Browsing by Subject "COATINGS"

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  • Hassan, Ghada Ali Mohamed Saber; Forsman, Nina; Wan, Xing; Keurulainen, Leena; Bimbo, Luis M.; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Sipari, Nina; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari Tapani; Zimmermann, Ralf; Stehl, Susanne; Werner, Carsten; Saris, Per E. J.; Österberg, Monika; Moreira, Vânia M. (2019)
    The design of antimicrobial surfaces as integral parts of advanced biomaterials is nowadays a high research priority, as the accumulation of microorganisms on surfaces inflicts substantial costs on the health and industry sectors. At present, there is a growing interest in designing functional materials from polymers abundant in nature, such as cellulose, that combine sustainability with outstanding mechanical properties and economic production. There is also the need to find suitable replacements for antimicrobial silver-based agents due to environmental toxicity and spread of resistance to metal antimicrobials. Herein we report the unprecedented decoration of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films with dehydroabietylamine 1 (CNF-CMC-1), to give an innovative contact-active surface active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including the methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA14TK301, with low potential to spread resistance and good biocompatibility, all achieved with low surface coverage. CNF-CMC-1 was particularly effective against S. aureus ATCC12528, causing virtually complete reduction of the total cells from 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/mL bacterial suspensions, after 24 h of contact. This gentle chemical modification of the surface of CNF fully retained the beneficial properties of the original film, including moisture buffering and strength, relevant in many potential applications. Our originally designed surface represents a new class of ecofriendly biomaterials that optimizes the performance of CNF by adding antimicrobial properties without the need for environmentally toxic silver.
  • Aalto-Setälä, Laura; Uppstu, Peter; Sinitsyna, Polina; Lindfors, Nina C.; Hupa, Leena (2021)
    The silicate-based bioactive glass S53P4 is clinically used in bone regenerative applications in granule form. However, utilization of the glass in scaffold form has been limited by the high tendency of the glass to crystallize during sintering. Here, careful optimization of sintering parameters enabled the manufacture of porous amorphous S53P4 scaffolds with a strength high enough for surgical procedures in bone applications (5 MPa). Sintering was conducted in a laboratory furnace for times ranging from 25 to 300 min at 630 degrees C, i.e., narrowly below the commencement of the crystallization. The phase composition of the scaffolds was verified with XRD, and the ion release was tested in vitro and compared with granules in continuous flow of Tris buffer and simulated body fluid (SBF). The amorphous, porous S53P4 scaffolds present the possibility of using the glass composition in a wider range of applications.
  • Golda-Cepa, Monika; Riedlova, Kamila; Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Kotarba, Andrzej (2020)
    Interactions at the solid-body fluid interfaces play a vital role in bone tissue formation at the implant surface. In this study, fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate interactions between the physiological components of body fluids (Ca2+, HPO42-, H2PO4-, Na+, Cl-, and H2O) and functionalized parylene C surface. In comparison to the native parylene C (-Cl surface groups), the introduction of -OH, -CHO, and -COOH surface groups significantly enhances the interactions between body fluid ions and the polymeric surface. The experimentally observed formation of calcium phosphate nanocrystals is discussed in terms of MD simulations of the calcium phosphate clustering. Surface functional groups promote the clustering of calcium and phosphate ions in the following order: -OH > -CHO > -Cl (parent parylene C) approximate to -COO-. This promoting role of surface functional groups is explained as stimulating the number of Ca2+ and HPO42- surface contacts as well as ion chemisorption. The molecular mechanism of calcium phosphate cluster formation at the functionalized parylene C surface is proposed.
  • Jutila, Eveliina; Koivunen, Risto; Kiiski, Iiro; Bollström, Roger; Sikanen, Tiina; Gane, Patrick (2018)
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes in charge of elimination of the majority of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. This study focuses on the development of a rapid microfluidic lateral flow assay to study human phase I metabolism reactions mediated by CYP2A6 isoenzyme, the major detoxification route for many known carcinogens and drugs, with coumarin 7-hydroxylation, as the prototype model reaction. Assay fabrication utilizes custom-designed porous functionalized calcium carbonate (FCC) coatings and inkjet-printed fluid barriers. All materials used are novel and carefully chosen to preserve biocompatibility. The design comprises separate zones for reaction, separation and detection, and an absorbent pad to keep the assay wet for extended periods (up to 10 min) even when heated to physiological temperature. The concept enables CYP assays to be made at lower cost than conventional well-plate assays, while providing increased selectivity at equally high speed, owing to the possibility for simultaneous chromatographic separation of the reaction products from the reactants on the FCC coating. The developed concept provides a viable rapid prediction of the interaction risks related to metabolic clearance of drugs and other xenobiotics, and exemplifies a novel coating technology illustrating the opportunity to broaden application functionality.
