Browsing by Subject "COLLAGEN"

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  • Ouni, Emna; Peaucelle, Alexis; Haas, Kalina T.; Van Kerk, Olivier; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; Tuuri, Timo; Otala, Marjut; Amorim, Christiani A. (2021)
    Although the first dissection of the human ovary dates back to the 17th century, its characterization is still limited. Here, the authors have unraveled a unique biophysical and topological phenotype of reproductive-age tissue, bridging biophysics and female fertility and providing a blueprint for the artificial ovary. Although the first dissection of the human ovary dates back to the 17(th) century, the biophysical characteristics of the ovarian cell microenvironment are still poorly understood. However, this information is vital to deciphering cellular processes such as proliferation, morphology and differentiation, as well as pathologies like tumor progression, as demonstrated in other biological tissues. Here, we provide the first readout of human ovarian fiber morphology, interstitial and perifollicular fiber orientation, pore geometry, topography and surface roughness, and elastic and viscoelastic properties. By determining differences between healthy prepubertal, reproductive-age, and menopausal ovarian tissue, we unravel and elucidate a unique biophysical phenotype of reproductive-age tissue, bridging biophysics and female fertility. While these data enable to design of more biomimetic scaffolds for the tissue-engineered ovary, our analysis pipeline is applicable for the characterization of other organs in physiological or pathological states to reveal their biophysical markers or design their bioinspired analogs.
  • Pallares, Jordi; Senan, Oriol; Guimera, Roger; Vernet, Anton; Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Cito, Salvatore (2015)
    Thrombus formation is a multiscale phenomenon triggered by platelet deposition over a protrombotic surface (eg. a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque). Despite the medical urgency for computational tools that aid in the early diagnosis of thrombotic events, the integration of computational models of thrombus formation at different scales requires a comprehensive understanding of the role and limitation of each modelling approach. We propose three different modelling approaches to predict platelet deposition. Specifically, we consider measurements of platelet deposition under blood flow conditions in a perfusion chamber for different time periods (3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes) at shear rates of 212 s(-1), 1390 s(-1) and 1690 s(-1). Our modelling approaches are: i) a model based on the mass-transfer boundary layer theory; ii) a machine-learning approach; and iii) a phenomenological model. The results indicate that the three approaches on average have median errors of 21%, 20.7% and 14.2%, respectively. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an empirical data set as a proxy for a real-patient scenario in which practitioners have accumulated data on a given number of patients and want to obtain a diagnosis for a new patient about whom they only have the current observation of a certain number of variables.
  • Landolt, Lea; Furriol, Jessica; Babickova, Janka; Ahmed, Lavina; Eikrem, Oystein; Skogstrand, Trude; Scherer, Andreas; Suliman, Salwa; Leh, Sabine; Lorens, J. B.; Gausdal, Gro; Marti, H.P.; Osman, Tarig (2019)
    The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is involved in partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammation - both main promoters of renal fibrosis development. The study aim was to investigate the role of AXL inhibition in kidney fibrosis due to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Eight weeks old male C57BL/6 mice underwent UUO and were treated with oral AXL inhibitor bemcentinib (n = 22), Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, n = 10), ACEI and bemcentinib (n = 10) or vehicle alone (n = 22). Mice were sacrificed after 7 or 15 days and kidney tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, ELISA, Sirius Red (SR) staining, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) quantification. RNA was extracted from frozen kidney tissues and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq4000 platform. After 15 days the ligated bemcentinib-treated kidneys showed less fibrosis compared to the ligated vehicle-treated kidneys in SR analyses and Hyp quantification. Reduced IHC staining for Vimentin (VIM) and alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA), as well as reduced mRNA abundance of key regulators of fibrosis such as transforming growth factor (Tgf beta), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), Smad2, Smad4, myofibroblast activation (Aldh1a2, Crlf1), and EMT (Snai1,2, Twist), in ligated bemcentinib-treated kidneys was compatible with reduced (partial) EMT induction. Furthermore, less F4/80 positive cells, less activity of pathways related to the immune system and lower abundance of MCP1, MCP3, MCP5, and TARC in ligated bemcentinib-treated kidneys was compatible with reduction in inflammatory infiltrates by bemcentinib treatment. The AXL RTK pathway represents a promising target for pharmacologic therapy of kidney fibrosis.
