Browsing by Subject "CLONING"

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  • Rinne, Maiju; Tanoli, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Khan, Asifullah; Xhaard, Henri (2019)
    We conduct a cartography of rhodopsin-like non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors in the Ensembl database. The most recent genomic data (releases 90-92, 90 vertebrate genomes) are analyzed through the online interface and receptors mapped on phylogenetic guide trees that were constructed based on a set of similar to 14.000 amino acid sequences. This snapshot of genomic data suggest vertebrate genomes to harbour 142 clades of GPCRs without human orthologues. Among those, 69 have not to our knowledge been mentioned or studied previously in the literature, of which 28 are distant from existing receptors and likely new orphans. These newly identified receptors are candidates for more focused evolutionary studies such as chromosomal mapping as well for in-depth pharmacological characterization. Interestingly, we also show that 37 of the 72 human orphan (or recently deorphanized) receptors included in this study cluster into nineteen closely related groups, which implies that there are less ligands to be identified than previously anticipated. Altogether, this work has significant implications when discussing nomenclature issues for GPCRs.
  • Jenkins, Christopher A.; Kalmar, Lajos; Matiasek, Kaspar; Mari, Lorenzo; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Lohi, Hannes; Schofield, Ellen C.; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; De Risio, Luisa; Ricketts, Sally L. (2020)
    Author summary Hereditary ataxias, which are a group of disorders characterised by incoordination of movement, are typically incurable and there are often no disease-modifying treatments available. Canine hereditary ataxias are a notable group of movement disorders in dogs, and represent well characterised naturally occurring disease models of ataxia that can help improve our understanding of the underlying biology of the disorder in both dogs and humans. We used the whole genome sequences of two affected siblings to investigate the genetic cause of a slowly progressive form of hereditary ataxia in the Norwegian Buhund dog breed, and identified a single base change within the KCNIP4 gene. We have characterised the expression of KCNIP4 in the dog, and investigated the effect of the identified mutation. This gene has not previously been implicated in inherited ataxia in any species, and our findings suggest that this and related genes represent potential candidates for ataxia in future studies in other species. Our findings will allow dog breeders to avoid producing affected dogs, reduce the disease allele frequency, and eventually eliminate the disease from the breed, through the use of a DNA test. A form of hereditary cerebellar ataxia has recently been described in the Norwegian Buhund dog breed. This study aimed to identify the genetic cause of the disease. Whole-genome sequencing of two Norwegian Buhund siblings diagnosed with progressive cerebellar ataxia was carried out, and sequences compared with 405 whole genome sequences of dogs of other breeds to filter benign common variants. Nine variants predicted to be deleterious segregated among the genomes in concordance with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, only one of which segregated within the breed when genotyped in additional Norwegian Buhunds. In total this variant was assessed in 802 whole genome sequences, and genotyped in an additional 505 unaffected dogs (including 146 Buhunds), and only four affected Norwegian Buhunds were homozygous for the variant. The variant identified, a T to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (NC_006585.3:g.88890674T>C), is predicted to cause a tryptophan to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the potassium voltage-gated channel interacting protein KCNIP4. This gene has not been implicated previously in hereditary ataxia in any species. Evaluation of KCNIP4 protein expression through western blot and immunohistochemical analysis using cerebellum tissue of affected and control dogs demonstrated that the mutation causes a dramatic reduction of KCNIP4 protein expression. The expression of alternative KCNIP4 transcripts within the canine cerebellum, and regional differences in KCNIP4 protein expression, were characterised through RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. The voltage-gated potassium channel protein KCND3 has previously been implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia, and our findings suggest that the Kv4 channel complex KCNIP accessory subunits also have an essential role in voltage-gated potassium channel function in the cerebellum and should be investigated as potential candidate genes for cerebellar ataxia in future studies in other species.
  • Giaretta, Paula R; Rech, Raquel R; Guard, Blake C; Blake, Amanda B; Blick, Anna K; Steiner, Jörg M.; Lidbury, Jonathan A; Cook, Audrey K; Hanifeh, Mohsen; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Syrjä, Pernilla; Suchodolski, Jan (2018)
    Background Objective Intestinal absorption of bile acids is mediated by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). Fecal bile acid dysmetabolism has been reported in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE). Characterization of ASBT distribution along the intestinal tract of control dogs and comparison to dogs with CIE. Animals Methods Twenty-four dogs with CIE and 11 control dogs. The ASBT mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The concentrations of fecal bile acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fecal microbiota dysbiosis index was assessed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction panel. Results Conclusions and Clinical Importance In control dogs, ASBT mRNA expression was observed in enterocytes in all analyzed intestinal segments, with highest expression in the ileum. The ASBT protein expression was restricted to enterocytes in the ileum, cecum, and colon. Dogs with CIE had significantly decreased expression of ASBT protein in the ileum (P = .001), which was negatively correlated with histopathological score (rho = -0.40; P-corr = .049). Additionally, dogs with CIE had a significantly increased percentage of primary bile acids in feces compared to controls (P = .04). The fecal dysbiosis index was significantly higher in dogs with CIE than in control dogs (P = .01). These findings indicate that ileal protein expression of ASBT is downregulated in dogs with CIE. This change may be linked to the inflammatory process, intestinal dysbiosis, and fecal bile acid dysmetabolism observed in these patients.
