Browsing by Subject "COASTAL"

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  • Tima, Tanjina Akter; Schneider, Petra; Chanda, Swapan Kumar; Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Hossain, Mohammad Mosarof; Begum, Amany; Shamsuzzaman, Md. Mostafa (2021)
    Tanguar Haor (TH) is considered one of the Ecologically Critical Areas (ECAs) of Bangladesh and is internationally recognized as RAMSAR wetland (2nd Ramsar site) known to provide multiple ecosystem services to the society. Nevertheless, multidimensional threats and stressors, the capacity to supply ESs, and the biodiversity of the TH significantly degrades and threatens this wetland's conservation and sustainability. Although the legal framework promises the sustainable conservation of fisheries resources, information on the implementation scenarios of fisheries laws, regulations, and policies in the TH Ramsar are scant. By merging qualitative and quantitative data of primary and secondary sources, this research aimed to analyze the legal framework to check the effectiveness of regulations for non-conflicting fisheries resources and the sustainable conservation of the TH Ramsar. Primary empirical data were collected by employing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools, i.e., 204 semi-structured questionnaire-based individual interviews with fishers, three focus group discussions, and 14 key informants' interviews in three fishing villages in the TH. In contrast, secondary data was set by reviewing published literature and related official documents. Results showed that, due to weak enforcement with inadequate surveillance and poor implementation of the legal framework, there was a high non-compliance with fishing laws, rules, and policies. Destructive and prohibited fishing gears, e.g., the use of small mesh fine nylon nets (current jal), purse seine net (ber jal), and the harvesting during ban period-illicit catch were widespread in the study areas. In addition, catching undersized fish, fishing at the restricted areas (sanctuary area), and fishing during spawning seasons occur often. There is a crying need for a comprehensive legal and policy framework to contextualize the local context, ensure the proper implementation of the fishing laws and regulations, increase the managerial inefficiency of enforcing agencies, ensure livelihood support during the fishing ban, and afford good alternative income options are still significant issues for good governance in the Tanguar Haor ECA. Findings might help to identify the gaps and misunderstanding of the existing legal practice while submitting urgent attention to the need for drawing a comprehensive legal and policy framework (contextually modified according to the local context), taking initiatives and acting synchronously for proper implementation, and calling transdisciplinary collaboration and cooperation among the agencies that may ensure the non-conflicting use of the natural resources of the TH that can be also helpful for the better conservation of this Ramsar wetland.
  • Rayhan, Nafis; Schneider, Petra; Islam, Md Shahidul; Rashid, Aminur; Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Hossain, Mohammad Mosarof; Begum, Amany; Shamsuzzaman, Md Mostafa (2021)
    Kaptai Lake (KL), the largest inland watershed in Bangladesh (ca. 700 km(2)) and one of Southeast Asia's largest artificial reservoirs, features an abundant variety of indigenous fishery species. Moreover, it provides a plethora of ecological benefits to society. Nevertheless, the KL is suffering from multidimensional natural and anthropogenic stressors that threaten these wetlands' sustainability. Though the legal framework assures sustainable conservation of fisheries resources, the implementation scenarios of fisheries laws, regulations, and policies in the KL wetland are insufficient. This study aimed at assessing the fisher's perception of the regulation implementation efficiency of the Protection and Conservation Fish Act of 1950, while analyzing the effectiveness of the legal framework in the context of biodiversity conservation and the management sustainability of KL. By integrating qualitative and quantitative data collected through participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools viz. 225 interviews with fishers, four focus group discussions, and 12 key informant interviews, the investigation was performed in four selected areas in KL. The findings show that fishers routinely disregard laws and restrictions of the Protection and Conservation of Fish Act 1950 due to various socioeconomic and political forces. Although the annual fish harvest rate from KL appears to be increasing, the lake is losing its charismatic biological diversity primarily due to inappropriate and ineffective enforcement of fishing regulations. Many fishers believe that they still follow the act's significant laws and regulations while being involved in several destructive and prohibited fishing practices. There is a link between community awareness, the scope of the act's provisions, the effectiveness of its enforcement, and the strength of its execution. One of the leading causes of biodiversity loss in the KL is inadequate and ineffective fishing regulations. Improvement in the enforcement of the fishing act may be the prominent option to ensure better biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of this wetland. This result calls for functional and policy attention to revising the regulations to account for socioeconomic and political elements contributing to environmental degradation. This study also highlights the urgent need for transdisciplinary collaboration initiatives and synchronous cooperation among the agencies in order to effectively implement the fishing laws and contribute to better conservation and sustainability of the Kaptai lake fisheries resources.