  • Mazzoni, Annalisa; Maravic, Tatjana; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Scaffa, Polliana Mendes Candia; Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Bavelloni, Alberto; Gobbi, Pietro; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.; Breschi, Lorenzo (2018)
    Objectives: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are dentinal endogenous enzymes claimed to have a vital role in dentin organic matrix breakdown. The aim of the study was to investigate presence, localization and distribution of MMP-7 in sound human dentin. Methods: Dentin was powdered, demineralized and dissolved in isoelectric focusing buffer. Resolved proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes for western blotting (WB) analyses. For the zymographic analysis, aliquots of dentin protein were electrophoresed in 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing fluorescently labeled gelatin. Further, the concentrations of dentinal MMPs were measured using Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay with a human MMP-MAP multiplex kit. Pre- and post-embedding immunolabeling technique was used to investigate the localization and distribution of MMP-7 in dentin. Dentin was cryo-fractured, the fragments partially decalcified and labeled with a primary monoclonal anti-MMP-7 and a secondary antibody conjugated with gold nanoparticles. MMP-7 labelings were identified in the demineralized dentin matrix as highly electron-dense dispersed gold particles. Results: WB and zymographic analysis of extracted dentin proteins showed presence of MMP-7 (similar to 20-28 KDa). Further, MMP-7 was found in the supernatants of the incubated dentin beams using Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay. FEI-SEM and TEM analyses established MMP-7 as an intrinsic constituent of the human dentin organic matrix. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that MMP-7 is an endogenous component of the human dentin fibrillar network. Clinical significance: It is pivotal to understand the underlying processes behind dentin matrix remodeling and degradation in order to develop the most optimal clinical protocols and ensure the longevity of dental restorations.
  • Salonius, Eve; Kontturi, Leena; Laitinen, Anita; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Korhonen, Matti; Nystedt, Johanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Muhonen, Virpi (2020)
    Cell therapy combined with biomaterial scaffolds is used to treat cartilage defects. We hypothesized that chondrogenic differentiation bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds would initiate cartilaginous matrix deposition and prepare the construct for cartilage regeneration in situ. The chondrogenic capability of human BM-MSCs was first verified in a pellet culture. The BM-MSCs were then either seeded onto a composite scaffold rhCo-PLA combining polylactide and collagen type II (C2) or type III (C3), or commercial collagen type I/III membrane (CG). The BM-MSCs were either cultured in a proliferation medium or chondrogenic culture medium. Adult human chondrocytes (ACs) served as controls. After 3, 14, and 28 days, the constructs were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and confocal microscopy and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured. The differentiated BM-MSCs entered a hypertrophic state by Day 14 of culture. The ACs showed dedifferentiation with no expression of chondrogenic genes and low amount of GAG. The CG membrane induced the highest expression levels of hypertrophic genes. The two different collagen types in composite scaffolds yielded similar results. Regardless of the biomaterial scaffold, culturing BM-MSCs in chondrogenic differentiation medium resulted in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Thus, caution for cell fate is required when designing cell-biomaterial constructs for cartilage regeneration.
