Browsing by Subject "CO2"

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  • Palonen, V.; Uusitalo, J.; Seppälä, E.; Oinonen, M. (2017)
    Radiocarbon measurements can be used to deduce the proportion of renewable to fossil carbon in materials. While these biofraction measurements are performed routinely on solid and liquid substances, measurements of gaseous samples, such as methane, are still scarce. As a pioneering effort, we have developed a field-capable sampling system for the selective capture of CH4 for radiocarbon-concentration measurements. The system allows for biofraction measurements of methane by accelerator mass spectrometry. In environmental research, radiocarbon measurements of methane can be used for fingerprinting different sources of methane emissions. In metrology and industry, biofraction measurements can be utilized to characterize biogas/natural gas mixtures within gas-line networks. In this work, the portable sampling system is described in detail and reference measurements of biofractions of gaseous fuel samples are presented. Low-concentration (1-ppm-CH4) sampling for environmental applications appears feasible but has not been fully tested at present. This development allows for multitude of future applications ranging from Arctic methane emissions to biogas insertion to gas networks. Published by AIP Publishing.
  • Räisänen, Jouni (2017)
    An energy balance decomposition of temperature changes is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the change. Changes in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, being especially crucial for the muted warming over the northern North Atlantic and for the seasonal cycle of warming over the Arctic Ocean. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence tend to smooth the gradients of temperature change and reduce its land-sea contrast, but they also amplify the seasonal cycle of warming in northern North America and Eurasia. The three most important terms for intermodel differences in warming are the changes in the clear-sky greenhouse effect, clouds, and the net surface energy flux, making the largest contribution to the standard deviation of annual mean temperature change in 34, 29 and 20 % of the world, respectively. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence mostly damp intermodel variations of temperature change especially over the oceans. However, the opposite is true for example in Greenland and Antarctica, where the warming appears to be substantially controlled by heat transport from the surrounding sea areas.
  • Lauer, Axel; Eyring, Veronika; Righi, Mattia; Buchwitz, Michael; Defourny, Pierre; Evaldsson, Martin; Friedlingstein, Pierre; de Jeu, Richard; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Loew, Alexander; Merchant, Christopher J.; Mueller, Benjamin; Popp, Thomas; Reuter, Maximilian; Sandven, Stein; Senftleben, Daniel; Stengel, Martin; Van Roozendael, Michel; Wenzel, Sabrina; Willen, Ulrika (2017)
    The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is now moving into its sixth phase and aims at a more routine evaluation of the models as soon as the model output is published to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). To meet this goal the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool), a community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the systematic evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) in CMIP, has been developed and a first version (1.0) released as open source software in 2015. Here, an enhanced version of the ESMValTool is presented that exploits a subset of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) Phase 2 and this version is used to demonstrate the value of the data for model evaluation. This subset includes consistent, long-term time series of ECVs obtained from harmonized, reprocessed products from different satellite instruments for sea surface temperature, sea ice, cloud, soil moisture, land cover, aerosol, ozone, and greenhouse gases. The ESA CCI data allow 'extending the calculation of performance metrics as summary statistics for some variables and add an important alternative data set in other cases where observations are already available. The provision of uncertainty estimates on a per grid basis for the ESA CCI data sets is used in a new extended version of the Taylor diagram and provides important additional information for a more objective evaluation of the models. In our analysis we place a specific focus on the comparability of model and satellite data both in time and space. The ESA CCI data are well suited for an evaluation of results from global climate models across ESM compartments as well as an analysis of long-term trends, variability and change in the context of a changing climate. The enhanced version of the ESMValTool is released as open source software and ready to support routine model evaluation in CMIP6 and at individual modeling centers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Sporre, Moa K.; Blichner, Sara M.; Karset, Inger H. H.; Makkonen, Risto; Berntsen, Terje K. (2019)
