Browsing by Subject "COLEOPTERA"

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  • Muona, Jyrki (2020)
    The genus Euyostus Bonvouloir is revised. Two new species are described: E. kuchinensis n.sp. (Myanmar) and E. moorei n. sp. (“Borneo”). Lectotypes are designated for two species: E. reichei Bonvouloir, 1871 (Singapore) and E. bonvouloiri Fleutiaux, 1912 (New Guinea). The habitus and the male genitalia of all the species are illustrated and a key to identify the species is given.
  • Miko, Istvan; Masner, Lubomir; Ulmer, Jonah M.; Raymond, Monique; Hobbie, Julia; Tarasov, Sergey; Margaria, Cecilia Beatriz; Seltmann, Katja C.; Talamas, Elijah J. (2021)
    Teleasinae are commonly collected scelionids that are the only known egg parasitoids of carabid beetles and therefore play a crucial role in shaping carabid populations in natural and agricultural ecosystems. We review the available host information of Teleasinae, report a new host record, and revise Gryonoides Dodd, 1920, a morphologically distinct teleasine genus. We review the generic concept of Gryonoides and provide diagnoses and descriptions of thirteen Gryonoides species and two varieties: G. glabriceps Dodd, 1920, G. pulchellus Dodd, 1920 (= G. doddi Ogloblin, 1967, syn. nov. and G. pulchricornis Ogloblin, 1967, syn. nov.), G. brasiliensis Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. flaviclavus Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. fuscoclavatus Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. garciai Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. mexicali Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. mirabilicornis Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. obtusus Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. paraguayensis Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. rugosus Masner & Miko, sp. nov., G. uruguayensis Masner & Miko, sp. nov. We treat Gryonoides scutellaris Dodd, 1920, as status uncertain. Gryonoides mirabilicornis Masner & Miko, sp. nov. is the only known teleasine with tyloids on two consecutive flagellomeres, a well-known trait of Sparasionidae. An illustrated identification key to species of Gryonoides, a queryable semantic representation of species descriptions using PhenoScript, and a simple approach for making Darwin Core Archive files in taxonomic revisions accessible are provided.
  • Andersen, Line Holm; Nummi, Petri; Rafn, Jeppe; Frederiksen, Cecilie Majgaard Skak; Kristjansen, Mads Prengel; Lauridsen, Torben Linding; Trojelsgaard, Kristian; Pertoldi, Cino; Bruhn, Dan; Bahrndorff, Simon (2021)
    The succession-driven reed bed habitat hosts a unique flora and fauna including several endangered invertebrate species. Reed beds can be managed through commercial winter harvest, with implications for reed bed conservation. However, the effects of winter harvest on the invertebrate community are not well understood and vary across studies and taxonomic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reed harvest on invertebrate communities. Ground-dwelling and aerial invertebrates were continuously sampled for 10 weeks in the largest coherent reed bed of Scandinavia in order to assess how time since last reed harvest (0, 3, and 25years) influences invertebrate biomass, biodiversity and community structure across taxonomic levels. Biomass was measured and all specimens were sorted to order level, and Coleoptera was even sorted to species level. The invertebrate community showed distinct compositional differences across the three reed bed ages. Furthermore, biomass of both aerial and ground-dwelling invertebrates was highest in the age-0 reed bed and lowest in the age-25 reed bed. Generally, biodiversity showed an opposite trend with the highest richness and diversity in the age-25 reed bed. We conclude that it is possible to ensure high insect biomass and diversity by creating a mosaic of reed bed of different ages through small-scale harvest in the largest coherent reed bed in Scandinavia. The youngest red beds support a high invertebrate biomass whereas the oldest reed beds support a high biodiversity. Collectively, this elevate our understanding of reed harvest and the effects it has on the invertebrate communities, and might aid in future reed bed management and restoration.
