Browsing by Subject "CO2 EFFLUX"

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  • Mäki, Mari; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellen, Heidi; Back, Jaana (2017)
    Boreal forest floor emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the understorey vegetation and the heterogeneous soil matrix, where the interactions of soil organisms and soil chemistry are complex. Earlier studies have focused on determining the net exchange of VOCs from the forest floor. This study goes one step further, with the aim of separately determining whether the photosynthesized carbon allocation to soil affects the isoprenoid production by different soil organisms, i.e., decomposers, mycorrhizal fungi, and roots. In each treatment, photosynthesized carbon allocation through roots for decomposers and mycorrhizal fungi was controlled by either preventing root ingrowth (50 mu m mesh size) or the ingrowth of roots and fungi (1 mu m mesh) into the soil volume, which is called the trenching approach. Isoprenoid fluxes were measured using dynamic (steady-state flow-through) chambers from the different treatments. This study aimed to analyze how important the understorey vegetation is as a VOC sink. Finally, a statistical model was constructed based on prevailing temperature, seasonality, trenching treatments, understory vegetation cover, above canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil water content, and soil temperature to estimate isoprenoid fluxes. The final model included parameters with a statistically significant effect on the isoprenoid fluxes. The results show that the boreal forest floor emits monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and isoprene. Monoterpenes were the most common group of emitted isoprenoids, and the average flux from the non-trenched forest floor was 23 mu gm(-2) h(-1). The results also show that different biological factors, including litterfall, carbon availability, biological activity in the soil, and physico-chemical processes, such as volatilization and absorption to the surfaces, are important at various times of the year. This study also discovered that understorey vegetation is a strong sink of monoterpenes. The statistical model, based on prevailing temperature, seasonality, vegetation effect, and the interaction of these parameters, explained 43% of the monoterpene fluxes, and 34-46% of individual alpha pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, and Delta(3)-carene fluxes.
  • Mäki, Mari; Ryhti, Kira; Fer, Istem; Ťupek, Boris; Vestin, Patrik; Roland, Marilyn; Lehner, Irene; Köster, Egle; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Bäck, Jaana; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kulmala, Liisa (2022)
    Northern forest soils are a major carbon (C) reservoir of global importance. To estimate how the C balance in these soils will change, the roles of tree roots and soil microbes in C balance should first be decoupled. This study determined how the activity of heterotrophs and tree roots together with root-associated microbes in the rhizosphere varies in coniferous forest soils in boreal, hemiboreal, and temperate climates along a latitudinal gradient using a trenching approach. We created experimental plots without living tree roots, measured soil respiration (CO2 efflux) from these and from unmanipulated plots using the chamber technique, and partitioned the efflux into root-rhizosphere (RR) and heterotrophic (RH) respiration. The share of RR in ecosystem gross primary production (GPP) decreased from north to south in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests, with the exception of a mixed site, where the share of RR in GPP varied strongly between the years. RR per ground area and per root biomass were mainly independent of climate within the gradient. RH per ground area increased from north to south with temperature, while RH per soil C did not change with temperature. Soil moisture did not significantly affect the respiration components in the northernmost site, whereas soil moisture was positively connected with RH and negatively with RR in other Scots pine sites and positively connected with RR in pure Norway spruce stands. The dynamic ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS was able to capture the seasonal dynamics of RH and RR at the sites, but overall accuracy varied markedly between the sites, as the model underestimated RH in the southern site and RR elsewhere. Our study provides knowledge about the nature of soil respiration components. The valuable insights can be used in more accurate land-ecosystem modelling of forest ecosystems.
