Browsing by Subject "COEFFICIENTS"

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  • Bakharev, F. L.; Taskinen, J. (2017)
    We study the spectral linear elasticity problem in an unbounded periodic waveguide, which consists of a sequence of identical bounded cells connected by thin ligaments of diameter of order h > 0. The essential spectrum of the problem is known to have band-gap structure. We derive asymptotic formulas for the position of the spectral bands and gaps, as h -> 0.
  • Kirpichnikova, Anna; Korpela, Jussi; Lassas, Matti J.; Oksanen, Lauri (2021)
    We study the wave equation on a bounded domain of Rm and on a compact Riemannian manifold M with boundary. We assume that the coefficients of the wave equation are unknown but that we are given the hyperbolic Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. that corresponds to the physical measurements on the boundary. Using the knowledge of. we construct a sequence of Neumann boundary values so that at a time T the corresponding waves converge to zero while the time derivative of the waves converge to a delta distribution. The limit of such waves can be considered as a wave produced by an artificial point source. The convergence of the wave takes place in the function spaces naturally related to the energy of the wave. We apply the results for inverse problems and demonstrate the focusing of the waves numerically in the one-dimensional case.
  • Puukko, Esa; Lehto, Jukka; Lindberg, Antero; Voutilainen, Mikko (2018)
    This study aims to determine upscaling factors for the radionuclides' distribution coefficients (Kd) on crushed rocks to intact rock for the safety analysis of radionuclide migration from spent nuclear fuel in bedrock towards biosphere. Here we report the distribution coefficients for intact rock determined by electromigration sorption experiments and compare the results with those from recently performed batch sorption experiments. In total 34 rock samples, representing three typical rock types from Olkiluoto Finland, were studied in order to determine distribution coefficients, effective diffusion coefficients and porosities using the electromigration sorption experiments, formation factor experiments and porosity measurement. The parameters determined represent the three main parameters of geosphere used in the safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal. The distribution coefficients of cesium and strontium on intact rock varied between (0.12–26.2) × 10−3 m3/kg and (1.4–13.3) × 10−3 m3/kg, respectively, whereas recent results for crushed rock varied between (2–57) × 10−3 m3/kg and (17–40) × 10−3 m3/kg, respectively. This implies that crushing increases the distribution coefficient significantly and upscaling factors from 3 to 33 were determined for scaling the distribution coefficients of crushed rock to ones of intact rock. The determined distribution coefficients of cesium and strontium for intact rock can be directly applied in the safety assessment whereas the upscaling factors can be used to convert distribution coefficients determined for crushed rock into ones for intact rock. Based on the results for porosities and effective diffusion coefficients it was concluded that they do not seem to correlate with sorption parameters. However, an alteration state, heterogeneity and mineral content seem to be important factors affecting the distribution coefficients and upscaling factors.
