Browsing by Subject "COGNITIVE FUNCTION"

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  • Mantyla, Teemu; Mantere, Outi; Raij, Tuukka T.; Kieseppa, Tuula; Laitinen, Hanna; Leiviska, Jaana; Torniainen, Minna; Tuominen, Lauri; Vaarala, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana (2015)
    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with inflammatory and brain structural changes, but few studies have investigated whether systemic inflammation associates with brain structural changes in FEP. Thirty-seven FEP patients (median 27 days on antipsychotic medication), and 19 matched controls were recruited. Serum levels of 38 chemokines and cytokines, and cardiovascular risk markers were measured at baseline and 2 months later. We collected T1-and diffusion-weighted MRIs with a 3 T scanner from the patients at baseline. We analyzed the association of psychosis-related inflammatory markers with gray and white matter (WM) volume using voxel-based morphometry and WM diffusion using tract-based spatial statistics with whole-brain and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. FEP patients had higher CCL22 and lower TGFa, CXCL1, CCL7, IFN-alpha 2 and ApoA-I than controls. CCL22 decreased significantly between baseline and 2 months in patients but was still higher than in controls. The association between inflammatory markers and FEP remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and BMI. We did not observe a correlation of inflammatory markers with any symptoms or duration of antipsychotic treatment. Baseline CCL22 levels correlated negatively with WM volume and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity bilaterally in the frontal lobes in ROI analyses. Decreased serum lan association between circulating chemokine levels and WM in FEP patients. Interestingly, CCL22 has been previously implicated in autoimmune diseases associated with WM pathology. The results suggest that an altered activation of innate immunity may contribute to WM damage in psychotic disorders.evel of ApoA-I was associated with smaller volume of the medial temporal WM. In whole-brain analyses, CCL22 correlated positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, and CXCL1 associated negatively with fractional anisotropy and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in several brain regions. This is the first report to demonstrate
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Mikkonen, Janne; Martikainen, Pekka; Latvala, Antti; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Rebato, Esther; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2018)
    Background There is evidence that birth weight is positively associated with education, but it remains unclear whether this association is explained by familial environmental factors, genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birth weight and educational years within twin pairs, which controls for genetic factors and the environment shared between co-twins. Methods The data were derived from nine twin cohorts in eight countries including 6116 complete twin pairs. The association between birth weight and educational attainment was analysed both between individuals and within pairs using linear regression analyses. Results In between-individual analyses, birth weight was not associated with educational years. Within-pairs analyses revealed positive but modest associations for some sex, zygosity and birth year groups. The greatest association was found in dizygotic (DZ) men (0.65 educational years/kg birth weight, p=0.006); smaller effects of 0.3 educational years/kg birth weight were found within monozygotic (MZ) twins of both sexes and opposite-sex DZ twins. The magnitude of the associations differed by birth year in MZ women and opposite-sex DZ twins, showing a positive association in the 1915-1959 birth cohort but no association in the 1960-1984 birth cohort. Conclusion Although associations are weak and somewhat inconsistent, our results suggest that intrauterine environment may play a role when explaining the association between birth weight and educational attainment.
  • Di Giorgio, Annabella; Smith, Ryan M.; Fazio, Leonardo; D'Ambrosio, Enrico; Gelao, Barbara; Tomasicchio, Aldo; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Taurisano, Paolo; Quarto, Tiziana; Masellis, Rita; Rampino, Antonio; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Sadee, Wolfgang; Bertolino, Alessandro (2014)
  • Mishra, Gita D.; Chung, Hsin-Fang; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lopes, Patrice; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Lambrinoudaki, Irene (2019)
    Introduction: While the associations of genetic, reproductive and environmental factors with the timing of natural menopause have been extensively investigated, few epidemiological studies have specifically examined their association with premature (<40 years) or early natural menopause (40-45 years). Aim: The aim of this position statement is to provide evidence on the predictors of premature and early natural menopause, as well as recommendations for the management of premature and early menopause and future research. Materials and methods: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. Results and conclusions: Strong genetic predictors of premature and early menopause include a family history of premature or early menopause, being a child of a multiple pregnancy and some specific genetic variants. Women with early menarche and nulliparity or low parity are also at a higher risk of experiencing premature or early menopause. Cigarette smoking (with a strong dose-response effect) and being underweight have been consistently associated with premature and early menopause. Current guidelines for the management of premature and early menopause mainly focus on early initiation of hormone therapy (HT) and continued treatment until the woman reaches the average age at menopause (50-52 years). We suggest that clinicians and health professionals consider the age at menopause of the relevant region or ethnic group as part of the assessment for the timing of HT cessation. In addition, there should be early monitoring of women with a family history of early menopause, who are a child of a multiple pregnancy, or who have had early menarche (especially those who have had no children). As part of preventive health strategies, women should be encouraged to quit smoking (preferably before the age of 30 years) and maintain optimal weight in order to reduce their risk of premature or early menopause.