  • Peuhu, Elina; Thomssen, Pia-Maria; Siitonen, Juha (2019)
    Hollow trees are an important habitat for a large number of saproxylic invertebrates, many of which are rare or threatened. Large old trees occur frequently in cities, but the saproxylic fauna inhabiting these trees has been poorly studied. Sampling in urban areas includes the risk of trap failure due to human interference, which needs to be considered when designing sampling. The aim of our study was to find an efficient trap type for sampling saproxylic beetles in hollow urban trees. We compared the species richness and species composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages between trunk window, aluminium foil tray and pitfall traps placed inside hollow trees in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. A total of 30 traps of each trap type were set in 15 trees. The traps caught a total of 4004 saproxylic beetle individuals belonging to 131 species. Trunk window and aluminium foil traps had similar assemblage and trapping efficiency, and were significantly more efficient than pitfall traps. However, pitfall traps caught certain species more efficiently than the other two trap types. Time spent separating insects from samples was the most laborious work stage. The time increased with increasing sample weight, i.e. the amount of wood mould in the trap. Trunk windows were the most efficient trap type also in terms of saproxylic species and individuals per handling time. We conclude that saproxylic beetle fauna living in hollow urban trees can be efficiently sampled with small trunk window traps or containers placed on the inner walls of hollows.
  • Hopkins, Juhani; Lehtonen, Topi K.; Baudry, Gautier; Kaitala, Arja (2021)
    How fecundity might be traded off with mate attraction and other aspects of reproduction in females remains poorly understood. We investigated these allocation trade-offs using the common glowworm (Lampyris noctiluca), a lampyrid beetle, in which flightless, sedentary females only use resources gathered during the larval stage to attract flying males by glowing. While sexual signaling was not found to have a significant fecundity cost, a delay in successfully attracting a mate greatly increased the risk of reproductive failure, with fecundity losses being more severe in small females. These findings are among the first to show that failure to quickly attract a mate can decrease female fecundity. The results also show how the length of delay before mating can drive the evolution of female sexual ornamentation.
  • Kotze, D. Johan; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2012)
  • Muona, Jyrki (2020)
    Eight new genera and twenty new species of Eucnemidae are described from Cretaceous Myanmar amber: Cupressicharis n. gen. (type-species Cupressicharis elongatus n. sp.), Cylus n. gen. (type species Cylus carinifer n. sp.), Falsothambus n. gen. (type species Falsothambus burmensis n. sp.). Fiegelia n. gen. (type species Fiegelia antennata n. sp.), Paleoeucnemis n. gen. (type species Paleoeucnemis minutus n. sp.), Protomicrorhagus n. gen. (type species Protomicrorhagus antennatus n. sp.), Protovitellius n. gen. (type species Protovitellius deceptus n. sp,) and Pseudomyall n. gen. (type species Pseudomyall elongatulus n. sp). Eleven further species are described: Coenomana brevicornis n. sp., Euryptychus acutangulus n. sp., Euryptychus burmensis n. sp, Euryptychus elegantulus n. sp., Euryptychus mysticus n. sp, Epiphanis burmensis n. sp., Falsothambus gracilicornis n. sp., Fiegelia tarsalis n. sp., Jenibuntor pusillus n. sp., Myall burmensis n. sp., Protomicrorhagus brevis n. sp, Sieglindea antiqua n. sp. Coenomana clavata Otto is transferred from tribe Jenibuntorini to tribe Dirhagini. Muonabuntor grandinotalis Li , Tihelka & Cai is transferred from tribe Jenibuntorini to tribe Euryptychini.