    Both higher temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations are (separately) expected to increase the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). This has been proposed to initiate negative climate feedback mechanisms through increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). More SOA can make the clouds more reflective, which can provide a cooling. Furthermore, the increase in SOA formation has also been proposed to lead to increased aerosol scattering, resulting in an increase in diffuse radiation. This could boost gross primary production (GPP) and further increase BVOC emissions. In this study, we have used the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) to investigate both these feedback mechanisms. Three sets of experiments were set up to quantify the feedback with respect to (1) doubling the CO2, (2) increasing temperatures corresponding to a doubling of CO2 and (3) the combined effect of both doubling CO2 and a warmer climate. For each of these experiments, we ran two simulations, with identical setups, except for the BVOC emissions. One simulation was run with interactive BVOC emissions, allowing the BVOC emissions to respond to changes in CO2 and/or climate. In the other simulation, the BVOC emissions were fixed at present-day conditions, essentially turning the feedback off. The comparison of these two simulations enables us to investigate each step along the feedback as well as estimate their overall relevance for the future climate. We find that the BVOC feedback can have a significant impact on the climate. The annual global BVOC emissions are up to 63 % higher when the feedback is turned on compared to when the feedback is turned off, with the largest response when both CO2 and climate are changed. The higher BVOC levels lead to the formation of more SOA mass (max 53 %) and result in more particles through increased new particle formation as well as larger particles through increased condensation. The corresponding changes in the cloud properties lead to a -0.43 W m(-2) stronger net cloud forcing. This effect becomes about 50 % stronger when the model is run with reduced anthropogenic aerosol emissions, indicating that the feedback will become even more important as we decrease aerosol and precursor emissions. We do not find a boost in GPP due to increased aerosol scattering on a global scale. Instead, the fate of the GPP seems to be controlled by the BVOC effects on the clouds. However, the higher aerosol scattering associated with the higher BVOC emissions is found to also contribute with a potentially important enhanced negative direct forcing (-0.06 W m(-2)). The global total aerosol forcing associated with the feedback is -0.49 W m(-2), indicating that it has the potential to offset about 13 % of the forcing associated with a doubling of CO2.
  • Urzainki, Iñaki; Laurén, Ari; Palviainen, Marjo; Haahti, Kersti; Budiman, Arif; Basuki, Imam; Netzer, Michael; Hökkä, Hannu (2020)
    Drained peatlands are one of the main sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions globally. Emission reduction and, more generally, ecosystem restoration can be enhanced by raising the water table using canal or drain blocks. When restoring large areas, the number of blocks becomes limited by the available resources, which raises the following question: in which exact positions should a given number of blocks be placed in order to maximize the water table rise throughout the area? There is neither a simple nor an analytic answer. The water table response is a complex phenomenon that depends on several factors, such as the topology of the canal network, site topography, peat hydraulic properties, vegetation characteristics and meteorological conditions. We developed a new method to position the canal blocks based on the combination of a hydrological model and heuristic optimization algorithms. We simulated 3 d dry downs from a water saturated initial state for different block positions using the Boussinesq equation, and the block configurations maximizing water table rise were searched for by means of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. We applied this approach to a large drained peatland area (931 km(2)) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Our solution consistently outperformed traditional block locating methods, indicating that drained peatland restoration can be made more effective at the same cost by selecting the positions of the blocks using the presented scheme.
  • Niemi, Teemu Yrjö Manuel; Fernández, Israel; Steadman, Bethany; Mannisto, Jere Kristian; Repo, Timo Juhani (2018)
    We report herein a straightforward general method for the synthesis of cyclic carbamates from amino alcohols and carbon dioxide in the presence of an external base and a hydroxyl group activating reagent. Utilizing p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (TsCl), the reaction proceeds under mild conditions, and the approach is fully applicable to the preparation of various high value-added 5- and 6-membered rings as well as bicyclic fused ring carbamates. DFT calculations and experimental results indicate a SN2-type reaction mechanism with high regio-, chemo-, and stereoselectivity.