  • Sysoeva, Olga V.; Lange, Elke B.; Sorokin, Alexander B.; Campbell, Tom (2015)
    Visual search and oddball paradigms were combined to investigate memory for to-be-ignored color changes in a group of 12 healthy participants. The onset of unexpected color change of an irrelevant stimulus evoked two reliable ERP effects: a component of the event-related potential (ERP), similar to the visual mismatch negativity response (vMMN), with a latency of 120-160 ms and a posterior distribution over the left hemisphere and Late Fronto-Central Negativity (LFCN) with a latency of 320-400 ms, apparent at fronto-central electrodes and some posterior sites. Color change of that irrelevant stimulus also slowed identification of a visual target, indicating distraction. The amplitude of this color-change vMMN, but not LFCN, indexed this distraction effect. That is, electrophysiological and behavioral measures were correlated. The interval between visual scenes approximated 1 s (611-1629 ms), indicating that the brain's sensory memory for the color of the preceding visual scenes must persist for at least 600 ms. Therefore, in the case of the neural code for color, durable memory representations are formed in an obligatory manner. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Houtman, Judith; Eguiguren, Juan Sebastian; Ghassemzadeh, Saeed; Rund, Nicole; Novaresi, Nicole M.; Hu, Lauren; Parylak, Sarah L.; Denli, Ahmet M.; Randolph-Moore, Lynne; Namba, Takashi; Gage, Fred H.; Toda, Tomohisa (2021)
    Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus declines with age, a process that has been implicated in cognitive and emotional impairments. However, the mechanisms underlying this decline have remained elusive. Here, we show that the age-dependent downregulation of lamin B1, one of the nuclear lamins in adult neural stem/progenitor cells (ANSPCs), underlies age-related alterations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that higher levels of lamin B1 in ANSPCs safeguard against premature differentiation and regulate the maintenance of ANSPCs. However, the level of lamin B1 in ANSPCs declines during aging. Precocious loss of lamin B1 in ANSPCs transiently promotes neurogenesis but eventually depletes it. Furthermore, the reduction of lamin B1 in ANSPCs recapitulates age-related anxiety-like behavior in mice. Our results indicate that the decline in lamin B1 underlies stem cell aging and impacts the homeostasis of adult neurogenesis and mood regulation.
  • Puustinen, Juha; Lähteenmäki, Ritva; Nurminen, Janne; Vahlberg, Tero; Aarnio, Pertti; Partinen, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa (2018)
    Background: Studies on persistence of benzodiazepine agonist (BZDA) withdrawal in older outpatients are few, and few studies on long-term persistence over years have yet been published. To describe the persistence of temazepam, zolpidem, and zopiclone (BZDA) withdrawal among older outpatients at 3 years from the beginning of withdrawal, as well as any changes in use of other medications. Methods: 92 outpatients (>= 55 years) with primary insomnia, long-term BZDA use as hypnotics (mean duration of BZDA use 9.9 +/- 6.2 years), and willingness to withdraw from BZDAs each received either melatonin or a placebo nightly for one month. During this period, BZDAs were meant to be gradually withdrawn. Sleep hygiene counselling and psychosocial support were provided. Three years later, use of BZDAs and other medications was determined by interview and confirmed from medical records. Results: Of the original 92 outpatients, 83 (90%) participated in the 3-year survey (mean follow-up 3.3 +/- 0.2 years). The number of BZDA-free participants decreased from 34 (37%) at 6 months to 26 (28%; intention-to-treat) at 3 years, that of irregular BZDA users decreased from 44 (48%) at 6 months to 27 (29%) at 3 years, while that of regular users increased from 11 (12%) at 6 months to 30 (33%) at 3 years (P = 0.001). Those who were regular BZDA users at 3 years had at baseline (before withdrawal) higher BMI (P = 0.001) than did other participants. At 3 years, the total number of medications remained unchanged for non-users (P = 0.432), but increased for the irregular (P = 0.011) and regular users (P = 0.026) compared to baseline. At 3 years, compared to baseline, use of antidepressants, dopamine agonists, melatonin, and NSAIDs/paracetamol was significantly more common in the whole cohort, but their use did not differ between the BZDA-user subgroups. Randomization to melatonin or placebo during BZDA withdrawal was unrelated to BZDA-withdrawal result. Conclusions: At 3 years after withdrawal, the number of BZDA-free participants had decreased, but still one-third of the subjects remained BZDA-free, and one-third had reduced their use. Successful BZDA withdrawal did not lead to any increase in total number of medications; use of symptomatic medications in the whole cohort, however, did increase.