  • Chan, Tommy; Berninger, Frank; Kolari, Pasi; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu (2018)
    Current methods to study relations between stem respiration and stem growth have been hampered by problems in quantifying stem growth from dendrometer measurements, particularly on a daily time scale. This is mainly due to the water-related influences within these measurements that mask growth. A previously published model was used to remove water-related influences from measured radial stem variations to reveal a daily radial growth signal (ΔˆGm). We analysed the intra- and inter-annual relations between ΔˆGm and estimated growth respiration rates (Rg) on a daily scale for 5 years. Results showed that Rg was weakly correlated to stem growth prior to tracheid formation, but was significant during the early summer. In the late summer, the correlation decreased slightly relative to the early summer. A 1-day time lag was found of ΔˆGm preceding Rg. Using wavelet analysis and measurements from eddy covariance, it was found that Rg followed gross primary production and temperature with a 2 and 3 h time lag, respectively.This study shows that further in-depth analysis of in-situ growth and growth respiration dynamics is greatly needed, with a focus on cellular respiration at specific developmental stages, its woody tissue costs and linkages to source–sink processes and environmental drivers.
  • Kosunen, Maiju; Lyytikaeinen-Saarenmaa, Paeivi; Ojanen, Paavo; Blomqvist, Minna; Starr, Mike (2019)
    Disturbances such as storm events and bark beetle outbreaks can have a major influence on forest soil carbon (C) cycling. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration may be affected by the increase in tree mortality. We studied the effect of a storm in 2010 followed by an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) on the soil surface respiration (respiration by soil and ground vegetation) at two Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) dominated sites in southeastern Finland. Soil surface respiration, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three types of plotsliving trees (undisturbed), storm-felled trees, and standing dead trees killed by I. typographusduring the summer-autumn period for three years (2015-2017). Measurements at storm-felled tree plots were separated into dead tree detritus-covered (under storm-felled trees) and open-vegetated (on open areas) microsites. The soil surface total respiration for 2017 was separated into its autotrophic and heterotrophic components using trenching. The soil surface total respiration rates at the disturbed plots were 64%-82% of those at the living tree plots at one site and were due to a decrease in autotrophic respiration, but there was no clear difference in soil surface total respiration between the plots at the other site, due to shifts in either autotrophic or heterotrophic respiration. The soil surface respiration rates were related to plot basal area (living and all trees), as well as to soil temperature and soil moisture. As storm and bark beetle disturbances are predicted to become more common in the future, their effects on forest ecosystem C cycling and CO2 fluxes will therefore become increasingly important.
  • Palonen, Vesa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Kulmala, Liisa-Maija; Levin, Ingeborg; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    We present a radiocarbon (C-14) dataset of tropospheric air CO2 forest soil air CO2, and soil CO2 emissions over the course of one growing season in a Scots pine forest in southern Finland. The CO2 collection for C-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis was done with a portable, suitcase-sized system, using molecular sieve cartridges to selectively trap CO2 The piloting measurements aimed to quantify the spatial, seasonal and diurnal changes in the C-14 content of CO2 in a northern forest site. The atmospheric samples collected above the canopy showed a large seasonal variation and an 11 parts per thousand difference between day and nighttime profiles in August. The higher Delta C-14 values during night are partly explained by a higher contribution of C-14-elevated soil CO2, accumulating in the nocturnal boundary layer when vertical mixing is weak. We observed significant seasonal trends in Delta C-14-CO2 at different soil depths that reflected changes in the shares of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. Also the observed diurnal variation in the Delta C-14 values in soil CO2 highlighted the changes in the origin of CO2, with root activity decreasing more for the night than decomposition.