  • Vuollekoski, H.; Vogt, M.; Sinclair, V. A.; Duplissy, J.; Jarvinen, H.; Kyro, E. -M.; Makkonen, R.; Petaja, T.; Prisle, N. L.; Räisänen, P.; Sipila, M.; Ylhaisi, J.; Kulmala, M. (2015)
  • Laurila-Pant, Mirka; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Venesjärvi, Riikka; Lehikoinen, Annukka (2019)
    Participatory modelling increases the transparency of environmental planning and management processes and enhances the mutual understanding among different parties. We present a sequential probabilistic approach to involve stakeholders' views in the formal decision support process. A continuous Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model is used to estimate population parameters for stakeholder groups, based on samples of individual value judgements. The approach allows quantification and visualization of the variability in views among and within stakeholder groups. Discrete BBN is populated with these parameters, to summarize and visualize the information and to link it to a larger decision analytic influence diagram (ID). As part of ID, the resulting discrete BBN element serves as a distribution-form decision criteria in probabilistic evaluation of alternative management strategies, to help find a solution that represents the optimal compromise in the presence of potentially conflicting objectives. We demonstrate our idea using example data from the field of marine spatial planning. However, this approach is applicable to many types of management cases. We suggest that by advancing the mutual understanding and concrete participation this approach can further facilitate the stakeholder involvement also during the various stages of the environmental management process. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Ahonen, Lauri; Li, Chenxi; Kubecka, Jakub; Iyer, Siddharth; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Hogan, Christopher J. (2019)
    Nanometer-scale clusters form from vapor-phase precursors and can subsequently grow into nanoparticles during atmospheric nucleation events. A particularly interesting set of clusters relevant to nucleation is hybrid iodine pentoxide-iodic acid clusters of the form (I2O5)(x)(HIO3)(y) as these clusters have been observed in coastal region nucleation events in anomalously high concentrations. To better understand their properties, we utilized ion mobility-mass spectrometry to probe the structures of cluster anions of the form (I2O5)(x)(HIO3)(y)(IO alpha)(-) (x = 0-7,y = 0-1, alpha = 1-3), similar to those observed in coastal nucleation events. We show that (I2O5)(x)(HIO3)(y)(IO alpha)(-) clusters are relatively stable against dissociation during mass spectrometric measurement, as compared to other clusters observed in nucleation events over continental sites, and that at atmospherically relevant relative humidity levels (65% and less) clusters can become sufficiently hydrated to facilitate complete conversion of iodine pentoxide to iodic acid but that water sorption beyond this level is limited, indicating that the clusters do not persist as nanometer-scale droplets in the ambient.
  • Atashi, Nahid; Rahimi, Dariush; Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Jiries, Anwar; Vuollekoski, Henri; Kulmala, Markku; Vesala, Timo; Hussein, Tareq (2020)
    In this study, we performed model simulations to investigate the spatial, seasonal, and annual dew yield during 40 years (1979-2018) at ten locations reflecting the variation of climate and environmental conditions in Jordan. In accordance with the climate zones in Jordan, the dew formation had distinguished characteristics features with respect to the yield, seasonal variation, and spatial variation. The highest water dew yield (an overall annual mean cumulative dew yield as high as 88 mm) was obtained for theMountains Heights Plateau, which has a Mediterranean climate. The least dew yield (as low as 19 mm) was obtained inBadia, which has an arid climate. The dew yield had a decreasing trend in the past 40 years due to climate change impacts such as increased desertification and the potential of sand and dust storms in the region. In addition, increased anthropogenic air pollution slows down the conversion of vapor to liquid phase change, which also impacts the potential of dew formation. The dew yield showed three distinguished seasonal patterns reflecting the three climates in Jordan. TheMountains Heights Plateau(Mediterranean climate) has the highest potential for dew harvesting (especially during the summer) thanBadia(semi-arid climate).
  • Lechner, Alex M.; Verbrugge, Laura N.H.; Chelliah, Alvin; Ang, Michelle Li Ern; Raymond, Christopher M. (2020)
    Tourism on small tropical islands in the Global South is a balancing act between development to improve local livelihoods and the conservation of fragile coastal and coral ecosystems. The objective of our study is to develop a series of new spatial metrics to support sustainable development through assessing the direction and magnitude of tourism development support and conflict between groups. We surveyed 317 individuals out of an estimated total population of 3300 using public participation GIS (PPGIS) on Tioman Island, Malaysia. Here we present a first example of how nuances in conflict can be articulated spatially across different levels of attitude toward tourism development within and between different segments of the population. Our results suggest that treating a population as homogeneous risks missing place specific development conflicts between segments of the population and locations of agreement where development can be managed sustainably with the support of the community.
  • Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Shamsuzzaman, Md. Mostafa; Rashed-Un-Nabi, Md.; Harun-Al-Rashid, Ahmed (2018)
    The Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) is a complex ecosystem containing the most diverse and abundant natural resources of Bangladesh. The research was designed to investigate the socio-economic characteristics and fishing operation activities of the artisanal fishers in the SMF through case studies. Despite the great importance of mangroves in the livelihood of the artisanal fishermen in the SMF, deforestation is perceived to continue due to illegal logging and deterioration of mangroves for climate change, increased salinity, natural disasters, shrimp farming and household consumption. The consequences are depleted fish and fishery resources, changes in fisher's primary occupation and livelihood status. The present study also elicited several risks and shocks of the fishermen livelihood like the attack by dacoits, hostage, ransom, and attack by tigers, natural disasters, river bank erosion. However, the artisanal fishermen adopted different strategies to cope with the changing conditions by forming associations, violating the fisheries laws and regulations, migrating, sharing responsibilities with the household members, and transmitting local ecological knowledge. This study concludes that there is an urgency to update the existing policies and management issues for the sustainable extraction of the SMF resources for the improvement of the artisanal fishermen livelihood.
  • Limoges, Audrey; Masse, Guillaume; Weckström, Kaarina; Poulin, Michel; Ellegaard, Marianne; Heikkilä, Maija; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Sejr, Mikael K.; Rysgaard, Soren; Ribeiro, Sofia (2018)
    The biomarker IP25 and fossil diatom assemblages preserved in seafloor sediments are commonly used as proxies for paleo Arctic sea-ice reconstructions, but how their production varies over the seasons and is exported to the sediment remains unclear. We analyzed IP25 concentrations and diatom assemblages from a 5-week consecutive series of sea-ice cores and compared the results with sediment trap and surface sediment samples collected at the same site in the Young Sound fjord, Northeast Greenland. Our aim was to investigate the dynamics of diatom colonization of the spring sea ice and the in situ production of IP25. Additionally, selected diatom taxa observed in the sea-ice samples were isolated from in-ice assemblages and their lipid composition was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We confirm that Haslea spicula (and not the closely related species H. crucigeroides) is an IP25-producer. All three known IP25-producing taxa (Haslea spicula, H. kjellmanii, and Pleurosigma stuxbergii var. rhomboides) were present in Young Sound sea-ice and the low IP25 concentrations measured in the sea-ice (0.44-0.72 pg mL(-1)) were consistent with the low abundance of these source species (0.21-9.66 valves mL(-1)). Total sympagic diatom production also remained very low (21-985 valves mL(-1)), suggesting that the fjord's sea ice did not provide an optimal physical-chemical environment for diatoms to thrive. Temporal changes in the sympagic diatom community were also observed, with an early presence of the pelagic Thalassiosira hyperborea and subsequent dominance of pennate taxa, including Nitzschia and Navicula species, Fossula arctica and Stauronella arctica. The assemblages observed during and after the seasonal ice melt consisted primarily of Fossula arctica, Fragilariopsis oceanica, Thalassiosira antarctica var. borealis (resting spores), and Chaetoceros spp. (vegetative cells and resting spores). The seafloor sediment assemblages largely reflected the melt and post-melt planktic production and were dominated by the resting spores of the centric Chaetoceros spp. and Thalassiosira antarctica var. borealis, and the pennate Fragilariopsis oceanica, Fossula arctica, and Fragilariopsis reginae-jahniae. This study documents that IP25 is produced in Young Sound, and that the weak fingerprint of sea ice in the sediment appears to be primarily due to the limited sea-ice diatom biomass.
  • Barman, Partho Protim; Liu, Qun; Al-Mamun, Md Abdullah; Schneider, Petra; Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque (2021)
    Stock assessment is necessary to understand the status of fishery stocks. However, for the data-poor fishery, it is very challenging to assess the stock status. The length-based Bayesian biomass (LBB) technique is one of the most powerful methods to assess the data-poor fisheries resources that need simple length frequency (LF) data. Addressing the present gap, this study aimed to assess the stock status of three sardines (Sardinella fimbriata, Dussumieria acuta, and D. elopsoides) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), Bangladesh using the LBB method. The estimated relative biomass for S. fimbriata was B/B-0 < B-MSY/B-0, indicating the overfished biomass, while the assessed B/B-0 > B-MSY/B-0 for D. acuta and D. elopsoides indicates healthy biomass. Additionally, for S. fimbriata, the length at first landing was smaller than the optimum length at first landing (Lc < L-c_opt), indicating an overfishing status, but a safe fishing status was assessed for D. acuta and D. elopsoides (Lc > L-c_opt). Therefore, increasing the mesh size of fishing gears may help to ensure the long-term viability of sardine populations in the BoB, Bangladesh.