Browsing by Subject "CLOSURE"

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  • Knowler, Susan P.; Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; McFadyen, Angus K.; Jokinen, Tarja S.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Rusbridge, Clare (2017)
    Objectives To characterize and compare the phenotypic variables of the hindbrain and craniocervical junction associated with syringomyelia (SM) in the Chihuahua, Affenpinscher and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS). Method Analysis of 273 T1-weighted mid-sagittal DICOM sequences of the hindbrain and craniocer-vical junction from 99 Chihuahuas, 42 Affenpinschers and 132 CKCSs. The study compared 22 morphometric features (11 lines, eight angles and three ratios) of dogs with and without SM using refined techniques based on previous studies of the Griffon Bruxellois (GB) using Discriminant Function Analysis and ANOVA with post-hoc corrections. Results The analysis identified 14/22 significant traits for SM in the three dog breeds, five of which were identical to those reported for the GB and suggest inclusion of a common aetiology. One ratio, caudal fossa height to the length of the skull base extended to an imaginary point of alignment between the atlas and supraoccipital bones, was common to all three breeds (p values 0.029 to <0.001). Associated with SM were a reduced occipital crest and two acute changes in angulation i) 'sphenoid flexure' at the spheno-occipital synchondrosis ii) 'cervical flexure' at the foramen magnum allied with medulla oblongata elevation. Comparing dogs with and without SM, each breed had a unique trait: Chihuahua had a smaller angle between the dens, atlas and basioccipital bone (p value <0.001); Affenpinschers had a smaller dis-tance from atlas to dens (p value 0.009); CKCS had a shorter distance between the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and atlas (p value 0.007). Conclusion The selected morphometries successfully characterised conformational changes in the brain and craniocervical junction that might form the basis of a diagnostic tool for all breeds. The severity of SM involved a spectrum of abnormalities, incurred by changes in both angulation and size that could alter neural parenchyma compliance and/or impede cerebrospinal fluid channels.
  • Bonsdorff, Akseli; Ghorbani, Poya; Helanterä, Ilkka; Tarvainen, Timo; Kontio, Tea; Belfrage, Hanna; Siren, Jukka; Kokkola, Arto; Sparrelid, Ernesto; Sallinen, Ville (2022)
    This study describes the development and external validation of the DISPAIR score, a preoperative clinical prediction model to estimate the risk of postoperative pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy. It is based on three variables measured before operation: pancreatic thickness, transection site, and history of diabetes. On external validation, it showed satisfactory discrimination (area under the curve 0.80) and calibration (slope 0.719, intercept 0.192) for predicting pancreatic fistula. Background Highly utilized risk scores for clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) have guided clinical decision-making in pancreatoduodenectomy. However, none has been successfully developed for distal pancreatectomy. This study aimed to develop and validate a new fistula risk score for distal pancreatectomy. Methods Patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland from 2013 to 2021, and at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, from 2010 to 2020, were included retrospectively. The outcome was CR-POPF, according to the 2016 International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition. Preoperative clinical demographics and radiological parameters such as pancreatic thickness and duct diameter were measured. A logistic regression model was developed, internally validated with bootstrapping, and the performance assessed in an external validation cohort. Results Of 668 patients from Helsinki (266) and Stockholm (402), 173 (25.9 per cent) developed CR-POPF. The final model consisted of three variables assessed before surgery: transection site (neck versus body/tail), pancreatic thickness at transection site, and diabetes. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.904 (95 per cent c.i. 0.855 to 0.949) after internal validation, and 0.798 (0.748 to 0.848) after external validation. The calibration slope and intercept on external validation were 0.719 and 0.192 respectively. Four risk groups were defined in the validation cohort for clinical applicability: low (below 5 per cent), moderate (at least 5 but below 30 per cent), high (at least 30 but below 75 per cent), and extreme (75 per cent or more). The incidences in these groups were 8.7 per cent (11 of 126), 22.0 per cent (36 of 164), 63 per cent (57 of 91), and 81 per cent (17 of 21) respectively. Conclusion The DISPAIR score after distal pancreatectomy may guide decision-making and allow a risk-adjusted outcome comparison for CR-POPF.
