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  • Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G.; Ruppe, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J.; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Frederick A.; Maier, Ronald V.; De Waele, Jan J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J.; Mazuski, John E.; May, Addison K.; Sawyer, Rob G.; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A.; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R.; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J.; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A.; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltran, Marcelo A.; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Brecher, Stephen M.; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R.; Buyne, Otmar R.; Cainzos, Miguel A.; Cairns, Kelly A.; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J.; Jusoh, Asri Che; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, Jose J.; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P.; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Herve; Eachempati, Soumitra R.; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R.; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R.; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J.; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G.; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K.; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y. Y.; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C.; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R.; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Laterre, Pierre-Francois; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppäniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y.; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E.; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P.; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H.; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Junior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Lohse, Helmut A. Segovia; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G.; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V.; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S.; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L.; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M.; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi (2016)
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
  • Koenig, J.; Siebenhaar, A.; Hoegenauer, C.; Arkkila, P.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Noren, T.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; Rosien, U.; Rossen, N. G.; Satokari, R.; Stallmach, A.; de Vos, W.; Keller, J.; Brummer, R. J. (2017)
    Background Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication. Aim To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT. Methods Well-acknowledged experts from various countries in Europe have contributed to this article. After literature review, consensus has been achieved by repetitive circulation of the statements and the full manuscript among all authors with intermittent adaptation to comments (using a modified Delphi process). Levels of evidence and agreement were rated according to the GRADE system. Consensus was defined a priori as agreement by at least 75% of the authors. Results Key recommendations include the use of FMT in recurrent C. difficile infection characterised by at least two previous standard treatments without persistent cure, as well as its consideration in severe and severe-complicated C. difficile infection as an alternative to total colectomy in case of early failure of antimicrobial therapy. FMT in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and metabolic syndrome should only be performed in research settings. Conclusions Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer is a promising treatment for a variety of diseases in which the intestinal microbiota is disturbed. For indications other than C. difficile infection, more evidence is needed before more concrete recommendations can be made.
  • Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Tilg, Herbert; Rajilic-Stojanovic, Mirjana; Kump, Patrizia; Satokari, Reetta; Sokol, Harry; Arkkila, Perttu; Pintus, Cristina; Hart, Ailsa; Segal, Jonathan; Aloi, Marina; Masucci, Luca; Molinaro, Antonio; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio; Link, Alexander; De Groot, Pieter; de Vos, Willem M.; Hoegenauer, Christoph; Malfertheiner, Peter; Mattila, Eero; Milosavljevic, Tomica; Nieuwdorp, Max; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Simren, Magnus; Gasbarrini, Antonio; European FMT Working Grp (2017)
    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an important therapeutic option for Clostridium difficile infection. Promising findings suggest that FMT may play a role also in the management of other disorders associated with the alteration of gut microbiota. Although the health community is assessing FMT with renewed interest and patients are becoming more aware, there are technical and logistical issues in establishing such a non-standardised treatment into the clinical practice with safety and proper governance. In view of this, an evidence-based recommendation is needed to drive the practical implementation of FMT. In this European Consensus Conference, 28 experts from 10 countries collaborated, in separate working groups and through an evidence-based process, to provide statements on the following key issues: FMT indications; donor selection; preparation of faecal material; clinical management and faecal delivery and basic requirements for implementing an FMT centre. Statements developed by each working group were evaluated and voted by all members, first through an electronic Delphi process, and then in a plenary consensus conference. The recommendations were released according to best available evidence, in order to act as guidance for physicians who plan to implement FMT, aiming at supporting the broad availability of the procedure, discussing other issues relevant to FMT and promoting future clinical research in the area of gut microbiota manipulation. This consensus report strongly recommends the implementation of FMT centres for the treatment of C. difficile infection as well as traces the guidelines of technicality, regulatory, administrative and laboratory requirements.
  • Rannikko, Juha; Holmberg, Ville; Karppelin, Matti; Arvola, Pertti; Huttunen, Reetta; Mattila, Eero; Kerttula, Niina; Puhto, Teija; Tamm, Ulle; Koivula, Irma; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana; Hohenthal, Ulla (2021)
    Because of widespread use of probiotics, their safety must be guaranteed. We assessed use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic yeast from medical records for patients who had Saccharomyces fungemia or other clinical Saccharomyces culture findings. We evaluated all Saccharomyces sp. findings at 5 university hospitals in Finland during 2009-2018. We found 46 patients who had Saccharomyces fungemia; at least 20 (43%) were using S. boulardii probiotic. Compared with a control group that had bacteremia or candidemia, the odds ratio for use of an S. boulardii probiotic was 14 (95% CI 4-44). Of 1,153 nonblood culture findings, the history for 125 patients was checked; at least 24 (19%) were using the probiotic (odds ratio 10, 95% CI 3-32). This study adds to published fungemia cases linked to use of S. boulardii probiotic and sheds light on the scale of nonblood Saccharomyces culture findings that are also linked to use of this probiotic.