  • Koivuniemi, Raili; Hakkarainen, Tiina; Kiiskinen, Jasmi; Kosonen, Mika; Vuola, Jyrki; Valtonen, Jussi; Luukko, Kari; Kavola, Heli; Yliperttula, Marjo (2020)
    Objective: Skin graft donor site management is a concern particularly for elderly patients and patients with poor wound healing competence, and also because donor sites are a source of pain and discomfort. Although different types of dressings exist, there is no consensus regarding optimal dressing type on donor site care to promote healing, reduce pain, and improve patients' comfort. Approach: This prospective, single-center clinical trial evaluated the performance of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) wound dressing (FibDex (R) by UPM-Kymmene Corporation) for treatment of donor sites compared with a polylactide-based copolymer dressing. The study enrolled 24 patients requiring skin grafting with mean age of 49 +/- 18. The primary outcome measure was wound healing time. Secondary outcomes, the epithelialization, subjective pain, the scar appearance assessed using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), and skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), were evaluated at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between NFC and copolymer dressings regarding wound healing time, epithelialization, experience of pain, or TEWL. Significant differences were observed in the POSAS results for thickness and vascularity in the Observer score, in the favor of NFC over copolymer dressing. Moreover, skin elasticity was significantly improved with NFC dressing in terms of viscoelasticity and elastic modulus at 1 month postoperatively. Innovation: NFC dressing is a new, green sustainable product for wound treatment without animal or human-origin components. Conclusion: NFC dressing provides efficient wound healing at skin graft donor sites and is comparable or even preferable compared with the copolymer dressing.
  • Huethorst, Eline; Mortensen, Peter; Simitev, Radostin D; Gao, Hao; Pohjolainen, Lotta; Talman, Virpi; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Burton, Francis L; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Smith, Godfrey L (2022)
    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) in monolayers interact mechanically via cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Spatiotemporal features of contraction were analysed in hiPSC-CM monolayers (1) attached to glass or plastic (Young's modulus (E) >1 GPa), (2) detached (substrate-free) and (3) attached to a flexible collagen hydrogel (E = 22 kPa). The effects of isoprenaline on contraction were compared between rigid and flexible substrates. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, further gene expression and computational studies were performed. HiPSC-CM monolayers exhibited multiphasic contractile profiles on rigid surfaces in contrast to hydrogels, substrate-free cultures or single cells where only simple twitch-like time-courses were observed. Isoprenaline did not change the contraction profile on either surface, but its lusitropic and chronotropic effects were greater in hydrogel compared with glass. There was no significant difference between stiff and flexible substrates in regard to expression of the stress-activated genes NPPA and NPPB. A computational model of cell clusters demonstrated similar complex contractile interactions on stiff substrates as a consequence of cell-to-cell functional heterogeneity. Rigid biomaterial surfaces give rise to unphysiological, multiphasic contractions in hi PSC-CM monolayers. Flexible substrates are necessary for normal twitch-like contractility kinetics and interpretation of inotropic interventions.
  • Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Lammi, Mikko J.; Ylärinne, Janne H.; Kauppinen, Sami; Rieppo, Lassi; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Saarakkala, Simo (2017)
    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CE mu CT) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has shown potential for detecting collagen distribution of articular cartilage. However, the selectivity of the PTA staining to articular cartilage constituents remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of PTA for the collagen content in bovine articular cartilage. Adjacent bovine articular cartilage samples were treated with chondroitinase ABC and collagenase to degrade the proteoglycan and the collagen constituents in articular cartilage, respectively. Enzymatically degraded samples were compared to the untreated samples using CE mu CT and reference methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Decrease in the X-ray attenuation of PTA in articular cartilage and collagen content was observed in cartilage depth of 0-13% and deeper in tissue after collagen degradation. Increase in the X-ray attenuation of PTA was observed in the cartilage depth of 13- 39% after proteoglycan degradation. The X-ray attenuation of PTA-labelled articular cartilage in CE mu CT is associated mainly with collagen content but the proteoglycans have a minor effect on the X-ray attenuation of the PTA-labelled articular cartilage. In conclusion, the PTA labeling provides a feasible CE mu CT method for 3D characterization of articular cartilage.