  • Vahl, Wouter K.; Boiteau, Gilles; de Heij, Maaike E.; MacKinley, Pamela D.; Kokko, Hanna (2013)
  • Nolte, Dorothea; Boutaud, Esteve; Kotze, D. Johan; Schuldt, Andreas; Assmann, Thorsten (2019)
    The worldwide biodiversity crisis is ongoing. To slow down, or even halt future species loss it is important to identify potential drivers of extinction risk. Species traits can help to understand the underlying process of extinction risk. In a comprehensive study on 464 carabid beetle species, we used ordinal logistic regression to analyze the relationship of species traits to extinction risk in Central Europe, taking phylogenetic relatedness into account. To consider varying trait responses in different habitat types, we also tested models for species groups associated with different habitat types (forest, open, riparian and wetland). Our results identified three traits of particular importance as predictors for high extinction risk: (1) high habitat specialization, (2) small distribution range size (which is not considered in the categorization of the German Red List), and (3) large body size. Furthermore, large macropterous species showed high extinction risk. Overall, species associated with mountainous, coastal and open habitats generally revealed a high risk of extinction, while most forest species showed a low extinction risk. However, forest species with predatory feeding behavior were threatened, as were wetland species that reproduce in autumn. Phylogenetic relatedness had no influence on how species traits predict carabid beetle extinction risk. In the light of these results, management and recovery plans for species which exhibit characteristic traits strongly associated with extinction risks, as well as the conservation and restoration of mountain, coastal and open habitats, have to be prioritized.
  • Miraldo, Andreia; Duplouy, Anne (2019)
    Determining the drivers of diversity is a major topic in biology. Due to its high level of micro-endemism in many taxa, Madagascar has been described as one of Earth's biodiversity hotspot. The exceptional Malagasy biodiversity has been shown to be the result of various eco-evolutionary mechanisms that have taken place on this large island since its isolation from other landmasses. Extensive phylogenetic analyses have, for example, revealed that most of the dung beetle radiation events have arisen due to allopatric speciation, and adaptation to altitudinal and/or longitudinal gradients. But other biotic factors, that have yet to be identified, might also be at play. Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium widespread in insects. The bacterium is well-known for its ability to modify its host reproductive system in ways that may lead to either discordance patterns between the host mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies, and in some cases to speciation. Here, we used theMultiLocus Sequence Typing system, to identify and characterize five Wolbachia strains infecting several species within the Nanos clypeatus dung beetle clade. We discuss the implications of these Wolbachia strains for the evolution and diversification of their dung beetle hosts in Madagascar.
  • Lehtonen, Topi Kasperi; Kaitala, Arja Leena (2020)
    Spatial distributions of sexual competitors and potential mating partners have a large impact on sexual selection and mating systems. Typically, such effects are investigated with regard to male aggregations. However, females may also need to compete for mating opportunities. Here, we investigated the consequences of clustering and rival attractiveness on female mate attraction success under field conditions in a nocturnal beetle, the common glowworm, Lampyrus noctiluca. We placed dummy females of two glow intensity (attractiveness) levels either alone or in clusters of varying attractiveness compositions. We found that, by displaying alone rather than in a cluster, females have a higher probability of mating and greater potential to exercise mate choice. Within clusters, females of both attractiveness levels had the highest probability of mating when having neighbors of only the less attractive type. These results show that both the presence and attractiveness of rivals can strongly influence females’ mate attraction. The findings also suggest that the typical distribution of glowing females in the wild is better explained by female than male benefits. Hence, the results highlight the important links between spatial distribution of females, male mate searching, and sexual selection.
  • Kyro, Kukka; Brenneisen, Stephan; Kotze, D. Johan; Szallies, Alexander; Gerner, Magdalena; Lehvavirta, Susanna (2018)
    Green roofs are a promising tool to return nature to cities and mitigate biodiversity loss brought about by urbanization. Yet, we lack basic information on how green roofs contribute to biodiversity and how their placement in the urban landscape affects different taxa and community composition. We studied the effects of local and landscape variables on beetle communities on green roofs. We expected that both local roof characteristics and urban landscape composition shape communities, but that their relative importance depends on species characteristics. Using pitfall traps, we collected beetles during two consecutive years from 17 green roofs in Basel, Switzerland. We evaluated the contribution of six local and six landscape variables to beetle community structure and to the responses of individual species. Communities on the roofs consisted of mobile and open dry-habitat species, with both local and landscape variables playing a role in structuring these communities. At the individual species level, local roof variables were more important than characteristics of the surrounding urban landscape. The most influential factors affecting the abundances of beetle species were vegetation, described as forb and grass cover (mainly positive), and roof age (mainly negative). Therefore, we suggest that the careful planning of green roofs with diverse vegetation is essential to increase their value as habitat for beetles. In addition, while beetle communities on green roofs can be diverse regardless of their placement in the urban landscape, the lack of wingless species indicates the need to increase the connectivity of green roofs to ground level habitats.
