Browsing by Subject "CMS"

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  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J.K.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2020)
  • Veteli, Peitsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Opetus- ja tutkimusmaailmojen välillä koetaan olevan rako, jota voidaan pitää osasyynä yleisesti havaittuun opiskelijoiden matalaan motivaatioon luonnontieteellisiä aloja kohtaan. Samassa yhteydessä esiin nousevat autenttisuuden ja relevanssin käsitteet, joilla voidaan kuvata eri tavoilla tapahtuvan toiminnan ”aitoutta” tai mielekkyyttä. Tässä työssä esitellään Fysiikan tutkimuslaitos HIP:in (Helsinki Institute of Physics) Avoin data opetuksessa -projektin myötä kehitettyjä merkityksellisen ohjelmoinnin työkaluja, joissa hyödynnetään muun muassa CERNissä toimivan CMS-kokeen (Compact Muon Solenoid) avoimia hiukkastutkimuksen aineistoja. Näiden materiaalien siirtymistä opettajakunnan avuksi tuetaan koulutuksilla, joista kerättyä palautetta analysoidaan tässä tutkielmassa laajemman tiedeopetuksen autenttisuuteen ja avoimen datan hyödyntämiseen liittyvän keskustelun yhteydessä. Avoimen datan hyödyntäminen ja opetuksellinen tutkiminen ovat hyvin nuoria aloja, joiden eturintamaan tämäkin työ asettuu. Aineistoa on kerätty sekä suomalaisilta (n = 64) että kansainvälisiltä (n = 12) toisen asteen opettajilta, minkä lisäksi vertailukohtana käytetään opiskelijatyöpajoista nousseita kommentteja (n = 62). Menetelmänä toimii temaattinen analyysi, jonka tulokset ovat vertailukelpoisia muuhun luonnontieteen opetuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen. Tutkimuskysymyksenä on: Miten autenttisuus esiintyy opettajien palautteessa hiukkasfysiikan avoimen datan opetuskäytön kursseilta ja kuinka se vertautuu tiedeopetuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuteen? Tuloksista havaitaan opettajien näkemysten asettuvan hyvin saman suuntaisesti kuin verrokkikirjallisuuden pohjalta olisi voinut olettaakin, yleisimpien autenttisuuden yhteyksien painottuessa tutkijoiden toimintaan verrattaviin työskentelytapoihin ja ”oikean maailman” haasteisiin. Palautteen lähes yksimielinen positiivisuus antaa vahvaa indikaatiota projektin tarjoamien mahdollisuuksien hyödyllisyydestä ja tukee alalla kaivattavien jatkotutkimusten kannattavuutta.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The Fourier coefficients v(2) and v(3) characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, 1 <p(T) <100 GeV/c. The analysis focuses on the p(T) > 10 GeV/c range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60% most central events. The v(2) coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to initial-state fluctuations. The values from both methods remain positive up to p(T) similar to 60-80 GeV/c, in all examined centrality classes. The v(3) coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for p(T) greater than or similar to 20 GeV/c. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations. (C) 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Pirttikoski, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    LHC is the highest energy particle collider ever built and it is employed to study elementary particles by colliding protons together. One intriguing study subject at LHC is the stability of the electroweak vacuum in our universe. The current prediction suggests that the vacuum is in the metastable state. The stability of the vacuum is dependent on the mass of the top quark, and it is possible that more precise measurement of the mass could shift the prediction to the border of the metastable and stable states. In order to measure the mass of the top quark more precisely, we need to measure the bottom (b) quarks decaying from it at high precision, as top quark decays predominantly into a W boson and a b quark. Due to the phenomenon called hadronisation, we can not measure the quarks directly, but rather as sprays of collimated particles called jets. The jets originating from b quarks (b jet) can be identified by b-tagging. The precise measurement and calibration of the b jet energy is crucial for top quark mass measurement. This thesis studies the b jets and their energy calibration at the CMS, which is one of the general purpose detectors along the LHC. Especially the b jet energy scale (bJES) is under the investigation and the various phenomena affecting to it. For example, large fraction of b jets contain neutrinos, which cannot be measured directly. This increases uncertainties related to the energy measurement. Also there are problems how precisely the formation and evolution of the b jets can be modelled by Monte Carlo event generators, such as Pythia8, which was utilized in this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how big effect on the bJES is caused by the various different phenomena, which presumably weaken the precision of the b jet measurements. The studied phenomena are the semileptonic branching ratios of b hadrons, branching ratios of b hadron to c hadron decays, b hadron production fraction and parameterization of the b quark fragmentation function. The combined effect of all four different rescaling features mentioned above, suggests that bJES is known at 0.2% level. A small shift of -0.1% in the Missing transverse energy Projection Fraction (MPF) response scale is detected at low pt values, which vanishes as the pt increases. This improves remarkably 0.4-0.5% JES accuracy achieved during at CMS during Run 1 of the LHC. However, there are still many ways we can improve the performance presented here. Definitely there is a need for further studies of the rescaling methods before results could be utilized in the corrections of bJES to do precision measurement of the top quark mass.
  • Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels; Grillner, Pernilla; Gudrunardottir, Thora; Gupta, Ramneek; Gustavsson, Bengt; Heyman, Mats; Holm, Stefan; Karppinen, Atte; Klausen, Camilla; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Mathiasen, Rene; Nilsson, Pelle; Nysom, Karsten; Persson, Karin; Rask, Olof; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Sehested, Astrid; Thomassen, Harald; Tonning-Olsson, Ingrid; Zetterqvist, Barbara; Juhler, Marianne (2017)
    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has been reported in up to 39% of the patients but the exact incidence is uncertain since milder cases may be unrecognized. Recovery is usually incomplete. Reported risk factors are tumour type, midline location and brainstem involvement, but the exact aetiology, surgical and other risk factors, the clinical course and strategies for prevention and treatment are yet to be determined. Methods: This observational, prospective, multicentre study will include 500 children with posterior fossa tumours. It opened late 2014 with participation from 20 Nordic and Baltic centres. From 2016, five British centres and four Dutch centres will join with a total annual accrual of 130 patients. Three other major European centres are invited to join from 2016/17. Follow-up will run for 12 months after inclusion of the last patient. All patients are treated according to local practice. Clinical data are collected through standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre- operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally. Pathology is classified according to the 2007 WHO system. Germline DNA will be collected from all patients for associations between CMS characteristics and host genome variants including pathway profiles. Discussion: Through prospective and detailed collection of information on 1) differences in incidence and clinical course of CMS for different patient and tumour characteristics, 2) standardized surgical data and their association with CMS, 3) diversities and results of other therapeutic interventions, and 4) the role of host genome variants, we aim to achieve a better understanding of risk factors for and the clinical course of CMS - with the ultimate goal of defining strategies for prevention and treatment of this severely disabling condition.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    A statistical combination of searches for heavy resonances decaying to pairs of bosons or leptons is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) collected during 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with expectations from the standard model background. Exclusion limits are set in the context of models of spin-1 heavy vector triplets and of spin-2 bulk gravitons. For mass degenerate W' and Z' resonances that predominantly couple to the standard model gauge bosons, the mass exclusion at 95% confidence level of heavy vector bosons is extended to 4.5 TeV as compared to 3.8 TeV determined from the best individual channel. This excluded mass increases to 5.0 TeV if the resonances couple predominantly to fermions. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Michel, Matthieu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Hybrid wheat has been the focus of much research for its potential high yield, high protein content and better resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Nowadays, only CHA (Chemical Hybridizing Agent) method is used to induce male sterility at a commercial scale. However, this technique is hard to implement on a large production scale and other methods have been investigated for several years. CMS (Cytoplasmic Male Sterility) has been shown to be a promising way to develop hybrid wheat. However, one downside of the technique is the challenging breeding stage step and the associated conversion and restoration process. To fully express the potential gain in yield, the restoration of the cytoplasmic sterility must be complete for the F1 to be fully fertile. In this study, we investigated different methods to assess fertility restoration in nursery and compared the results with the trial notations. The collected data were also used to feed a genomic selection model to predict the behavior of untested hybrids. The results showed a high experimental error of the bagging method originated mostly from human manipulation. The visual scoring showed higher repeatability but was poorly correlated with trial score. A deeper study of the trial scoring revealed an interesting effect coming from the female and an expression of sterility for commercial lines and CHA hybrid checks. Good prediction accuracies were found for genomic selection on both methods, however deeper studies and cross prediction are needed. The multilocation trials remained the best option to score fertility restoration