  • Tauriainen, Asta; Hyvarinen, Anna; Raitio, Arimatias; Sankilampi, Ulla; Gärding, Mikko; Tauriainen, Tuomas; Helenius, Ilkka; Vanamo, Kari (2021)
  • Johansson, Karin S. L.; El-Soda, Mohamed; Pagel, Ellen; Meyer, Rhonda C.; Toldsepp, Kadri; Nilsson, Anders K.; Brosche, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Uddling, Johan; Andersson, Mats X. (2020)
    Background and Aims The stomatal conductance (g(s)) of most plant species decreases in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. This response could have a significant impact on plant water use in a future climate. However, the regulation of the CO2 induced stomatal closure response is not fully understood. Moreover, the potential genetic links between short-term (within minutes to hours) and long-term (within weeks to months) responses of g(s) to increased atmospheric CO2 have not been explored. Methods We used Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred lines originating from accessions Col-0 (strong CO2 response) and C24 (weak CO2 response) to study short- and long-term controls of g(s) Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was used to identify loci controlling short- and long-term g(s) responses to elevated CO2 as well as other stomata-related traits. Key Results Short- and long-term stomatal responses to elevated CO2 were significantly correlated. Both short-and long-term responses were associated with a QTL, at the end of chromosome 2. The location of this QTL was confirmed using near-isogonic lines and it was fine-mapped to a 410-kb region. The QTL did not correspond to any known gene involved in stomatal closure and had no effect on the responsiveness to abscisic acid. Additionally, we identified numerous other loci associated with stomatal regulation. Conclusions We identified and confirmed the effect of a strong QTL corresponding to a yet unknown regulator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2 concentration. The correlation between short- and long-term stomatal CO2 responses and the genetic link between these traits highlight the importance of understanding guard cell CO2 signalling to predict and manipulate plant water use in a world with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This study demonstrates the power of using natural variation to unravel the genetic regulation of complex traits.
  • Raitio, Arimatias; Kalliokoski, Nelly; Syvänen, Johanna; Harju, Samuli; Tauriainen, Asta; Hyvärinen, Anna; Gissler, Mika; Helenius, Ilkka; Sankilampi, Ulla (2021)
    The aim of this nationwide population-based case-control study was to assess the incidence of inguinal hernia (IH) among patients with congenital abdominal wall defects. All infants born with congenital abdominal wall defects between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2014, were identified in the Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations. Six controls matched for gestational age, sex, and year of birth were selected for each case in the Medical Birth Register. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was searched for relevant diagnosis codes for IH, and hernia incidence was compared between cases and controls. We identified 178 infants with gastroschisis and 150 with omphalocele and selected randomly 1968 matched, healthy controls for comparison. Incidence of IH was significantly higher in gastroschisis girls than in matched controls, relative risk (RR) 7.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-23.07). In boys with gastroschisis, no statistically significant difference was observed, RR 1.60 (95% CI 0.75-3.38). Omphalocele was associated with higher risk of IH compared to matched controls, RR 6.46 (95% CI 3.90-10.71), and the risk was equally elevated in male and female patients. Conclusion: Risk of IH is significantly higher among patients with congenital abdominal wall defects than in healthy controls supporting hypothesis that elevated intra-abdominal pressure could prevent natural closure of processus vaginalis. Parents should be informed of this elevated hernia risk to avoid delays in seeking care. We also recommend careful follow-up during the first months of life as most of these hernias are diagnosed early in life.
  • Coccolini, Federico; Catena, Fausto; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Manfredi, Roberto; Nita, Gabriela Elisa; Moore, Ernest E.; Biffl, Walter; Ivatury, Rao; Whelan, James; Fraga, Gustavo; Leppaniemi, Ari; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ansaloni, Luca (2015)
    Actually the most common indications for Open Abdomen (OA) are trauma, abdominal sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis and more in general all those situations in which an intra-abdominal hypertension condition is present, in order to prevent the development of an abdominal compartment syndrome. The mortality and morbidity rate in patients undergone to OA procedures is still high. At present many studies have been published about the OA management and the progresses in survival rate of critically ill trauma and septic surgical patients. However several issues are still unclear and need more extensive studies. The definitions of indications, applications and methods to close the OA are still matter of debate. To overcome this lack of high level of evidence data about the OA indications, management, definitive closure and follow-up, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) promoted the International Register of Open Abdomen (IROA). The register will be held on a web platform (Clinical Registers (R)) through a dedicated web site: www. clinicalregisters. org. This will allow to all surgeons and physicians to participate from all around the world only by having a computer and a web connection. The IROA protocol has been approved by the coordinating center Ethical Committee (Papa Giovanni XXIII hospital, Bergamo, Italy).