  • Linnakoski, Riikka; Forbes, Kristian M. (2019)
  • Elgert, Christina Barbro Cecilia; Hopkins, Juhani; Kaitala, Arja Leena; Candolin, Ulrika (2020)
    The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-wormLampyris noctiluca-which glow in the night to attract males-mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light conditions. We found females do not move away from light when exposed to a gradient of artificial light, but delay or even refrain from glowing. Further, we demonstrate that this response is maladaptive, as our field study showed that staying still when exposed to artificial light from a simulated streetlight decreases mate attraction success, while moving only a short distance from the light source can markedly improve mate attraction. These results indicate that glow-worms are unable to respond to spatial variation in artificial light, which may be a factor in their global decline. Consequently, our results support the hypothesis that animals often lack adaptive behavioural responses to anthropogenic environmental changes and underlines the importance of considering behavioural responses when investigating the effects of human activities on wildlife.
  • EFSA Panel Nutr Novel Foods Food A; Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2021)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on frozen and dried formulations from whole yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The term yellow mealworm refers to the larval form of the insect species Tenebrio molitor. The NF comprises the frozen and freeze-dried formulations of the yellow mealworm, whole or in the form of powder. The frozen formulation consists mainly of water, crude protein and fat whereas the freeze-dried formulations of crude protein, fat, digestible carbohydrates and fibre (chitin). The Panel notes that the levels of contaminants in the NF depend on the occurrence levels of these substances in the insect feed. The Panel notes furthermore that there are no safety concerns regarding the stability of the NF if the NF complies with the proposed specification limits during its entire shelf-life. The dried formulations of the NF have a high protein content, although the true protein levels in the NF are overestimated when using the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of 6.25, due to the presence of non-protein nitrogen from chitin. The applicant proposed to use the NF as whole frozen or whole dried insect, or in the form of powder, added as an ingredient to various food products such as cereal bars, pasta, meat imitates and bakery products. The target population is the general population. The Panel notes that, considering that the NF will not be the sole source of dietary protein, and the composition of the NF and the proposed conditions of use, the consumption of the NF is not nutritionally disadvantageous. The submitted toxicity studies from the literature did not raise safety concerns. The Panel considers that the consumption of the NF may induce primary sensitisation and allergic reactions to yellow mealworm proteins and may cause allergic reactions in subjects with allergy to crustaceans and dust mites. Additionally, allergens from the feed may end up in the NF. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe under the proposed uses and use levels. (C) 2021 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Linnakoski, Riikka Marjaana; Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J. (2016)
    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association.
  • Vieira Borges, Paulo Alexandre; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; Amorim, Isabel R.; Danielczak, Anja; Boieiro, Mario; Rego, Carla; Wallon, Sophie; Nunes, Rui; Cardoso, Pedro; Hochkirch, Axel (2019)
    Background Azorean volcanic cave biodiversity is under considerable pressure due to ongoing threats of pollution, land use change, touristic activities or climate change. In this contribution, we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 15 cave-adapted arthropod species, endemic to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to the speciose genus Trechus (Carabidae), which is represented in Azores by seven species. The objective of this paper is to assess all endemic Azorean cave-adapted species and advise on possible future research and conservation actions critical for the long-term survival of the most endangered species. New information Most species have a restricted distribution (i.e. occur in one or two caves), very small extent of occurrence (EOO) and a small area of occupancy (AOO). A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing cave habitat degradation. The two troglobitic species of the homopteran genus Cixius are in great danger of extinction due to major land-use changes in epigean habitats above their known localities. We suggest, as future measures of conservation, the regular monitoring of the species (every five years), the creation of additional protected caves, the limitation of several aggressive activities around the caves (e.g. decreasing pasture intensification) and in some cases the creation of fences in the entrance of the most important caves.