  • Consortium Refractive Error Myopia; UK Biobank Eye Vision Consortium; Fan, Qiao; Pozarickij, Alfred; Tan, Nicholas Y. Q.; Wedenoja, Juho; Pärssinen, Olavi; Hammond, Christopher J. (2020)
    Corneal curvature, a highly heritable trait, is a key clinical endophenotype for myopia - a major cause of visual impairment and blindness in the world. Here we present a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of corneal curvature GWAS in 44,042 individuals of Caucasian and Asian with replication in 88,218 UK Biobank data. We identified 47 loci (of which 26 are novel), with population-specific signals as well as shared signals across ethnicities. Some identified variants showed precise scaling in corneal curvature and eye elongation (i.e. axial length) to maintain eyes in emmetropia (i.e. HDAC11/FBLN2 rs2630445, RBP3 rs11204213); others exhibited association with myopia with little pleiotropic effects on eye elongation. Implicated genes are involved in extracellular matrix organization, developmental process for body and eye, connective tissue cartilage and glycosylation protein activities. Our study provides insights into population-specific novel genes for corneal curvature, and their pleiotropic effect in regulating eye size or conferring susceptibility to myopia. Qiao Fan et al. report a genome-wide association analysis of corneal curvature-an important measurement for identifying vision problems, such as myopia-in more than 45,000 individuals of either European or Asian ancestry. They identify 47 loci, 26 of which are novel, with some showing population-specific effects and pleiotropic effects on eye elongation and myopia.
  • Jääskeläinen, Anniina; Roininen, Nelli; Karihtala, Peeter; Jukkola, Arja (2020)
    While breast cancer prognoses are generally good, different molecular subtypes are known to have varying outcomes. Previous studies using breast cancer registries have suggested that high parity may be an adverse prognostic factor in luminal breast cancer, but breast cancer subtype definitions have varied and there have been few prospective studies. We therefore collected prospective data from patients diagnosed with early breast cancer at a single institution and followed them for a median of 8.5 years. All patients (N= 594) were treated according to Finnish national guidelines using modern treatment modalities in a Finnish university hospital. Clinicopathological surrogates of the intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were updated to match European Society for Medical Oncology 2015 Early Breast Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines. The overall 10-year breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 91.4%, with the longest 10-year BCSS observed in luminal A-like cancers (97.9%) and the worst in luminal B-like (HER2 positive) cancers (80.6%). Parity of >= 5 deliveries was also associated with poor BCSS (univariateP= 0.0020). However, when the subtypes were assessed separately in a multivariate analysis that included tumor size and nodal status, high parity remained significant only in luminal B-like (HER2 negative) cancers (HR = 2.63; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-6.62;P= 0.040). Our results suggest excellent overall 10-year BCSS but indicate that high parity is an adverse prognostic factor in luminal B-like (HER2 negative) breast cancers.
  • Chaves, Larissa Pinceli; Ciantelli, Thales Lippi; Araujo, Diana F. G.; Giacomini, Marina Ciccone; Tjäderhane, Leo; Candia Scaffa, Polliana Mendes; Honorio, Heitor Marques; Wang, Linda (2018)
    Objectives: Enzyme inhibitors minimize the degradation of unprotected collagen of dentin promoted by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs). As the evidence of their effect on the root canal is limited, this study aimed to evaluate the role of EDTA, chlorhexidine and E-64 as antiproteolytic agents on the bond strength (BS) of glass-fiber posts in root canals. Materials and methods: Ninety-six bovine roots were distributed in groups for each time point (n = 8). Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose (MP)/ RelyX ARC system was used to lute the post according to the treatment: negative control (NC)- water, EDTA- 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, CHX- 2% digluconate chlorhexidine, E-64-5- 5 mu M E-64, E-64-10- 10 mu M E-64 and positive control (PC)- MP associated with activator/ catalyst. Then, slices were subjected to push-out test (0.5 nun/min) after 24 h/6 mons. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA/Tukey tests. Failure modes were analyzed (40 x). Results: The factors treatment, time, root canal third and the interaction between treatment and time were statistically significant. At 24 h, no negative interactions were observed among the root dentin, bonding system and post At 6 mons, CHX improved the BS for middle and apical root thirds. Conclusions: CHX was able to promote beneficial BS after 6 mons, which was not noted for any other tested enzyme inhibitors.