  • Cammarota, Giovanni; Ianiro, Gianluca; Kelly, Colleen R.; Mullish, Benjamin H.; Allegretti, Jessica R.; Kassam, Zain; Putignani, Lorenza; Fischer, Monika; Keller, Josbert J.; Costello, Samuel Paul; Sokol, Harry; Kump, Patrizia; Satokari, Reetta; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kao, Dina; Arkkila, Perttu; Kuijper, Ed J.; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Pintus, Cristina; Lopetuso, Loris; Masucci, Luca; Scaldaferri, Franco; Terveer, E. M.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Lopez-Sanroman, Antonio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Hart, Ailsa; Tilg, Herbert; Gasbarrini, Antonio (2019)
    Although faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), its widespread dissemination is limited by several obstacles, including lack of dedicated centres, difficulties with donor recruitment and complexities related to regulation and safety monitoring. Given the considerable burden of CDI on global healthcare systems, FMT should be widely available to most centres. Stool banks may guarantee reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for patients and a traceable workflow that ensures safety and quality of procedures. In this consensus project, FMT experts from Europe, North America and Australia gathered and released statements on the following issues related to the stool banking: general principles, objectives and organisation of the stool bank; selection and screening of donors; collection, preparation and storage of faeces; services and clients; registries, monitoring of outcomes and ethical issues; and the evolving role of FMT in clinical practice, Consensus on each statement was achieved through a Delphi process and then in a plenary face-to-face meeting. For each key issue, the best available evidence was assessed, with the aim of providing guidance for the development of stool banks in order to promote accessibility to FMT in clinical practice.
  • Draper, L. A.; Ryan, F. J.; Smith, M. K.; Jalanka, J.; Mattila, E.; Arkkila, P.; Ross, R. P.; Satokari, R.; Hill, C. (2018)
    BackgroundFaecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Its success is typically attributed to the restoration of a diverse microbiota. Viruses (including bacteriophages) are the most numerically dominant and potentially the most diverse members of the microbiota, but their fate following FMT has not been well studied.ResultsWe studied viral transfer following FMT from 3 donors to 14 patients. Recipient viromes resembled those of their donors for up to 12months. Tracking individual bacteriophage colonisation revealed that engraftment of individual bacteriophages was dependent on specific donor-recipient pairings. Specifically, multiple recipients from a single donor displayed highly individualised virus colonisation patterns.ConclusionsThe impact of viruses on long-term microbial dynamics is a factor that should be reviewed when considering FMT as a therapeutic option.
  • Ianiro, Gianluca; Mullish, Benjamin H.; Kelly, Colleen R.; Kassam, Zain; Kuijper, Ed J.; Ng, Siew C.; Iqbal, Tariq H.; Allegretti, Jessica R.; Bibbo, Stefano; Sokol, Harry; Zhang, Faming; Fischer, Monika; Costello, Samuel Paul; Keller, Josbert J.; Masucci, Luca; van Prehn, Joffrey; Quaranta, Gianluca; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Segal, Jonathan; Kao, Dina; Satokari, Reetta; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Tilg, Herbert; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni (2020)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an exponential increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated deaths, and represents a significant challenge to healthcare professionals and facilities. Individual countries have taken several prevention and containment actions to control the spread of infection, including measures to guarantee safety of both healthcare professionals and patients who are at increased risk of infection from COVID-19. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection. In the time of the pandemic, FMT centres and stool banks are required to adopt a workflow that continues to ensure reliable patient access to FMT while maintaining safety and quality of procedures. In this position paper, based on the best available evidence, worldwide FMT experts provide guidance on issues relating to the impact of COVID-19 on FMT, including patient selection, donor recruitment and selection, stool manufacturing, FMT procedures, patient follow-up and research activities.
  • Standards Guidelines Initiative; Keller, Josbert J.; Vehreschild, Maria J. G. T.; Arkkila, P. (2019)
  • Laaveri, Tinja; Sterne, Jesper; Rombo, Lars; Kantele, Anu (2016)
    Looking at the worldwide emergency of antimicrobial resistance, international travellers appear to have a central role in spreading the bacteria across the globe. Travellers' diarrhoea (TD) is the most common disease encountered by visitors to the (sub) tropics. Both TD and its treatment with antibiotics have proved significant independent risk factors of colonization by resistant intestinal bacteria while travelling. Travellers should therefore be given preventive advice regarding TD and cautioned about taking antibiotics: mild or moderate TD does not require antibiotics. Logical alternatives are medications with effects on gastrointestinal function, such as loperamide. The present review explores literature on loperamide in treating TD. Adhering to manufacturer's dosage recommendations, loperamide offers a safe and effective alternative for relieving mild and moderate symptoms. Moreover, loperamide taken singly does no predispose to contracting MDR bacteria. Most importantly, we found no proof that would show antibiotics to be significantly more effective than loperamide in treating mild/moderate TD. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.