Browsing by Subject "COLLAPSE"

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  • Dutta, Somnath; Lee, Chin-Fei; Liu, Tie; Hirano, Naomi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kim, Kee-Tae; Shang, Hsien; Sahu, Dipen; Kim, Gwanjeong; Moraghan, Anthony; Jhan, Kai-Syun; Hsu, Shih-Ying; Evans, Neal J.; Johnstone, Doug; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Traficante, Alessio; Juvela, Mika; Vastel, Charlotte; Zhang, Qizhou; Sanhueza, Patricio; Soam, Archana; Kwon, Woojin; Bronfman, Leonardo; Eden, David; Goldsmith, Paul F.; He, Jinhua; Wu, Yuefang; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Qin, Sheng-Li; Li, Shanghuo; Li, Di (2020)
    Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) are considered to be the ideal targets to probe the early phases of star formation. We have conducted a survey of 72 young dense cores inside PGCCs in the Orion complex with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.3 mm (band 6) using three different configurations (resolutions similar to 035, 10, and 70) to statistically investigate their evolutionary stages and substructures. We have obtained images of the 1.3 mm continuum and molecular line emission ((CO)-C-12, and SiO) at an angular resolution of similar to 035 (similar to 140 au) with the combined arrays. We find 70 substructures within 48 detected dense cores with median dust mass similar to 0.093 M and deconvolved size similar to 027. Dense substructures are clearly detected within the central 1000 au of four candidate prestellar cores. The sizes and masses of the substructures in continuum emission are found to be significantly reduced with protostellar evolution from Class 0 to Class I. We also study the evolutionary change in the outflow characteristics through the course of protostellar mass accretion. A total of 37 sources exhibit CO outflows, and 20 (>50%) show high-velocity jets in SiO. The CO velocity extents (Delta Vs) span from 4 to 110 km s(-1) with outflow cavity opening angle width at 400 au ranging from [Theta(obs)](400) similar to 06-39, which corresponds to 334-1257. For the majority of the outflow sources, the Delta Vs show a positive correlation with [Theta(obs)](400), suggesting that as protostars undergo gravitational collapse, the cavity opening of a protostellar outflow widens and the protostars possibly generate more energetic outflows.
  • Ogalde, J. P.; Korpisaari, A.; Riera-Soto, C.; Arriaza, B.; Paipa, C.; Leyton, P.; Campos-Vallette, M.; Lara, N.; Chacama, J. (2020)
    The chemical and mineralogical characterization of seven ceramic fragments produced within Tiwanaku state (c.500-1000 ce) is reported. The instrumental techniques used included X-ray elemental and mineralogical chemical analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning and light microscopy. The results indicate there are several clay types, although they show similarities, such as the use of a plant-based temper. The red colour of the decoration is hematite, and manganese oxides such as jacobsite are present in the black. The white colour is a mixture of gypsum and clay, and the orange is a mixture of hematite and clay. The use of colours, the quality of the clays and the temperatures reached during pottery firing point to expertise in ceramic production and to complex decision-making processes. The multi-elemental archaeometric approach documented here could become an important tool to shed a light on ancient ceramic technology and the internal variance of Tiwanaku pottery.
  • Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Joern O.; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Moellmann, Christian (2014)
  • Liu, Hong-Li; Tej, Anandmayee; Liu, Tie; Issac, Namitha; Saha, Anindya; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Qizhou; Qin, Sheng-Li; Wang, Ke; Li, Shanghuo; Soam, Archana; Dewangan, Lokesh; Lee, Chang Won; Li, Pak-Shing; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Ren, Zhiyuan; Juvela, Mika; Bronfman, Leonardo; Wu, Yue-Fang; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Chen, Xi; Li, Di; Stutz, Amelia; Zhang, Siju; Tóth, L. Viktor; Luo, Qiu-Yi; Xu, Feng-Wei; Li, Jinzeng; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jianwen; Zhang, Chao; Tang, Mengyao; Zhang, Chao; Baug, Tapas; Mannfors, Emma Elisa; Chakali, Eswaraiah; Dutta, Somnath (2022)
    We present new 3-mm continuum and molecular lines observations from the ATOMS survey towards the massive protostellar clump, MM1, located in the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC), G034.43+00.24 (G34). The lines observed are the tracers of either dense gas (e.g. HCO+/(HCO+)-C-13 J= 1-0) or outflows (e.g. CS J = 2-1). The most complete picture to date of seven cores in MM1 is revealed by dust continuum emission. These cores are found to be gravitationally bound, with virial parameter, alpha(vir) < 2. At least four outflows are identified in MM1 with a total outflowing mass of similar to 45 M-circle dot, and a total energy of 1 x 10(47) erg, typical of outflows from a B0-type star. Evidence of hierarchical fragmentation, where turbulence dominates over thermal pressure, is observed at both the cloud and the clump scales. This could be linked to the scale-dependent, dynamical mass inflow/accretion on clump and core scales. We therefore suggest that the G34 cloud could be undergoing a dynamical mass inflow/accretion process linked to the multiscale fragmentation, which leads to the sequential formation of fragments of the initial cloud, clumps, and ultimately dense cores, the sites of star formation.