  • Ahonen-Siirtola, Mirella; Nevala, Terhi; Vironen, Jaana; Kössi, Jyrki; Pinta, Tarja; Niemeläinen, Susanna; Keränen, Ulla; Ward, Jaana; Vento, Pälvi; Karvonen, Jukka; Ohtonen, Pasi; Mäkelä, Jyrki; Rautio, Tero (2020)
    Purpose Laparoscopic incisional ventral hernia repair (LIVHR) is often followed by seroma formation, bulging and failure to restore abdominal wall function. These outcomes are risk factors for hernia recurrence, chronic pain and poor quality of life (QoL). We aimed to evaluate whether LIVHR combined with defect closure (hybrid) follows as a diminished seroma formation and thereby has a lower rate of hernia recurrence and chronic pain compared to standard LIVHR. Methods This study is a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. From November 2012 to May 2015, 193 patients undergoing LIVHR for primary incisional hernia with fascial defect size from 2 to 7 cm were recruited in 11 Finnish hospitals. Patients were randomised to either a laparoscopic (LG) or a hybrid (HG) repair group. The main outcome measure was hernia recurrence, evaluated clinically and radiologically at a 1-year follow-up visit. At the same time, chronic pain scores and QoL were also measured. Results At the 1-year-control visit, we found no difference in hernia recurrence between the study groups. Altogether, 11 recurrent hernias were found in ultrasound examination, producing a recurrence rate of 6.4%. Of these recurrences, 6 (6.7%) were in the LG group and 5 (6.1%) were in the HG group (p > 0.90). The visual analogue scores for pain were low in both groups; the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) was 1.5 in LG and 1.4 in HG (p = 0.50). QoL improved significantly comparing preoperative status to 1 year after operation in both groups since the bodily pain score increased by 7.8 points (p <0.001) and physical functioning by 4.3 points (p = 0.014). Conclusion Long-term follow-up is needed to demonstrate the potential advantage of a hybrid operation with fascial defect closure. Both techniques had low hernia recurrence rates 1 year after operation. LIVHR reduces chronic pain and physical impairment and improves QoL. Trial Registry: Clinical trial number NCT02542085.
  • Karjalainen, E. K.; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L.; Mustonen, H. K.; Lepistö, A. H. (2019)
    AimRestorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is considered by many surgeons to be the standard procedure for surgical management of ulcerative colitis. There is controversy about whether or not a covering ileostomy should be constructed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and morbidity for patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent restorative proctocolectomy with or without a diverting ileostomy. MethodThis is a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 510 patients with ulcerative colitis who were operated on in Helsinki University Hospital between January 2005 and June 2016. A diverting ileostomy was performed in 119 patients (the stoma group) compared with 391 patients with no stoma. ResultsDehydration and intestinal obstruction occurred more often in the stoma group (P ConclusionOur study shows that a diverting ileostomy is associated with considerable morbidity but it does not seem to prevent later failure of the pouch. We suggest that a diverting ileostomy should only be constructed for high-risk patients.
  • Kiviranta, Anna-Mariam; Rusbridge, Clare; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Junnila, Jouni J. T.; Jokinen, Tarja S. (2021)
    Background The Chihuahua dog breed is known for frequent occurrence of a bregmatic fontanelle on the dorsal skull. A common conception is that this skull defect is a clinically irrelevant finding. No studies, however, describe its prevalence or whether it is accompanied by other persistent fontanelles (PFs). Although Chihuahuas are predisposed to Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM), it is unknown whether PFs occur more commonly in dogs with clinical signs that are caused by CM or SM. Hypothesis/Objectives To describe the number and location of PFs at cranial sutures (CSs) and to compare the occurrence of these PFs in dogs with and without CM/SM-related clinical signs. We hypothesized that PFs also occur commonly at lateral and caudal cranial surfaces, affect a higher number of CSs, and are larger in dogs with CM/SM-related clinical signs. Animals Fifty client-owned Chihuahuas with or without CM/SM-related clinical signs. Results Of the 50 dogs evaluated, 46 (92%) had either 1 or several PFs. The mean +/- SD number of PFs was 2.8 +/- 3.0 (range, 0-13). A total of 138 PFs occupied 118 CSs with 57 (48%) located dorsally, 44 (37%) caudally, and 17 (14%) laterally. The number of CSs affected by PFs was significantly higher (P Conclusions and Clinical Importance Persistent fontanelles are very common in this group of Chihuahuas and appear at dorsal, lateral, and caudal cranial surfaces. They are more numerous and larger in Chihuahuas with CM/SM-related clinical signs.