  • Miettinen, H.; Pumpanen, J.; Rantakari, M.; Ojala, A. (2020)
    We studied in 2013 and 2014 the spring carbon dynamics in a Boreal landscape consisting of a lake and 15 inflowing streams and an outlet. The first year had weather and a hydrological regime typical of past years with a distinct spring freshet connected with the thaw of the average snowpack. The latter year had higher air temperatures which did not permit snow accumulation, despite similar winter precipitation. As such, there was hardly any spring freshet in 2014, and stream discharge peaked in January, i.e., the conditions resembled those predicted in the future climate. Despite the hydrological differences between the years, there were only small interannual differences in the stream CO2 and DOC concentrations. The relationship between the concentrations and discharge was stronger in the typical year. CO2 concentrations in medium-sized streams correlated negatively with the discharge, indicating dilution effect of melting snowpacks, while in large-sized streams the correlation was positive, suggesting stronger groundwater influence. The DOC pathway to these streams was through the subsurface soil layers, not the groundwater. The total amount of carbon transported into the lake was ca. 1.5-fold higher in the typical year than in the year with warm winter. In 2013, most of the lateral inputs took place during spring freshet. In 2014, the majority of inputs occurred earlier, during the winter months. The lateral CO2 signal was visible in the lake at 1.5 m depth. DOC dominated the carbon transport, and in both years, 12% of the input C was in inorganic form.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Noe, Steffen; Vesala, Timo; Lohila, Annalea; Liski, Jari; Makkonen, Risto; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2020)
    Forests cool the climate system by acting as a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2) and by enhancing the atmospheric aerosol load. whereas the simultaneous decrease of the surface albedo tends to have a warming effect. Here, we present the concept of CarbonSink+. which considers these combined effects. Using the boreal forest environment as an illustrative example, we estimated that accounting for the CarbonSink+ enhances the forest CO2 uptake by 10-50% due to the combined effects of CO2 fertilization and aerosol-induced diffuse radiation enhancement on photosynthesis. We further estimated that with afforestation or reforestation, i.e., replacing grasslands with forests in a boreal environment, the radiative cooling due to forest aerosols cancels most of the radiative warming due to decreased surface albedos. These two forcing components have. however, relatively large uncertainty ranges. resulting in large uncertainties in the overall effect of CarbonSink+. We discuss shortly the potential future changes in the strength of CarbonSink+ in the boreal region, resulting from changes in atmospheric composition and climate.
  • Maignan, Fabienne; Abadie, Camille; Remaud, Marine; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Kohonen, Kukka-Maaria; Commane, Róisín; Wehr, Richard; Campbell, J. Elliott; Belviso, Sauveur; Montzka, Stephen A.; Raoult, Nina; Seibt, Ulli; Shiga, Yoichi P.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Whelan, Mary E.; Peylin, Philippe (2021)
    Land surface modellers need measurable proxies to constrain the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilated by continental plants through photosynthesis, known as gross primary production (GPP). Carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is taken up by leaves through their stomates and then hydrolysed by photosynthetic enzymes, is a candidate GPP proxy. A former study with the ORCHIDEE land surface model used a fixed ratio of COS uptake to CO2 uptake normalised to respective ambient concentrations for each vegetation type (leaf relative uptake, LRU) to compute vegetation COS fluxes from GPP. The LRU approach is known to have limited accuracy since the LRU ratio changes with variables such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): while CO2 uptake slows under low light, COS uptake is not light limited. However, the LRU approach has been popular for COS-GPP proxy studies because of its ease of application and apparent low contribution to uncertainty for regional-scale applications. In this study we refined the COS-GPP relationship and implemented in ORCHIDEE a mechanistic model that describes COS uptake by continental vegetation. We compared the simulated COS fluxes against measured hourly COS fluxes at two sites and studied the model behaviour and links with environmental drivers. We performed simulations at a global scale, and we estimated the global COS uptake by vegetation to be -756 Gg S yr(-1) , in the middle range of former studies (-490 to -1335 Gg S yr(-1)). Based on monthly mean fluxes simulated by the mechanistic approach in ORCHIDEE, we derived new LRU values for the different vegetation types, ranging between 0.92 and 1.72, close to recently published averages for observed values of 1.21 for C-4 and 1.68 for C-3 plants. We transported the COS using the monthly vegetation COS fluxes derived from both the mechanistic and the LRU approaches, and we evaluated the simulated COS concentrations at NOAA sites. Although the mechanistic approach was more appropriate when comparing to high-temporal-resolution COS flux measurements, both approaches gave similar results when transporting with monthly COS fluxes and evaluating COS concentrations at stations. In our study, uncertainties between these two approaches are of secondary importance compared to the uncertainties in the COS global budget, which are currently a limiting factor to the potential of COS concentrations to constrain GPP simulated by land surface models on the global scale.