  • Gershony, Liza C.; Belanger, Janelle M.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Oberbauer, Anita M. (2019)
    Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) is characterized by inflammation of the nail bed and nail sloughing that causes affected dogs considerable pain. Disease etiology remains unclear, although an autoimmune component is suspected. A genome-wide association study on Bearded Collies revealed regions of association on canine chromosomes (CFA) 12 and 17. The large region of association on CFA12 likely consists of two smaller linked regions, both of which are also linked to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II genes. Dogs homozygous for the alternate allele at the top CFA12 SNP also carried two DLA class II risk haplotypes for SLO, and this locus explained most of the increased risk for disease seen throughout the CFA12 region of association. A stronger peak was seen on CFA17 when analysis was done solely on dogs that carried DLA class II risk haplotypes for SLO. The majority of SLO dogs carried a homozygous alternate genotype on CFA12 and at least one CFA17 risk haplotype. Our findings offer progress toward uncovering the genetic basis of SLO. While the contribution of the CFA17 region remains unclear, both CFA12 and CFA17 regions are significantly associated with SLO disease expression in the Bearded Collie and contain potential candidate genes for this disease.
  • Gomes-Silva, Wagner; Prado-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina; Brandao, Thais Bianca; Morais-Faria, Karina; de Castro Junior, Gilberto; Mak, Milena Perez; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Rocha, Marcelo Marques; Salo, Tuula; Tjaderhane, Leo; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger (2017)
    Recent evidence suggests that head-and-neck radiotherapy (HNRT) increases active forms of matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) in human tooth crowns, degrading the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) and leading to enamel delamination, which is a pivotal step in the formation of radiation-related caries (RRC). Additional participation of enzymatic degradation of organic matrix components in caries progression was attributed to MMP-20 in dentin. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that MMP-20 is overexpressed in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin of post-HNRT patients, leading to detectable micromorphological changes to the enamel and dentin. Thirty-six teeth were studied, including 19 post-HNRT specimens and 17 nonirradiated controls. Optical light microscopy was used to investigate the micromorphological components of the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin. The samples were divided into 2 subgroups: nondemineralized ground sections (n = 20) and demineralized histological sections (n = 16). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis using the immunoperoxidase technique was conducted to semiquantitatively assess MMP-20 expression in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin. No apparent damage to the DEJ microstructure or other dentin-pulp complex components was observed and no statistically significant differences were detected in MMP-20 expression (p > 0.05) between the irradiated and control groups. This study rejected the hypothesis that MMP-20 is overexpressed in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin of post-HNRT patients, leading to detectable micromorphological changes. Hence, direct effects of radiation may not be regarded as an independent factor to explain aggressive clinical patterns of RRC. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Eriksson, Johanna; Le Joncour, Vadim; Jahkola, Tiina; Juteau, Susanna; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Saksela, Olli; Hölttä, Erkki (2020)
    Abstract Melanoma is an unpredictable, highly metastatic malignancy, and treatment of advanced melanoma remains challenging. Novel molecular markers based on the alterations in gene expression and the molecular pathways activated or deactivated during melanoma progression are needed for predicting the course of the disease already in primary tumors and for providing new targets for therapy. Here, we sought to identify genes whose expression in primary melanomas correlate with patient disease-specific survival using global gene expression profiling. Many of the identified potential markers of poor prognosis were associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, extracellular matrix formation, and angiogenesis. We studied further the significance of one of the genes, prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha 1 (P4HA1), in melanoma progression. P4HA1 depletion in melanoma cells reduced cell adhesion, invasion, and viability in vitro. In melanoma xenograft assays, we found that P4HA1 knockdown reduced melanoma tumor invasion as well as the deposition of collagens, particularly type IV collagen, in the interstitial extracellular matrix and in the basement membranes of tumor blood vessels, leading to vessel wall rupture and hemorrhages. Further, P4HA1 knockdown reduced the secretion of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1), an important mediator of melanoma cell migration and invasion, in vitro and its deposition around tumor blood vessels in vivo. Taken together, P4HA1 is an interesting potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target in primary melanomas, influencing many aspects of melanoma tumor progression.