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    Evidence is presented for the electroweak (EW) production of two jets (jj) in association with two Z-bosons and constraints on anomalous quartic gauge couplings are set. The analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeVcollected with the CMS detector in 2016-2018, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb(-1). The search is performed in the fully leptonic final state ZZ -> lll'l', where l, l' = e, mu. The EW production of two jets in association with two Zbosons is measured with an observed (expected) significance of 4.0 (3.5) standard deviations. The cross sections for the EW production are measured in three fiducial volumes and the result is sigma(EW)(pp -> ZZjj -> lll'l'jj) = 0.33(-0.10)(+0.11)(stat)(-0.03)(+0.04)(syst) fbin the most inclusive volume, in agreement with the standard model prediction of 0.275 +/- 0.021fb. Measurements of total cross sections for jj production in association with two Zbosons are also reported. Limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings are derived in terms of the effective field theory operators T0, T1, T2, T8, and T9. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) decaying to b(b)over-bar when produced in association with an electroweak vector boson is reported for the following processes: Z(vv)H, W(mu v)H, W(ev)H, Z(mu mu)H, and Z(ee)H. The search is performed in data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 f( -1) at root s = 13 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC during Run 2 in 2016. An excess of events is observed in data compared to the expectation in the absence of a H -> b(b)over-bar, signal. The significance of this excess is 3.3 standard deviations, where the expectation from SM Higgs boson production is 2.8. The signal strength corresponding to this excess, relative to that of the SM Higgs boson production, is 1.2 +/- 0.4. When combined with the Run 1 measurement of the same processes, the signal significance is 3.8 standard deviations with 3.8 expected. The corresponding signal strength, relative to that of the SM Higgs boson, is 1.06(-0.29)(+0.31). (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, L.; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2020)
    A search forWWproduction from double-parton scattering processes using same-charge electron-muon and dimuon events is reported, based on proton-proton collision data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The analyzed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 77.4 fb-1, collected using the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016 and 2017. Multivariate classifiers are used to discriminate between the signal and the dominant background processes. A maximum likelihood fit is performed to extract the signal cross section. This leads to the first evidence for WW production via double-parton scattering, with a significance of 3.9 standard deviations. The measured inclusive cross section is 1.41 +/- 0.28 (stat) +/- 0.28 (syst) pb.
  • Taskinen, Minna (University of Helsinki, 1999)
  • Khachatryan, V.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; The CMS collaboration (2016)
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Angular distributions of the decay B-0 -> K*(0)mu(+)mu(-) are studied using a sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.5 fb(-1). An angular analysis is performed to determine the P-1 and P-5' parameters, where the P-5' parameter is of particular interest because of recent measurements that indicate a potential discrepancy with the standard model predictions. Based on a sample of 1397 signal events, the P-1 and P-5' parameters are determined as a function of the dimuon invariant mass squared. The measurements are in agreement with predictions based on the standard model. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    This Letter reports measurements of differential cross sections for the production of two Z bosons in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 and 13 TeV. The analysis is based on data samples collected at the LHC with the CMS detector, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 35.9 fb(-1) at 8 and 13 TeV, respectively. The measurements are performed in the leptonic decay modes ZZ -> l(+)l(-)l'(+)l'(-), where, l, l' = e, mu The differential cross sections as a function of the jet multiplicity, the transverse momentum p(T), and pseudorapidity of the P-T-leading and subleading jets are presented. In addition, the differential cross sections as a function of variables sensitive to the vector boson scattering, such as the invariant mass of the two P-T-leading jets and their pseudorapidity separation, are reported. The results are compared to theoretical predictions and found in good agreement within the theoretical and experimental uncertainties. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The production of a Z boson, decaying to two charged leptons, in association with jets in proton- proton collisions at a centre- of- mass energy of 13 TeV is measured. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC are used that correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.19 fb - 1. The cross section is measured as a function of the jet multiplicity and its dependence on the transverse momentum of the Z boson, the jet kinematic variables ( transverse momentum and rapidity), the scalar sum of the jet momenta, which quantifies the hadronic activity, and the balance in transverse momentum between the reconstructed jet recoil and the Z boson. The measurements are compared with predictions from four different calculations. The first two merge matrix elements with different parton multiplicities in the final state and parton showering, one of which includes oneloop corrections. The third is a fixed- order calculation with next- to- next- to- leading order accuracy for the process with a Z boson and one parton in the final state. The fourth combines the fully differential next- to- next- to- leading order calculation of the process with no parton in the final state with next- to- next- to- leading logarithm resummation and parton showering.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Sirunyan, A. M. (2019)