  • Larjavaara, Markku; Kanninen, Markku Tapani; Alam, Syed Ashraful; Mäkinen, Antti; Poeplau, Christopher (2017)
    Land use directly impacts ecosystem carbon and indirectly influences atmospheric carbon. Computing ecosystem carbon for an area experiencing changes in land use is not trivial, as carbon densities change slowly after land-use changes. We developed a tool, CarboScen, to estimate ecosystem carbon in landscapes. It is a simple tool typically used with an annual time step, and is based on carbon pools and densities. It assumes that carbon density asymptotically approaches a value, which is set for the land-use type in question. We recommend CarboScen for landscapes with spatially relatively homogenous soils and climate, multiple land uses, and changes between these leading to slow changes in carbon densities because either soil organic carbon is included in the analysis or afforestation occurs. Thanks to its simplicity, it is particularly suitable for participatory planning, rapid assessment of REDD+ project potential, and educational use.
  • Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2018)
    Rising air temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns in boreal ecosystems are changing the fire occurrence regimes (intervals, severity, intensity, etc.). The main impacts of fires are reported to be changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, vegetation stress, degradation of permafrost, and increased depth of the active layer. Changes in these characteristics influence the dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. We have studied the changes in CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the soil in boreal forest areas in central Siberia underlain by continuous permafrost and the possible impacts of the aforementioned environmental factors on the emissions of these greenhouse gases. We have used a fire chronosequence of areas, with the last fire occurring 1, 23, 56, and more than 100 years ago. The soils in our study acted as a source of CO2. Emissions of CO2 were lowest at the most recently burned area and increased with forest age throughout the fire chronosequence. The CO2 flux was influenced by the pH of the top 5cm of the soil, the biomass of the birch (Betula) and alder (Duschekia) trees, and by the biomass of vascular plants in the ground vegetation. Soils were found to be a CH4 sink in all our study areas. The uptake of CH4 was highest in the most recently burned area (forest fire one year ago) and the lowest in the area burned 56 years ago, but the difference between fire chronosequence areas was not significant. According to the linear mixed effect model, none of the tested factors explained the CH4 flux. The results confirm that the impact of a forest fire on CO2 flux is long-lasting in Siberian boreal forests, continuing for more than 50 years, but the impact of forest fire on CH4 flux is minimal.
  • Kunz, Martin; Lavric, Jost V.; Gerbig, Christoph; Tans, Pieter; Neff, Don; Hummelgard, Christine; Martin, Hans; Rodjegard, Henrik; Wrenger, Burkhard; Heimann, Martin (2018)
    Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) could provide a cost-effective way to close gaps in the observation of the carbon cycle, provided that small yet accurate analysers are available. We have developed a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). The accuracy of COCAP's carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements is ensured by calibration in an environmental chamber, regular calibration in the field and by chemical drying of sampled air. In addition, the package contains a lightweight thermal stabilisation system that reduces the influence of ambient temperature changes on the CO2 sensor by 2 orders of magnitude. During validation of COCAP's CO2 measurements in simulated and real flights we found a measurement error of 1.2 mu mol mol(-1) or better with no indication of bias. COCAP is a self-contained package that has proven well suited for the operation on board small UASs. Besides carbon dioxide dry air mole fraction it also measures air temperature, humidity and pressure. We describe the measurement system and our calibration strategy in detail to support others in tapping the potential of UASs for atmospheric trace gas measurements.
  • Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Commane, Roisin; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y. -W.; Henderson, John M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D.; Kimball, John S.; Lipson, David A.; Oechel, Walter C. (2016)
    Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for >= 50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 degrees C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra total 12 +/- 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y(-1), similar to 25% of global emissions from extratropical wetlands, or similar to 6% of total global wetland methane emissions. The dominance of late-season emissions, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 emissions will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming.
  • Wang, Kai; Zheng, Xunhua; Pihlatie, Mari; Vesala, Timo; Liu, Chunyan; Haapanala, Sami; Mammarella, Ivan; Rannik, Ullar; Liu, Huizhi (2013)
    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from a cotton field in northern China were measured for a year using the static chamber method based on a gas chromatograph (GC) and the eddy covariance (EC) technique based on a tunable diode laser (TDL). The aims were to compare the N2O fluxes obtained from both techniques, assess the uncertainties in the fluxes and evaluate the annual direct emission factors (EFds, i.e. the loss rate of fertilizer nitrogen via N2O emission) using the year-round datasets. During the experimental period, the hourly and daily mean chamber fluxes ranged from 0.6 to 781.8 and from 1.2 to 468.8 g N m−2 h−1, respectively. The simultaneously measured daily mean EC fluxes varied between −10.8 and 912.0 g N m−2 h−1. The EC measurements only provided trustworthy 30-min fluxes during high-emission period (a 20-day period immediately after the irrigation that followed the nitrogen fertilization event). A reliable comparison was confined to the high-emission period and showed that the chamber fluxes were 17–20% lower than the EC fluxes. This difference may implicate the magnitude of systematic underestimation in the fluxes from chamber measurements. The annual emission from the fertilized cotton field was estimated at 1.43 kg N ha−1 yr−1 by the chamber observations and 3.15 kg N ha−1 yr−1 by the EC measurements. The EFds calculated from the chamber and EC data were 1.04% and 1.65%, respectively. The chamber-based estimate was very close to the default value (1.0%) recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. However, the difference in the EFds based on the two measurement techniques may vary greatly with changing environmental conditions and management practices. Further comparison studies are still needed to elucidate this issue.
  • Parmentier, Dries; Paradis, Sarah; Metz, Sybrand J.; Wiedmer, Susanne K.; Kroon, Maaike C. (2016)
    This work describes for the first time a continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid (IL) at room temperature. The hydrophobic fatty acid based IL tetraoctylphosphonium oleate ([P-8888][oleate]) was specifically chosen for its low viscosity and high selectivity towards transition metals. Applying [P-8888][oleate] for continuous metal ion extraction with 0.1 M sodium oxalate for regeneration resulted in a process with good and stable extraction efficiencies over time. The selectivity of the IL resulted in a process in which cobalt was selectively removed from two mixed salt solutions (Co/Na, Ca/Co/K) to obtain a pure cobalt stream after stripping the IL. The performed experiments showed that the contact time of the IL for extraction and stripping strongly influenced the achieved efficiencies. The stability of the IL was tested and it was shown that the fatty acid based IL was stable for the duration of the experiment. Liposome tests showed that the IL is very hydrophobic, which limits its leakage towards the water phase, but also results in a higher toxicity towards cell membranes. Economic analysis shows that the IL based process is not (yet) economical compared to ion-exchange resins, in case demineralised water is the only product. However, if the recovery of valuable metals is also taken into account and/or if brine disposal is an issue, then continuous IL metal extraction systems must be regarded as promising alternatives. (C) 2016 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Makela, Annikki; Fronzek, Stefan; Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko (2018)
    We are bound to large uncertainties when considering impacts of climate change on forest productivity. Studies formally acknowledging and determining the relative importance of different sources of this uncertainty are still scarce, although the choice of the climate scenario, and e.g. the assumption of the CO2 effects on tree water use can easily result in contradicting conclusions of future forest productivity. In a large scale, forest productivity is primarily driven by two large fluxes, gross primary production (GPP), which is the source for all carbon in forest ecosystems, and heterotrophic respiration. Here we show how uncertainty of GPP projections of Finnish boreal forests divides between input, mechanistic and parametric uncertainty. We used the simple semi-empirical stand GPP and water balance model PRELES with an ensemble of downscaled global circulation model (GCM) projections for the 21st century under different emissions and forcing scenarios (both RCP and SRES). We also evaluated the sensitivity of assumptions of the relationships between atmospheric CO2 concentration (C-a), photosynthesis and water use of trees. Even mean changes in climate projections of different meteorological variables for Finland were so high that it is likely that the primary productivity of forests will increase by the end of the century. The scale of productivity change largely depends on the long-term C-a fertilization effect on GPP and transpiration. However, GCM variability was the major source of uncertainty until 2060, after which emission scenario/pathway became the dominant factor. Large uncertainties with a wide range of projections can make it more difficult to draw ecologically meaningful conclusions especially on the local to regional scales, yet a thorough assessment of uncertainties is important for drawing robust conclusions.