  • Tammimäki, Anne; Aonurm-Helm, Anu; Männistö, Pekka T. (2018)
    1.Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the O-methylation of l-DOPA, dopamine, and other catechols. The enzyme is expressed in two isoforms: soluble (S-COMT), which resides in the cytoplasm, and membrane-bound (MB-COMT), which is anchored to intracellular membranes. 2.To obtain specific information on the functions of COMT isoforms, we studied how a complete MB-COMT deficiency affects the total COMT activity in the body, peripheral l-DOPA levels, and metabolism after l-DOPA (10mg kg(-1)) plus carbidopa (30mg kg(-1)) administration by gastric tube in wild-type (WT) and MB-COMT-deficient mice. l-DOPA and 3-O-methyl-l-DOPA (3-OMD) levels were assayed in plasma, duodenum, and liver. 3.We showed that the selective lack of MB-COMT did not alter the total COMT activity, COMT enzyme kinetics, l-DOPA levels, or the total O-methylation of l-DOPA but delayed production of 3-OMD in plasma and peripheral tissues.
  • Sandell, Satu; Huovinen, Sanna; Palmio, Johanna; Raheem, Olayinka; Lindfors, Mikaela; Zhao, Fang; Haapasalo, Hannu; Udd, Bjarne (2016)
    Introduction: Limb girdle muscular dystrophies are a large group of both dominantly and recessively inherited muscle diseases. LGMD1D is caused by mutated DNAJB6 and the molecular pathogenesis is mediated by defective chaperonal function leading to impaired handling of misfolded proteins which normally would be degraded. Here we aim to clarify muscle pathology of LGMD1D in order to facilitate diagnostic accuracy. After following six Finnish LGMD1D families, we analysed 21 muscle biopsies obtained from 15 patients at different time points after the onset of symptoms. All biopsies were obtained from the lower limb muscles and processed for routine histochemistry, extensive immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: Histopathological findings were myopathic or dystrophic combined with rimmed vacuolar pathology, and small myofibrillar aggregates. These myofibrillar inclusions contained abnormal accumulation of a number of proteins such as myotilin, aB-crystallin and desmin on immunohistochemistry, and showed extensive myofibrillar disorganization with excess of Z-disk material on ultrastructure. Later in the disease process the rimmed vacuolar pathology dominated with rare cases of pronounced larger pleomorphic myofibrillar aggregates. The rimmed vacuoles were reactive for several markers of defect autophagy such as ubiquitin, TDP-43, p62 and SMI-31. Conclusions: Since DNAJB6 is known to interact with members of the chaperone assisted selective autophagy complex (CASA), including BAG3 - a known myofibrillar myopathy causing gene, the molecular muscle pathology is apparently mediated through impaired functions of CASA and possibly other complexes needed for the maintenance of the Z-disk and sarcomeric structures. The corresponding findings on histopathology offer clues for the diagnosis.
  • Salo, Perttu P.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Tukiainen, Taru; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; Männikkö, Minna; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jula, Antti; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Salomaa, Veikko; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus (2017)
    Background Cardiomyocytes secrete atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in response to mechanical stretching, making them useful clinical biomarkers of cardiac stress. Both human and animal studies indicate a role for ANP as a regulator of blood pressure with conflicting results for BNP. Methods and Results We used genome-wide association analysis (n=6296) to study the effects of genetic variants on circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations and compared the impact of natriuretic peptide-associated genetic variants on blood pressure (n=27059). Eight independent genetic variants in 2 known (NPPA-NPPB and POC1B-GALNT4) and 1 novel locus (PPP3CC) associated with midregional proANP (MR-proANP), BNP, aminoterminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), or BNP:NT-proBNP ratio. The NPPA-NPPB locus containing the adjacent genes encoding ANP and BNP harbored 4 independent cis variants with effects specific to either midregional proANP or BNP and a rare missense single nucleotide polymorphism in NT-proBNP seriously altering its measurement. Variants near the calcineurin catalytic subunit gamma gene PPP3CC and the polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 4 gene GALNT4 associated with BNP:NT-proBNP ratio but not with BNP or midregional proANP, suggesting effects on the post-translational regulation of proBNP. Out of the 8 individual variants, only those correlated with midregional proANP had a statistically significant albeit weak impact on blood pressure. The combined effect of these 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms also associated with hypertension risk (P=8.2x10(-4)). Conclusions Common genetic differences affecting the circulating concentration of ANP associated with blood pressure, whereas those affecting BNP did not, highlighting the blood pressure-lowering effect of ANP in the general population.