. The patient cohort consists of 91 OPSCC patients treated with definitive radiochemotherapy or radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). All patients had a minimum follow-up of 31 months. Volume measurements were made from computer tomography (CT) scans and HPV status was assessed by p16 immunohistochemistry. The end points were as follows: overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional control (LRC). pGTV was a significant independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; p0.020) in p16-negative patients. nGTV of p16-negative tumors had significant prognostic value in all end points in multivariate analyses. High-stage (III-IVc) p16-negative tumors were only associated with significantly poorer OS (p = 0.046) but not with poorer LRC or DFS when compared with the low-stage (I-II) tumors. nGTV of p16-positive tumors was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (p= 0.005) and LRC (p= 0.007) in multivariate analyses. pGTV may serve as an independent prognostic factor in p16-negative patients and nGTV may serve as an independent prognostic factor both in p16-positive and p16-negative patients treated with radiochemotherapy or radiotherapy using IMRT. Tumor volume may have an impact on selecting patients for de-escalation protocols in the future, both in p16-positive and p16-negative patients.