  • Pulliainen, Jouni; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Aalto, Tuula; Takala, Matias; Salminen, Miia; Kulmala, Markku; Barr, Alan; Heimann, Martin; Lindroth, Anders; Laaksonen, Ari; Derksen, Chris; Mäkelä, Annikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Susiluoto, Jouni; Dengel, Sigrid; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Vesala, Timo (2017)
    We determine the annual timing of spring recovery from space-borne microwave radiometer observations across northern hemisphere boreal evergreen forests for 1979-2014. We find a trend of advanced spring recovery of carbon uptake for this period, with a total average shift of 8.1 d (2.3 d/decade). We use this trend to estimate the corresponding changes in gross primary production (GPP) by applying in situ carbon flux observations. Micrometeoro-logical CO2 measurements at four sites in northern Europe and North America indicate that such an advance in spring recovery would have increased the January-June GPP sum by 29 g.C.m(-2) [8.4 g.C.m(-2) (3.7%)/decade]. We find this sensitivity of the measured springtime GPP to the spring recovery to be in accordance with the corresponding sensitivity derived from simulations with a land ecosystem model coupled to a global circulation model. The model-predicted increase in springtime cumulative GPP was 0.035 Pg/decade [15.5 g.C.m(-2) (6.8%)/decade] for Eurasian forests and 0.017 Pg/decade for forests in North America [9.8 g.C.m(-2) (4.4%)/decade]. This change in the springtime sum of GPP related to the timing of spring snowmelt is quantified here for boreal evergreen forests.
  • Wachiye, Sheila; Pellikka, Petri; Rinne, Janne; Heiskanen, Janne; Abwanda, Sheila; Merbold, Lutz (2022)
    Although grazing is the primary land use in the savanna lowland of southern Kenya, the effects of grazing on soil carbon dioxide flux (RS) remain unclear. A 12-month study was conducted from January to December 2020 on the effects of six grazing intensities sites (overgrazed (OG), heavily grazed (HG), moderately grazed (MG), moderately to lightly grazed (M-LG), lightly grazed (LG) and no grazing (NG)) on RS on. A camera trap was used to monitor the total number of animals at each site, indicating the grazing intensity. Weekly measurements of RS were taken using static greenhouse gas chambers along with simultaneous measurements of soil temperature (TS) and volumetric soil water content (WS) (depth of 5 cm). Mean RS at HG, MG, M-LG and LG sites was approximately 15–25% higher than at NG and OG sites (p < 0.001). Mean WS increased with decrease in grazing especially in the dry season, while TS increased with increase in grazing. We observed bimodal temporal variation in RS and WS due to two wet seasons in the year. Thus, variation in RS across the study period followed the changes in WS rather than those in TS. Mean values of RS in the wet seasons were significantly higher (> 45%) than those in the dry seasons, and WS accounted for 71% of the temporal variability in RS (p < 0.05). In addition, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI, interpreted as a proxy for vegetation cover) explained 60% of the variance of RS, and WS and EVI together explained 75%. EVI showed a negative relationship (p < 0.05) with animal intensity, indicating that more grazing reduced vegetation cover and, consequently, soil organic carbon and biomass. Soil bulk density was lower at less grazed sites. While RS variability was unaffected by total nitrogen content, pH, and texture, correspondence analysis demonstrated that the main factors influencing RS dynamics across the year under different grazing intensities were WS and vegetation cover. Our results contribute to closing the existing knowledge gap regarding the effects of grazing intensity on RS in East Africa savannas. Therefore, this information is of great importance in understanding carbon cycling in savanna grassland, as well as the identification of the potential consequences of increasing land pressure caused by rising livestock numbers, and will assist in the development of climate-smart livestock management in East Africa.