  • Elgert, Christina Barbro Cecilia; Lehtonen, Topi Kasperi; Kaitala, Arja Leena; Candolin, Ulrika (2021)
    Artificial light at night is increasing globally, interfering with both sensory ecology and temporal rhythms of organisms, from zooplankton to mammals. This interference can change the behaviour of the affected organisms, and hence compromise the viability of their populations. Limiting the use of artificial light may mitigate these negative effects. Accordingly, we investigated whether the duration of artificial light affects sexual signalling in female glow-worms, Lampyris noctiluca, which are flightless and attract flying males to mate by emitting glow that is interfered by light pollution. The study included three treatments: no artificial light (control), 15 min of artificial light, and 45 min of artificial light. The results show that females were more likely to cease glowing when the exposure to light was longer. Furthermore, small females were more likely to cease their glow, and responded faster to the light, than larger females. These findings suggest that glow-worms can react rapidly to anthropogenic changes in nocturnal light levels, and that prolonged periods of artificial light trigger females to stop sexual signalling. Thus, limiting the duration of artificial light can mitigate the adverse effects of light pollution on sexual signalling, highlighting the importance of such mitigation measures. Significance statement Interest in the effects of artificial light at night on animal behaviour has increased in recent years. With evidence for its negative impact accumulating, potential remedies, such as limiting the duration of light exposure, have emerged. To date, however, knowledge on the effectiveness of these methods has remained very limited. We show that female European common glow-worms, which are wingless beetles that glow to attract flying males to mate, responded to prolonged artificial light exposure by discontinuing their glow. Such non-glowing females are not expected to find a mate, making it difficult for them to reproduce. Hence, our study indicates that the duration of artificial light should be limited to protect this night-active beetle and its opportunities for effective sexual signalling. Because many other nocturnal species also need darkness, this study provides valuable information for the development and use of less disruptive night-time lights.
  • Denham, Sander; Coyle, David; Oishi, Andrew; Bullock, Bronson P; Heliövaara, Kari Tapani; Novick, Kimberly A (2019)
    The success of tree colonization by bark beetles depends on their ability to overcome host tree defenses, including resin exudation and toxic chemicals, which deter bark beetle colonization. Resin defenses during insect outbreaks are challenging to study in situ, as outbreaks are stochastic events that progress quickly and thus preclude the establishment of baseline observations of non-infested controls. We use synthetic aggregation pheromones to demonstrate that confined Ips bark beetle herbivory can be successfully initiated to provide opportunities for studying interactions between bark beetles and their hosts, including the dynamics of constitutive and induced resin exudation. In Pinus taeda L. plantations between 12 and 19 years old in North and South Carolina, U.S., trees were affixed with pheromone lures, monitored for evidence of bark beetle attacks, and resin samples were collected throughout the growing season. Baiting increased beetle herbivory to an extent sufficient to produce an induced resin response. Attacked trees exuded about three times more resin at some time than control trees. This supports previous work that demonstrated that information on constitutive resin dynamics alone provides an incomplete view of a host tree's resistance to bark beetle attack.
  • Torppa, Kaisa Anneli; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka (2020)
    Tropical forests, which harbor high levels of biodiversity, are being lost at an alarming speed. Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot, has lost more than half of its original forest cover. Most of the remaining forests are small fragments of primary and secondary forest with differing degrees of human impact. These forests, as well as coffee and fruit plantations, may be important in supporting the forest-dependent biodiversity in Madagascar but this has been little studied. In Madagascar, dung beetles, which offer important ecosystem services, are largely restricted to forests. We examined the ability of fragmented and degraded forests to support dung beetle diversity, compared to the large areas of primary forest in eastern Madagascar. We found a general trend of a reduction of species with a loss of forest connectivity. In contrast, a higher level of forest disturbance was associated with higher species diversity. In several sites of low-quality forest as many or more species were found as in less disturbed and primary forests. The average size of dung beetles was smaller in the lower quality localities than in the primary forests. These findings suggest that many forest dung beetles in Madagascar are better adapted to forest disturbance than earlier expected, although they require some level of connectivity to surrounding forest. in Malagasy is available with online material.