  • Mäkäräinen-Uhlbäck, Elisa; Wiik, Heikki; Kössi, Jyrki; Ohtonen, Pasi; Rautio, Tero (2018)
    BackgroundA temporary loop ileostomy, which is used to decrease the risk of symptomatic anastamotic leakage after anterior resection and total mesorectal excision (TME), is traditionally closed without any mesh. However, as 44% of incisional site hernias need further repair after stoma closure, attention has increasingly been paid to the use of mesh. Research on the prevention of these hernias is scarce, and no studies comparing different meshes exist.Method/DesignThe Preloop trial (Clinical Trials NCT03445936) is a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to compare synthetic mesh (Parietene Macro, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) and biological implants (Permacol, Medtronic) at a retromuscular sublay position for the prevention of incisional site hernias after loop-ileostomy closure. The main endpoints in this trial are infections at 30-day follow-up and the incidence of hernias clinically or on CT scan at 10months after closure of the stoma. The secondary endpoints are other complications within 30days of surgery graded with the Clavien-Dindo classification, reoperation rate, operating time, length of stay, quality of life measured with RAND-36, and incidence of hernia over a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 100 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio.DiscussionThis is a pilot trial that will be undertaken to provide some novel evidence on the safety profile and efficiency of both synthetic mesh and biological implants for the prevention of incisional hernias after closure by temporary loop ileostomy. The hypothesis is that synthetic mesh is economical but equally safe and at least as effective as biological implants in hernia prevention and in contaminated surgical sites.Trial, NCT03445936. Registered on 7 February 2018.
  • Saeed, Sahrai; Gerdts, Eva; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Sinisalo, Juha; Putaala, Jukka (2019)
    Background: The incidence of ischemic stroke in young patients is increasing and associated with unfavorable prognosis due to high risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. In many young patients the cause of stroke remains unknown, referred to as cryptogenic stroke. Neuroimaging frequently suggests a proximal source of embolism in these strokes. We developed a comprehensive step-by-step echocardiography protocol for a prospective study with centralized reading to characterize preclinical cardiac changes associated with cryptogenic stroke. Methods and study design: SECRETO (Searching for Explanations for Cryptogenic Stroke in the Young: Revealing the Etiology, Triggers, and Outcome; NCT01934725) is an ongoing multicenter case-control study enrolling patients (target n = 600) aged 18-49 years hospitalized due to first-ever ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology and age- and sex-matched controls (target n = 600). A comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk factors and extensive cardiac imaging with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, electrocardiography and neurovascular imaging is performed. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms will be centrally read, following an extensive protocol particularly emphasizing the characteristics of left atrium, left atrial appendage and interatrial septum. Conclusions: A detailed assessment of both conventional and unconventional vascular risk factors and cardiac imaging with transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are implemented in SECRETO, aiming to establish indirect and direct risk factors and causes for cryptogenic stroke and novel pathophysiological brain-heart pathways. This may ultimately enable more personalized therapeutic options for these patients.
  • Jalakas, Pirko; Huang, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Yu-Hung; Zimmerli, Laurent; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael (2017)
    Proper stomatal responses are essential for plant function in an altered environment. The core signaling pathway for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure involves perception of the hormone that leads to the activation of guard cell anion channels by the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA1. Several other regulators are suggested to modulate the ABA signaling pathway, including the protein ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA1 (ERA1), that encodes the farnesyl transferase beta-subunit. The era1 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and shows a more closed stomata phenotype. Using a genetics approach with the double mutants era1 abi1-1 and era1 ost1, we show that while era1 suppressed the high stomatal conductance of abi1-1 and ost1, the ERA1 function was not required for stomatal closure in response to ABA and environmental factors. Further experiments indicated a role for ERA1 in blue light-induced stomatal opening. In addition, we show that ERA1 function in disease resistance was independent of its role in stomatal regulation. Our results indicate a function for ERA1 in stomatal opening and pathogen immunity.
  • Husu, Henrik Leonard; Leppäniemi, Ari Kalevi; Mentula, Panu Juhani (2021)
    Background Selection of patients for open abdomen (OA) treatment in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is challenging. Treatment related morbidity and risk of adverse events are high; however, refractory abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is potentially lethal. Factors influencing the decision to initiate OA treatment are clinically important. We aimed to study these factors to help understand what influences the selection of patients for OA treatment in SAP. Methods A single center study of patients with SAP that underwent OA treatment compared with conservatively treated matched controls. Results Within study period, 47 patients treated with OA were matched in a 1:1 fashion with conservatively treated control patients. Urinary output under 20 ml/h (OR 5.0 95% CI 1.8-13.7) and ACS (OR 4.6 95% CI 1.4-15.2) independently associated with OA treatment. Patients with OA treatment had significantly more often visceral ischemia (34%) than controls (6%), P = 0.002. Mortality among patients with visceral ischemia was 63%. Clinically meaningful parameters predicting developing ischemia were not found. OA treatment associated with higher overall 90-day mortality rate (43% vs 17%, P = 0.012) and increased need for necrosectomy (55% vs 21%, P = 0.001). Delayed primary fascial closure was achieved in 33 (97%) patients that survived past OA treatment. Conclusion Decreased urine output and ACS were independently associated with the choice of OA treatment in patients with SAP. Underlying visceral ischemia was strikingly common in patients undergoing OA treatment, but predicting ischemia in these patients seems difficult.