  • Remes, Tiina M.; Hoven, Emma; Ritari, Niina; Pohjasniemi, Heli; Puosi, Riina; Arikoski, Pekka M.; Arola, Mikko O.; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M.; Lönnqvist, Tuula R. I.; Ojaniemi, Marja K.; Riikonen, V. Pekka; Sirkiä, Kirsti H.; Winqvist, Satu; Rantala, Heikki M. J.; Harila, Marika; Harila-Saari, Arja H. (2021)
    Background. Little is known of the cognitive functions, employment, and social status in adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (BT). We aimed to determine the long-term neurocognitive profile of radiotherapy-treated adult survivors of childhood BT and the relationship between cognitive functions and employment and social status. Methods. Neurocognitive profiles of survivors were assessed in a Finnish national cohort of 71 radiotherapy-treated survivors of childhood BT (median follow-up time: 21 years [range: 5-33 years]) using a cross-sectional design. Neurocognitive outcomes were compared to control (n = 45) and normative values. Tumor- and treatment-related data were collected from the patient files. Information on employment and social status was gathered. Results. Survivors' (median age: 27 years [range: 16-43 years]) median verbal and performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was 90 (range: 49-121) and 87 (range: 43-119), respectively. The cognitive domains with the greatest impairment were executive functions (median z score, 3.5 SD [range: -25.0 to 1.3 SD]), and processing speed and attention (median z score, -2.5 SD [range: -24.9 to 0.5 SD]). Executive functions were associated with employment, educational level, living independently, having an intimate relationship, and having a driving license. Processing speed and attention were related to educational level, living independently, having an intimate relationship, and having a driving license. Performance IQ was associated with educational level and employment status. Working memory was associated with educational level and living independently. Conclusions. Radiotherapy-treated adult survivors of childhood BT experience significant neurocognitive impairment, which is associated with difficulties related to employment and social status.
  • Barnes, Anna; Isohanni, Matti; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Veijola, Juha; Miettunen, Jouko; Paunio, Tiina; Tanskanen, Paivikki; Ridler, Khanum; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Murray, Graham K.; Jones, Peter B. (2012)
  • Mazumder, Atiqul Haq; Barnett, Jennifer; Lindberg, Nina; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Lähteenvuo, Markku; Lahdensuo, Kaisla; Kerkelä, Martta; Hietala, Jarmo; Isometsä, Erkki Tapio; Kampman, Olli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Jukuri, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Katja; Cederlöf, Erik; Haaki, Willehard; Kajanne, Risto; Wegelius, Asko; Männynsalo, Teemu; Niemi-Pynttäri, Jussi; Suokas, Kimmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Niemelä, Solja; Tiihonen, Jari; Paunio, Tiina; Palotie, Aarno; Suvisaari, Jaana; Veijola, Juha (2021)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the association between cognition and hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Cognition is more or less compromised in schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder and alcohol use might aggravate this phenomenon. The study population included 3362 individuals from Finland with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Hazardous drinking was screened with the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption) screening tool. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses were obtained from national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) on a tablet computer: The Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) or the reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. The association between alcohol use and the RT and PAL tests was analyzed with log-linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. After adjustment for age, education, housing status, and the age at which the respondents had their first psychotic episodes, hazardous drinking was associated with a lower median RT in females and less variable RT in males, while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores (TEASs) in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol and cognition in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are unique.