  • Pérez Tanoira, Ramón; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Eklund, Kari; Han, Xia; Soininen, Antti; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Esteban, Jaime; Kinnari, Teemu J. (2017)
    Background: Cells of tissues and biofilm forming bacteria compete for the living space on the surface of an implant. We hypothesized the incubation of the implant (titanium, polydimethylsiloxane, and polystyrene surface) with human cells before implantation as a strategy to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Methods: After 24 hours of incubation with human osteogenic sarcoma SaOS-2 cells (1x10(5) cells/mL), the materials were incubated for 4.5 hours or two days with Staphylococcus aureus in serial 1:10 dilutions of 10(8) colony-forming units/mL. The bacterial adherence and biofilm biomass on materials pre-incubated with SaOS-2 cells were compared with our previous results on materials incubated only with bacteria or in simultaneous co-culture of SaOS-2 cells and S. aureus. Fluorescent microscopy and crystal violet stain were used. The number of viable SaOS-2 and bacterial cells present was tested using colorimetric methods (MTT, LDH) and drop plate method, respectively. Results: The pre-treatment with human cells was associated with a reduction of bacterial colonization of the biomaterial at 4.5 hours and 48 hours compared with the non-pre-treated materials. The presence of bacteria decreased the number of viable human cells on all materials. (Supplementary Fig. 1; see online supplementary materials at Conclusions: These results suggest that the pre-operative incubation of prostheses with host cells could prevent infection of biomaterials.
  • Fonseca, A. S.; Maragkidou, A.; Viana, M.; Querol, X.; Hämeri, K.; de Francisco, I.; Estepa, C.; Borrell, C.; Lennikov, V.; de la Fuente, G. F. (2016)
    The ceramic industry is an industrial sector in need of significant process changes, which may benefit from innovative technologies such as laser sintering of ceramic tiles. Such innovations result in a considerable research gap within exposure assessment studies for process-generated ultrafine and nanoparticles. This study addresses this issue aiming to characterise particle formation, release mechanisms and their impact on personal exposure during a tile sintering activity in an industrial-scale pilot plant, as a follow-up of a previous study in a laboratory-scale plant. In addition, possible particle transformations in the exhaust system, the potential for particle release to the outdoor environment, and the effectiveness of the filtration system were also assessed. For this purpose, a tiered measurement strategy was conducted. The main findings evidence that nanoparticle emission patterns were strongly linked to temperature and tile chemical composition, and mainly independent of the laser treatment. Also, new particle formation (from gaseous precursors) events were detected, with nanoparticles A potential risk for nanoparticle and ultrafine particle release to the environment was also identified, despite the fact that the efficiency of the filtration system was successfully tested and evidenced a >87% efficiency in particle number concentrations removal. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Reyes, Guillermo; Borghei, Maryam; King, Alistair W. T.; Lahti, Johanna; Rojas, Orlando J. (2019)
    Cellulose nanofiber films (CNFF) were treated via a welding process using ionic liquids (ILs). Acid base-conjugated ILs derived from 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene [DBN] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][OAc]) were utilized. The removal efficiency of ILs from welded CNFF was assessed using liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical and physical properties of CNFF indicated surface plasticization of CNFF, which improved transparency. Upon treatment, the average CNFF toughness increased by 27%, and the films reached a Young's modulus of similar to 5.8 GPa. These first attempts for IL "welding" show promise to tune the surfaces of biobased films, expanding the scope of properties for the production of new biobased materials in a green chemistry context. The results of this work are highly relevant to the fabrication of CNFFs using ionic liquids and related solvents.
  • Reigada, Inés; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramon; Patel, Jayendra; Savijoki, Kirsi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Kinnari, Teemu; Fallarero, Adyary (2020)
    Biofilm-mediated infection is a major cause of bone prosthesis failure. The lack of molecules able to act in biofilms has driven research aimed at identifying new anti-biofilm agents via chemical screens. However, to be able to accommodate a large number of compounds, the testing conditions of these screenings end up being typically far from the clinical scenario. In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three previously discovered anti-biofilm compounds to be part of implanted medical devices by testing them on in vitro systems that more closely resemble the clinical scenario. To that end, we used a competition model based on the co-culture of SaOS-2 mammalian cells and Staphylococcus aureus (collection and clinical strains) on a titanium surface, as well as titanium pre-conditioned with high serum protein concentration. Additionally, we studied whether these compounds enhance the previously proven protective effect of pre-incubating titanium with SaOS-2 cells. Out of the three, DHA1 was the one with the highest potential, showing a preventive effect on bacterial adherence in all tested conditions, making it the most promising agent for incorporation into bone implants. This study emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of using meaningful experimental models, where potential antimicrobials ought to be tested for the protection of biomaterials in translational applications.
  • Liu, Jian; Muinos, Henrique Vazquez; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2019)
    In spite of the versatility of electronic properties of graphene, its fragility and low resistance to damage and external deformations reduce the practical value of this material for many applications. Coating of graphene with a thin layer of hard amorphous carbon is considered as a viable solution to protect the 2D material against accidental scratches and other external damaging impacts. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the deposition condition and quality of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) on top of multilayer graphene by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Deposition of carbon atoms with 70 eV incident energy at 100 K resulted in the highest content of sp(3)-bonded C atoms. An increase of the number of dangling bonds at the interface between the top graphene layer and the DLC film indicates that decrease of the incident energy reduces the adhesion quality of DLC thin film on graphene. Analysis of radial distribution function indicates that sp(3) hybridized carbon atoms tend to grow near already existing sp(3) -atoms. This explains why the quality of the DLC structures grown on graphene have generally a lower content of sp(3) C atoms compared to those grown directly on diamond. Ring analysis further shows that a DLC structure grown on the sp(2) -rich structures like graphene contains a higher fraction of disordered ring structures.