  • Zhu, Xudan; Zhu, Tingting; Pumpanen, Jukka; Palviainen, Marjo; Zhou, Xuan; Kulmala, Liisa; Bruckman, Viktor; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Aaltonen, Heidi; Makita, Naoki; Wang, Yixiang; Berninger, Frank (2020)
    Key message During the first summer, wood biochar amendments increased soil temperature, pH, and soil CO(2)effluxes in a xeric boreal Scots pine forest. The increase of soil CO(2)efflux could be largely explained by increases in by soil temperature. Higher biochar application rates (1.0 vs 0.5 kg m(-2)) led to higher soil CO(2)efflux while the pyrolysis temperature of biochar (500 or 650 degrees C) had no effect on soil CO(2)efflux. Context Using biochar as a soil amendment has been proposed to increase the carbon sequestration in soils. However, a more rapid soil organic matter turnover after biochar application might reduce the effectiveness of biochar applications for carbon sequestration. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with lower contents of labile carbohydrates can be produced. Aims To better understand the effects of biochar on boreal forest soil, we applied two spruce biochar with different pyrolysis temperatures (500 degrees C and 650 degrees C) at amounts of 1.0 and 0.5 kg m(-2)in a young xeric Scots pine forest in southern Finland. Methods Soil CO2, microbial biomass, and physiochemical properties were measured to track changes after biochar application during the first summer. Results Soil CO(2)increased 14.3% in 1.0 kg m(-2)treatments and 4.6% in 0.5 kg m(-2). Soil temperature and pH were obviously higher in the 1.0 kg m(-2)treatments. Differences in soil CO(2)among treatments disappear after correcting by soil temperature and soil moisture. Conclusion Biochar increased soil CO(2)mainly by raising soil temperature in the short term. Higher biochar application rates led to higher soil CO(2)effluxes. The increase in soil CO(2)efflux may be transient. More studies are needed to get the optimum biochar amount for carbon sequestration in boreal forest.
  • Wachiye, Sheila Aswani; Merbold, Lutz; Vesala, Timo; Rinne, Janne; Leitner, Sonja; Räsänen, Matti; Vuorinne, Ilja; Heiskanen, Janne; Pellikka, Petri (2021)
    Sisal (Agave sisalana) is a climate-resilient crop grown on large-scale farms in semi-arid areas. However, no studies have investigated soil greenhouse gas (GHGs: CO2, N2O and CH4) fluxes from these plantations and how they relate to other land cover types. We examined GHG fluxes (Fs) in a sisal chronosequence at Teita Sisal Estate in southern Kenya. The effects of stand age on Fs were examined using static GHG chambers and gas chromatography for a period of one year in seven stands: young stands aged 1-3 years, mature stands aged 7-8 years, and old stands aged 13-14 years. Adjacent bushland served as a control site representing the surrounding land use type. Mean CO2 fluxes were highest in the oldest stand (56 +/- 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and lowest in the 8-year old stand (38 +/- 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1)), which we attribute to difference in root respiration between the stand. All stands had 13-28% higher CO2 fluxes than bushland (32 +/- 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1)). CO2 fluxes in the wet season were about 70% higher than dry season across all sites. They were influenced by soil water content (W-S) and vegetation phenology. Mean N2O fluxes were very low (
  • Liu, Yuli; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Berninger, Frank; Mao, Fangjie; Li, Xuejian; Chen, Liang; Cui, Lu; Li, Yangguang; Zhu, Di'en (2018)
    Moso bamboo has large potential to alleviate global warming through carbon sequestration. Since soil respiration (R-s) is a major source of CO2 emissions, we analyzed the dynamics of soil respiration (R-s) and its relation to environmental factors in a Moso bamboo (Phllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens) forest to identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers of respiration. Annual average R(s )was 44.07 t CO2 ha(-1) a(-1) R-s correlated significantly with soil temperature (P <0.01), which explained 69.7% of the variation in R-s at a diurnal scale. Soil moisture was correlated significantly with R-s on a daily scale except not during winter, indicating it affected R-s. A model including both soil temperature and soil moisture explained 93.6% of seasonal variations in R-s. The relationship between R-s and soil temperature during a day showed a clear hysteresis. R-s was significantly and positively (P <0.01) related to gross ecosystem productivity and leaf area index, demonstrating the significance of biotic factors as crucial drivers of R-s.
  • Rissanen, Kaisa; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana (2018)
    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in the xylem sap. Yet further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of 3 water-soluble OVOCs: methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the 3 OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of the temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in the xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air.