  • Karjalainen, Olli; Luoto, Miska; Aalto, Juha; Etzelmuller, Bernd; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lilleoren, Karianne S.; Hjort, Jan (2020)
    The presence of ground ice in Arctic soils exerts a major effect on permafrost hydrology and ecology, and factors prominently into geomorphic landform development. As most ground ice has accumulated in near-surface permafrost, it is sensitive to variations in atmospheric conditions. Typical and regionally widespread permafrost landforms such as pingos, ice-wedge polygons, and rock glaciers are closely tied to ground ice. However, under ongoing climate change, suitable environmental spaces for preserving landforms associated with ice-rich permafrost may be rapidly disappearing. We deploy a statistical ensemble approach to model, for the first time, the current and potential future environmental conditions of three typical permafrost landforms, pingos, ice-wedge polygons and rock glaciers across the Northern Hemisphere. We show that by midcentury, the landforms are projected to lose more than one-fifth of their suitable environments under a moderate climate scenario (RCP4.5) and on average around one-third under a very high baseline emission scenario (RCP8.5), even when projected new suitable areas for occurrence are considered. By 2061-2080, on average more than 50% of the recent suitable conditions can be lost (RCP8.5). In the case of pingos and ice-wedge polygons, geographical changes are mainly attributed to alterations in thawing-season precipitation and air temperatures. Rock glaciers show air temperature-induced regional changes in suitable conditions strongly constrained by topography and soil properties. The predicted losses could have important implications for Arctic hydrology, geo- and biodiversity, and to the global climate system through changes in biogeochemical cycles governed by the geomorphology of permafrost landscapes. Moreover, our projections provide insights into the circumpolar distribution of various ground ice types and help inventory permafrost landforms in unmapped regions.
  • Pooch, Fabian; Teltevskij, Valerij; Karjalainen, Erno; Tenhu, Heikki; Winnik, Francoise M. (2019)
    At room temperature, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is soluble in water and methanol, but it is not soluble in certain water/methanol mixtures. This phenomenon, known as cononsolvency, has been explored in great detail experimentally and theoretically in an attempt to understand the complex interactions occurring in the ternary PNIPAM/water/co-nonsolvent system. Yet little is known about the effects of the polymer structure on cononsolvency. To address this point, we investigated the temperature-dependent solution properties in water, methanol, and mixtures of the two solvents of poly(2-cyclopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PcyPOx) and two structural isomers of PNIPAM (M-n similar to 11 kg/mol): poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PiPOx) and poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) (PnPOx). The phase diagram of the ternary water/methanol/poly(2-propyl-2-oxazolines) (PPOx) systems, constructed based on cloud point (T-CP) measurements, revealed that PnPOx exhibits cononsolvency in water/methanol mixtures. In contrast, methanol acts as a cosolvent for PiPOx and PcyPOx in water. The enthalpy, Delta H, and temperature, T-max, of the coil-to-globule transition of the three polymers in various water/methanol mixtures were measured by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. T-max follows the same trends as T-CP, confirming the cononsolvency of PnPOx and the cosolvency of PiPOx and PcyPOx. Delta H decreases linearly as a function of the methanol content for all PPOx systems. Ancillary high-resolution H-1 NMR spectroscopy studies of PPOx solutions in D2O and methanol-d(4), coupled with DOSY and NOESY experiments revealed that the n-propyl group of PnPOx rotates freely in D2O, whereas the rotation of the isopropyl and cyclopropyl groups of PiPOx and PcyPOx, respectively, is limited due to steric restriction. This factor appears to play an important role in the case of the PPOxs/water/methanol ternary system.