  • Ryhti, Kira; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Tang, Yu; Rinne-Garmston, Katja T.; Ding, Yiyang; Pumpanen, Jukka; Biasi, Christina; Saurer, Matthias; Bäck, Jaana; Kulmala, Liisa (2022)
    In warming climates, soil water content (SWC) may act as an important factor in determining belowground carbon dynamics in boreal forests. Here, we estimated the respiration and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations of tree roots in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in southern Finland during two growing seasons with contrasting weather conditions. Root respiration was estimated with four different methods: 1) incubating excised roots, 2) partitioning forest floor respirations with root exclusion, or 3) based on temperature response functions and 4) modelling with the whole-tree carbon model 'CASSIA'. In addition, we conducted a drought experiment in a greenhouse to determine the effect of reduced soil-water availability on respiration by incubating soil and roots of Scots pine saplings. We observed that the respiration of incubated roots of Scots pine saplings and soil decreased with drying after excluding the effect of temperature on respiration (RRES), soil being more sensitive to drought than roots. Similarly, RRES of incubated roots in the field was significantly decreased by lowered SWC, whereas respiration of the entire root system estimated with other methods was clearly higher in dryer and warmer than moister and cooler year. Nevertheless, incubated roots excavated from the topsoil are most affected by drying soil, which might not reflect the response of the entire root system. RRES of incubated roots was negatively associated with root fructose and glucose concentrations. At the same time, root fructose, glucose and sucrose concentrations were negatively associated with SWC due to their role in osmoregulation. Thereby it seems that RRES does not directly follow the changes in NSCs despite the apparent correlation. Our study highlights the responsive nature of root carbon dynamics in varying weather events that should be taken into account in estimating and modelling the impacts of warming climate.
  • Yu, Lei; Song, Mengya; Xia, Zhichao; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    There is a limited understanding of the impacts of global warming on intra- and interspecific plant competition. Resolving this knowledge gap is important for predicting the potential influence of global warming on forests, particularly on high-altitude trees, which are more sensitive to warming. In the present study, effects of intra- and interspecific competition on plant growth and associated physiological, structural and chemical traits were investigated in Abies faxoniana and Picea purpurea seedlings under control (ambient temperature) and elevated temperature (ET, 2 degrees C above ambient temperature) conditions for 2 years. We found that A. faxoniana and P. purpurea grown under intra- and interspecific competition showed significant differences in dry matter accumulation (DMA), photosynthetic capacity, nutrient absorption, nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) contents and leaf ultrastructure under ET conditions. ET increased leaf, stem and root DMA of both conifers under both competition patterns. Moreover, under ET and interspecific competition, P. purpurea had overall superior competitive capacity characterized by higher organ (leaf, stem and root) and total DMA, height growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, specific leaf area, water use efficiency (delta C-13), leaf and root N and NSC concentrations and greater plasticity for absorption of different soil N forms. Thus, the growth of P. purpurea benefitted from the presence of A. faxoniana under ET. Our results demonstrated that ET significantly affects the asymmetric competition patterns in subalpine conifer species. Potential alteration of plant competitive interactions by global warming can influence the composition, structure and functioning of subalpine coniferous forests.