  • Durre, Tania; Morfoisse, Florent; Erpicum, Charlotte; Ebroin, Marie; Blacher, Silvia; Garcia-Caballero, Melissa; Deroanne, Christophe; Louis, Thomas; Balsat, Cedric; Van de Velde, Maureen; Kaijalainen, Seppo; Kridelka, Frederic; Engelholm, Lars; Struman, Ingrid; Alitalo, Kari; Behrendt, Niels; Paupert, Jenny; Noel, Agnes (2018)
    The development of new lymphatic vessels occurs in many cancerous and inflammatory diseases through the binding of VEGF-C to its receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. The regulation of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 heterodimerisation and its downstream signaling in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the endocytic receptor, uPARAP, as a partner of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 that regulates their heterodimerisation. Genetic ablation of uPARAP leads to hyperbranched lymphatic vasculatures in pathological conditions without affecting concomitant angiogenesis. In vitro, uPARAP controls LEC migration in response to VEGF-C but not VEGF-A or VEGF-CCys156Ser. uPARAP restricts VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 heterodimerisation and subsequent VEGFR-2-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of Crk-II adaptor. uPARAP promotes VEGFR-3 signaling through the Crk-II/JNK/paxillin/Rac1 pathway. Pharmacological Rac1 inhibition in uPARAP knockout mice restores the wild-type phenotype. In summary, our study identifies a molecular regulator of lymphangiogenesis, and uncovers novel molecular features of VEGFR-2/VEGFR-3 crosstalk and downstream signaling during VEGF-C-driven LEC sprouting in pathological conditions.
  • Seseogullari-Dirihan, R.; Apollonio, F.; Mazzoni, A.; Tjaderhane, L.; Pashley, D.; Breschi, L.; Tezvergil-Mutluay, A. (2016)
    Objectives. This study evaluated the endogenous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity of demineralized dentin matrix following 1 or 5 min pretreatment by various collagen crosslinkers. Generic MMP activity assay, total protein analysis, in situ zymography, gelatin zymography and multiplex bead technology were used to evaluate matrix-bound MMP activity. Methods. Six different crosslinkers; glutaraldehyde, riboflavin/UVA, riboflavin-5-monophospate/UVA, sumac berry extract, grape seed extract, and curcumin were used. Demineralized dentin beams were pretreated with respective crosslinkers for 1 or 5 min. Demineralized dentin beams with no crosslinker pretreatment served as control. The reduction in the total activity of dentin matrices were measured using generic MMP activity assay. Dentin slabs were used for in situ zymography and evaluated by using hydrolysis of self-quenched fluorescein-conjugated gelatin under confocal microscopy. Dentin beam extracts were used for total protein assay and multiplex analysis and powder extracts were used for gelatin zymography. Results. MMP activity in crosslinker pretreated samples decreased significantly between 21% and 70%, whereas untreated control samples' activity increased up to 84%. Zymograms confirmed a decrease in the gelatinolytic activity and in the amount of extractable total protein content. Multiplex analysis of extracts of crosslinker-treated dentin showed a reduction in the MMP-8, MMP-2 and MMP-9 release. Significance. The result of this work suggests that the effect of the crosslinkers is source dependent. The use of crosslinkers for as little as 1 min on demineralized dentin can inactivate the endogenous protease activity of dentin matrices. (C) 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.