  • Raj, Rahul; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka; Mikkonen, Era D.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Siironen, Jari (2017)
    Background Previous epidemiological studies suggest that working-aged persons with a history of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have an increased risk for developing neurodegenerative disease (NDD) while persons with a history of mild TBI do not. In this comprehensive nationwide study in Finland, we assessed the risk of NDD and history of moderate-to-severe TBI in the working-age population. Methods and findings We performed a population-based follow-up study using the Finnish Care Register for Health Care to identify all persons between the ages of 18 and 65 years hospitalized during 1987-2014 due to TBI who did not have a baseline NDD diagnosis. We compared the risk of hospitalization with NDD between persons hospitalized due to moderate-to-severe TBI (intracranial lesions) and persons hospitalized due to mild TBI (no intracranial lesions). Follow-up NDD diagnoses were recorded from 1 year following the TBI to the end of 2014. NDD diagnoses included dementia, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We used a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and socioeconomic group, to assess the association between TBI and NDD. In total, 19,936 and 20,703 persons with a history of moderate-to-severe TBI and mild TBI, respectively, were included. The overall time at risk was 453,079 person-years (median 10 years per person). In total, 3.5% (N = 696) persons in the moderate-to-severe TBI group developed NDD compared to 1.6% (N = 326) in the mild TBI group. After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe TBI was associated with an increased risk for NDD, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.8 (95% CI 1.6-2.1) compared to mild TBI. Of the NDD subtypes, only moderate-to-severe TBI was associated with an increased risk for dementia (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2). Yet, this large-scale epidemiological study does not prove that there is a causal relationship between moderate-to-severe TBI and NDD. Further, the Care Register for Health Care includes only hospitalized persons; thus, patients diagnosed with NDD in the outpatient setting may have been missed. Additional limitations include the potential for miscoding and unmeasured confounds. Conclusions In working-aged persons, a history of moderate-to-severe TBI is associated with an increased risk for future dementia but not for Parkinson disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • Lukasik, Karolina M.; Waris, Otto; Soveri, Anna; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti (2019)
    Clinical anxiety and acute stress caused by major life events have well-documented detrimental effects on cognitive processes, such as working memory (WM). However, less is known about the relationships of state anxiety or everyday stress with WM performance in non-clinical populations. We investigated the associations between these two factors and three WM composites (verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and n-back updating performance) in a large online sample of non-depressed US American adults. We found a trend for a negative association between WM performance and anxiety, but not with stress. Thus, WM performance appears rather robust against normal variation in anxiety and everyday stress.
  • Kumaradev, Sushmithadev; Fayosse, Aurore; Dugravot, Aline; Dumurgier, Julien; Roux, Christian; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine (2021)
    This study examines the importance of length of follow-up on the association between pain and incident dementia. Further objective was to characterize pain trajectories in the 27 years preceding dementia diagnosis and compare them with those among persons free of dementia during the same period. Pain intensity and pain interference (averaged as total pain) were measured on 9 occasions (1991-2016) using the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire amongst 9046 (women = 31.4%) dementia-free adults aged 40 to 64 years in 1991; 567 dementia cases were recorded between 1991 and 2019. Cox regression was used to assess the association between pain measures at different time points and incident dementia and mixed models to assess pain trajectories preceding dementia diagnosis or end point for dementia-free participants. Results from Cox regression showed moderate/severe compared with mild/no total pain, pain intensity, and pain interference not to be associated with dementia when the mean follow-up was 25.0, 19.6, 14.5, or 10.0 years. These associations were evident for a mean follow-up of 6.2 years: for total pain (hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence intervals = 1.28-2.33), pain intensity (1.41; 1.04-1.92), and pain interference (1.80; 1.30-2.49). These associations were stronger when the mean follow-up for incidence of dementia was 3.2 years. Twenty-seven-year pain trajectories differed between dementia cases and noncases with small differences in total pain and pain interference evident 16 years before dementia diagnosis (difference in the total pain score = 1.4, 95% confidence intervals = 0.1-2.7) and rapidly increasing closer to diagnosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that pain is a correlate or prodromal symptom rather than a cause of dementia.
  • Aalto, Ulla L.; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kautiainen, Hannu; Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Öhman, Hannareeta; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2019)
    Objectives: To compare 3 internationally established criteria for drugs with anticholinergic properties (DAPs) and their associated factors in long-term care facilities, and to investigate the association between use of DAPs and psychological well-being (PWB) or mortality. Design: Cross-sectional study and 1-year follow-up of all-cause mortality. Setting and Participants: Of all 4449 residents living in long-term care facilities in Helsinki in 2011, 2432 (>= 65 years of age) participated after exclusion of residents with severe dementia. Measurements: Data on demographics, medication use, and active diagnoses were collected by trained staff using structured questionnaires. DAP use was defined by the following 3 international criteria: Chew's list, the Anticholinergic Risk Scale, and the Anticholinergic Drug Scale. The total number of DAPs was counted and referred to as anticholinergic burden. PWB was assessed by a questionnaire and yielded a score ranging from 0 to 1. Mortality data was retrieved from central registers. Results: Of all participants, 85% were DAP users according to at least 1 of the 3 criteria used. Overlap between the 3 criteria was only moderate. DAP users were younger and a larger proportion of them had better cognition. However, they suffered more often from depression and other psychiatric diagnoses than nonusers. DAP users had lower PWB scores than those not using DAPs, and PWB decreased linearly in the overlapping groups from nonusers to those using DAPs according to all 3 criteria. The total number of DAPs used predicted mortality. Conclusions and Implications: DAP use and PWB appear to be negatively associated. When combining several criteria of DAPs, their burden predicted mortality. Clinicians should carefully consider the potential benefits and harms when prescribing DAPs to older persons. (C) 2019 AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.