    A measurement of WZ electroweak (EW) vector boson scattering is presented. The measurement is performed in the leptonic decay modes WZ -> l nu l'l', where l, l' = e, mu. The analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV at the LHC collected with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1) . The WZ plus two jet production cross section is measured in fiducial regions with enhanced contributions from EW production and found to be consistent with standard model predictions. The EW WZ production in association with two jets is measured with an observed (expected) significance of 2.2 (2.5) standard deviations. Constraints on charged Higgs boson production and on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in terms of dimension-eight effective field theory operators are also presented. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    The exclusive photoproduction of (nS) meson states from protons, (nS) p (with n = 1, 2, 3), is studied in ultraperipheral pPb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of The measurement is performed using the decay mode, with data collected by the CMS experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 32.6 nb(-1). Differential cross sections as functions of the nS) transverse momentum squared and rapidity y, are presented. The 1S) photoproduction cross section is extracted in the rapidity range < 2.2, which corresponds to photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 91 W < 826 GeV. The data are compared to theoretical predictions based on perturbative quantum chromodynamics and to previous measurements.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    The cross sections for ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S), and ϒ(3S) production in lead-lead (PbPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV have been measured using the CMS detector at the LHC. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, derived from the PbPb-to-pp ratio of yields for each state, are studied as functions of meson rapidity and transverse momentum, as well as PbPb collision centrality. The yields of all three states are found to be significantly suppressed, and compatible with a sequential ordering of the suppression, RAA(ϒ(1S)) > RAA(ϒ(2S)) > RAA(ϒ(3S)). The suppression of ϒ(1S) is larger than that seen at √sNN = 2.76 TeV, although the two are compatible within uncertainties. The upper limit on the RAA of ϒ(3S) integrated over pT, rapidity and centrality is 0.096 at 95% confidence level, which is the strongest suppression observed for a quarkonium state in heavy ion collisions to date. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP3.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    The strong Coulomb field created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is expected to produce a rapiditydependent difference (Av2) in the second Fourier coefficient of the azimuthal distribution (elliptic flow, v2) between D0 (uc) and D0 (uc) mesons. Motivated by the search for evidence of this field, the CMS detector at the LHC is used to perform the first measurement of Av2. The rapidity-averaged value is found to be (Av2) = 0.001 ? 0.001 (stat)? 0.003 (syst) in PbPb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV. In addition, the influence of the collision geometry is explored by measuring the D0 and D0mesons v2 and triangular flow coefficient (v3) as functions of rapidity, transverse momentum (pT), and event centrality (a measure of the overlap of the two Pb nuclei). A clear centrality dependence of prompt D0 meson v2 values is observed, while the v3 is largely independent of centrality. These trends are consistent with expectations of flow driven by the initial-state geometry. ? 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    Measurements of prompt ψ(2S) meson production cross sections in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of √sNN = 5.02 TeV are reported. The results are based on pPb and pp data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 34.6 nb−1 and 28.0 pb−1, respectively. The nuclear modification factor RpPb is measured for prompt ψ(2S) in the transverse momentum range 4 < pT < 30 GeV/c and the center-of-mass rapidity range −2.4 < yCM < 1.93. The results on ψ(2S) RpPb are compared to the corresponding modification factor for prompt J/ψ mesons. The results point to different nuclear effects at play in the production of the excited charmonium state compared to the ground state, in the region of backward rapidity and for pT < 10 GeV/c. © 2019 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP3.