  • Park, Geumsook; Kim, Kee-Tae; Johnstone, Doug; Kang, Sung-ju; Liu, Tie; Mairs, Steve; Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanhueza, Patricio; Juvela, Mika; Kang, Miju; Eden, David; Soam, Archana; Montillaud, Julien; Fuller, Gary A.; Koch, Patrick M.; Lee, Chang Won; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Rawlings, Jonathan; Kim, Gwanjeong; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Kwon, Woojin; Yoo, Hyunju (2019)
    In the early stages of star formation, a protostar is deeply embedded in an optically thick envelope such that it is not directly observable. Variations in the protostellar accretion rate, however, will cause luminosity changes that are reprocessed by the surrounding envelope and are observable at submillimeter wavelengths. We searched for submillimeter flux variability toward 12 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps detected by the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)-SCUBA-2 Continuum Observations of Pre-protostellar Evolution (SCOPE) survey. These observations were conducted at 850 mu m using the JCMT/SCUBA-2. Each field was observed three times over about 14 months between 2016 April and 2017 June. We applied a relative flux calibration and achieved a calibration uncertainty of similar to 3.6% on average. We identified 136 clumps across 12 fields and detected four sources with flux variations of similar to 30%. For three of these sources, the variations appear to be primarily due to large-scale contamination, leaving one plausible candidate. The flux change of the candidate may be associated with low- or intermediate-mass star formation assuming a distance of 1.5 kpc, although we cannot completely rule out the possibility that it is a random deviation. Further studies with dedicated monitoring would provide a better understanding of the detailed relationship between submillimeter flux and accretion rate variabilities while enhancing the search for variability in star-forming clumps farther away than the Gould Belt.
  • Perra, Emanuele; Lampsijarvi, Eetu; Barreto, Goncalo; Arif, Muhammad; Puranen, Tuomas; Haeggström, Edward; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J. (2021)
    Despite the ubiquitous use over the past 150 years, the functions of the current medical needle are facilitated only by mechanical shear and cutting by the needle tip, i.e. the lancet. In this study, we demonstrate how nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) extends the functionality of the medical needle far beyond its present capability. The NLU actions were found to be localized to the proximity of the needle tip, the SonoLancet, but the effects extend to several millimeters from the physical needle boundary. The observed nonlinear phenomena, transient cavitation, fluid streams, translation of micro- and nanoparticles and atomization, were quantitatively characterized. In the fine-needle biopsy application, the SonoLancet contributed to obtaining tissue cores with an increase in tissue yield by 3-6x in different tissue types compared to conventional needle biopsy technique using the same 21G needle. In conclusion, the SonoLancet could be of interest to several other medical applications, including drug or gene delivery, cell modulation, and minimally invasive surgical procedures.
  • Jiguet, Frederic; Robert, Alexandre; Lorrilliere, Romain; Hobson, Keith A.; Kardynal, Kevin J.; Arlettaz, Raphael; Bairlein, Franz; Belik, Viktor; Bernardy, Petra; Copete, Jose Luis; Czajkowski, Michel Alexandre; Dale, Svein; Dombrovski, Valery; Ducros, Delphine; Efrat, Ron; Elts, Jaanus; Ferrand, Yves; Marja, Riho; Minkevicius, Simonas; Olsson, Peter; Perez, Marc; Piha, Markus; Rakovic, Marko; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Seimola, Tuomas; Selstam, Gunnar; Siblet, Jean-Philippe; Skierczynski, Michal; Sokolov, Alexandr; Sondell, Jan; Moussy, Caroline (2019)
    In France, illegal hunting of the endangered ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana has been defended for the sake of tradition and gastronomy. Hunters argued that ortolan buntings trapped in southwest France originate from large and stable populations across the whole of Europe. Yet, the European Commission referred France to the Court of Justice of the European Union (EU) in December 2016 for infringements to legislation (IP/16/4213). To better assess the impact of hunting in France, we combined Pan-European data from archival light loggers, stable isotopes, and genetics to determine the migration strategy of the species across continents. Ortolan buntings migrating through France come from northern and western populations, which are small, fragmented and declining. Population viability modeling further revealed that harvesting in southwest France is far from sustainable and increases extinction risk. These results provide the sufficient scientific evidence for justifying the ban on ortolan harvesting in France.