  • Kelaranta, A.; Toroi, P.; Vock, P. (2016)
    Purpose: Converting the measurable quantities to patient organ doses in projection radiography is usually based on a standard-sized patient model and a specific radiation quality, which are likely to differ from the real situation. Large inaccuracies can therefore be obtained in organ doses, because organ doses are dependent on the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy. In this study, the effect of radiation quality and patient thickness on the organ dose conversion factors were determined. Methods: In this study, the posterior-anterior projection radiograph of the thorax was selected in order to determine the effect of radiation quality (tube voltages of 70-130 kV and total filtrations of 3 mmAl to 4 mmAl + 0.2 mmCu) and patient thickness (anterior-posterior thicknesses of 19.4-30.8 cm) on the breast and lung dose conversion factors. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation programs ImpactMC and PCXMC were used with computed tomography examination data of adult male and female patients and mathematical hermaphrodite phantoms, respectively. Results: Compared to the reference beam quality and patient thickness, the relative variation range in organ dose conversion factors was up to 74% for different radiation qualities and 122% for different patient thicknesses. Conclusions: Conversion factors should only be used with comprehensive understanding of the exposure conditions, considering the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy they are valid for. This study demonstrates that patient thickness-specific and radiation quality-specific conversion factors are needed in projection radiography. (C) 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Larnimaa, Santeri; Vainio, Markku; Ulvila, Ville (2022)
    We present the first report of optical absorption spectroscopy of (HCl)-Cl-36, a radioactive isotopologue of hydrogen chloride. We used Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to determine the line center wavenumbers of the fundamental rovibrational band lines P(10)-R(10) and the first overtone band lines P(1)-R(7) with total uncertainty of less than 0.0018 cm(-1) (60 MHz) and 0.007 cm(-1) (0.2 GHz), respectively, at 68% confidence level. We also performed a rotational analysis on the bands to determine the related molecular constants. We further compared the linewidths and relative intensities of the lines to those of the stable isotopologues (HCl)-Cl-35 and (HCl)-Cl-37. The new spectroscopic information assists in developing optical instrumentation for the detection of (HCl)-Cl-36. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Abrego, Nerea; Norberg, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso (2017)
    1. The identification of traits that influence the responses of the species to environmental variation provides a mechanistic perspective on the assembly processes of ecological communities. While much research linking functional ecology with assembly processes has been conducted with animals and plants, the development of predictive or even conceptual frameworks for fungal functional community ecology remains poorly explored. Particularly, little is known about the contribution of traits to the occurrences of fungal species under different environmental conditions. 2. Wood-inhabiting fungi are known to strongly respond to habitat disturbance, and thus provide an interesting case study for investigating to what extent variation in occurrence patterns of fungi can be related to traits. We apply a trait-based joint species distribution model to a data set consisting of fruit-body occurrence data on 321 wood-inhabiting fungal species collected in 22 460 dead wood units from managed and natural forest sites. 3. Our results show that environmental filtering plays a big role on shaping wood-inhabiting fungal communities, as different environments held different communities in terms of species and trait compositions. Most importantly, forest management selected against species with large and long-lived fruit-bodies as well as late decayers, and promoted the occurrences of species with small fruit-bodies and early decayers. A strong phylogenetic signal in the data suggested the existence of also some other functionally important traits than the ones we considered. 4. We found that those species groups that were more prevalent in natural conditions had more associations to other species than species groups that were tolerant to or benefitted from forest management. Therefore, the changes that forest management causes on wood-inhabiting fungal communities influence ecosystem functioning through simplification of interactive associations among the fungal species. 5. Synthesis. Our results show that functional traits are linked to the responses of wood-inhabiting fungi to variation in their environment, and thus environmental changes alter ecosystem functions via promoting or reducing species with different fruit-body types. However, further research is needed to identify other functional traits and to provide conclusive evidence for the adaptive nature of the links from traits to occurrence patterns found here.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Koivula, Aki; Savolainen, Iina; Sirola, Anu; Mikkola, Marko; Zych, Izabela; Paek, Hye-Jin; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Based on lifestyle exposure theory (LET), this study examined online dating application (ODA) use and victimization experiences among adolescents using large cross-national samples of Finnish, American, Spanish, and South Korean young people between ages 15 and 18. According to logistic regression analyses in two substudies, ODA use was associated with more likely victimization to online harassment, online sexual harassment, and other cybercrimes and sexual victimization by adults and peers. According to mediation analyses, this relationship was mainly accounted for by the fact that ODA users engage in more risky activities in online communication and information sharing. Attention should be paid to the risks ODAs pose to vulnerable groups, such as young people, with insufficient skills to regulate their social relationships online.
  • Bosi, Roberta; Kurylev, Yaroslav; Lassas, Matti (2018)
    In 1995, Tataru proved a Carleman-type estimate for linear operators with partially analytic coefficients that is generally used to prove the unique continuation of those operators. In this paper, we use this inequality to study the stability of the unique continuation in the case of the wave equation with coefficients independent of time. We prove a logarithmic estimate in a ball whose radius has an explicit dependence on the C (1)-norm of the coefficients and on the other geometric properties of the operator.