Browsing by Subject "COLLECTIVE FLOW"

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  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The first measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients v(n) for mid-rapidity charged particles in Xe-Xe collisions at root s(NN)=5.44TeV are presented. Comparing these measurements to those from Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=5.02 TeV, v(2) is found to be suppressed for mid-central collisions at the same centrality, and enhanced for central collisions. The values of v(3) are generally larger in Xe-Xe than in Pb-Pb at a given centrality. These observations are consistent with expectations from hydrodynamic predictions. When both v(2) and v(3) are divided by their corresponding eccentricities for a variety of initial state models, they generally scale with transverse density when comparing Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb, with some deviations observed in central Xe-Xe and Pb-Pb collisions. These results assist in placing strong constraints on both the initial state geometry and medium response for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. (c) 2018 European Organization for Nuclear Research. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The elliptic azimuthal anisotropy coefficient (upsilon(2)) is measured for charm (D-0) and strange (K-S(0), Lambda, Xi(-), and Omega(-)) hadrons, using a data sample of p + Pb collisions collected by the CMS experiment, at a nucleonnucleon center-of- mass energy of root(NN)-N-s = 8.16 TeV. A significant positive upsilon(2) signal from long- range azimuthal correlations is observed for all particle species in high- multiplicity p + Pb collisions. The measurement represents the first observation of possible long-range collectivity for open heavy flavor hadrons in small systems. The results suggest that charm quarks have a smaller upsilon(2) than the lighter quarks, probably reflecting a weaker collective behavior. This effect is not seen in the larger PbPb collision system at root(NN)-N-s = 5.02 TeV, also presented.
  • Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H. (2016)
    The elliptic flow, v(2), of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity (2.5 <y <4) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)= 2.76TeVwith the ALICE detector at the LHC. The scalar product, two- and four-particle Q cumulants and Lee-Yang zeros methods are used. The dependence of the v(2) of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays on the collision centrality, in the range 0-40%, and on transverse momentum, p(T), is studied in the interval 3 <p(T)<10 GeV/c. A positive v(2) is observed with the scalar product and two-particle Q cumulants in semi-central collisions (10-20% and 20-40% centrality classes) for the p(T) interval from 3 to about 5GeV/c with a significance larger than 3 sigma, based on the combination of statistical and systematic uncertainties. The v(2) magnitude tends to decrease towards more central collisions and with increasing pT. It becomes compatible with zero in the interval 6 <p(T)<10 GeV/c. The results are compared to models describing the interaction of heavy quarks and open heavy-flavour hadrons with the high-density medium formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The second and the third order anisotropic flow, V-2 and V-3, are mostly determined by the corresponding initial spatial anisotropy coefficients, epsilon(2) and epsilon(3), in the initial density distribution. In addition to their dependence on the same order initial anisotropy coefficient, higher order anisotropic flow, Vn(n > 3), can also have a significant contribution from lower order initial anisotropy coefficients, which leads to mode-coupling effects. In this Letter we investigate the linear and non-linear modes in higher order anisotropic flow V-n for n = 4, 5, 6 with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are done for particles in the pseudorapidity range |eta| <0.8 and the transverse momentum range 0.2 <p(T)<5.0 GeV/c as a function of collision centrality. The results are compared with theoretical calculations and provide important constraints on the initial conditions, including initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations, as well as the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density of the produced system. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Aidala, C.; Kim, D. J.; PHENIX Collaboration (2017)
    We present measurements of the elliptic flow (v(2)) as a function of transverse momentum (p(T)), pseudorapidity (eta), and centrality in d + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200, 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV. The beam-energy scan of d + Au collisions provides a testing ground for the onset of flow signatures in small collision systems. We measure a nonzero v(2) signal at all four collision energies, which, at midrapidity and low p(T), is consistent with predictions from viscous hydrodynamic models. Comparisons with calculations from parton transport models (based on the AMPT Monte Carlo generator) show good agreement with the data at midrapidity to forward (d-going) rapidities and low p(T). At backward (Au-going) rapidities and p(T) > 1.5GeV/c, the data diverges from AMPT calculations of v(2) relative to the initial geometry, indicating the possible dominance of nongeometry related correlations, referred to as nonflow. We also present measurements of the charged-particle multiplicity (d N-ch/d eta) as a function of eta in central d + Au collisions at the same energies. We find that in d + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV the v(2) scales with d N-ch/d eta over all eta in the PHENIX acceptance. At root s(NN) = 62.4, and 39 GeV, v(2) scales with d N-ch/d eta at midrapidity and forward rapidity, but falls off at backward rapidity. This departure from the d N-ch/d eta scaling may be a further indication of nonflow effects dominating at backward rapidity.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Correlations between moments of different flow coefficients are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. These new measurements are based on multiparticle mixed harmonic cumulants calculated using charged particles in the pseudorapidity region vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8 with the transverse momentum range 0.2 < p(T) < 5.0 GeV/c. The centrality dependence of correlations between two flow coefficients as well as the correlations between three flow coefficients, both in terms of their second moments, are shown. In addition, a collection of mixed harmonic cumulants involving higher moments of v(2) and v(3) is measured for the first time, where the characteristic signature of negative, positive and negative signs of four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants are observed, respectively. The measurements are compared to the hydrodynamic calculations using iEBE-VISHNU with AMPT and TRENTo initial conditions. It is shown that the measurements carried out using the LHC Run 2 data in 2015 have the precision to explore the details of initial-state fluctuations and probe the nonlinear hydrodynamic response of v(2) and v(3) to their corresponding initial anisotropy coefficients epsilon(2) and epsilon(3). These new studies on correlations between three flow coefficients as well as correlations between higher moments of two different flow coefficients will pave the way to tighten constraints on initial-state models and help to extract precise information on the dynamic evolution of the hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (C) 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search has been performed for heavy resonances decaying to ZZ or ZW in 2l2q final states, with two charged leptons (l = e, mu) produced by the decay of a Z boson, and two quarks produced by the decay of a W or Z boson. The analysis is sensitive to resonances with masses in the range from 400 to 4500 GeV. Two categories are defined based on the merged or resolved reconstruction of the hadronically decaying vector boson, optimized for high- and low-mass resonances, respectively. The search is based on data collected during 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). No excess is observed in the data above the standard model background expectation. Upper limits on the production cross section of heavy, narrow spin-1 and spin-2 resonances are derived as a function of the resonance mass, and exclusion limits on the production of W' bosons and bulk graviton particles are calculated in the framework of the heavy vector triplet model and warped extra dimensions, respectively.
  • PHENIX Collaboration; Adare, A.; Kim, D. J.; Novitzky, N.; Rak, J. (2018)
    Asymmetric nuclear collisions of p + Al, p + Au, d + Au, and He-3 + Au at root S-NN = 200 GeV provide an excellent laboratory for understanding particle production, as well as exploring interactions among these particles after their initial creation in the collision. We present measurements of charged hadron production dN(ch)/d eta in all such collision systems over a broad pseudorapidity range and as a function of collision multiplicity. A simple wounded quark model is remarkably successful at describing the full data set. We also measure the elliptic flow 12 over a similarly broad pseudorapidity range. These measurements provide key constraints on models of particle emission and their translation into flow.
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb-Pb collisions at root S-NN 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at root S-NN 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order flow vector in the pseudorapidity region vertical bar eta vertical bar 0.8 as a function of centrality and transverse momentum pT using two observables, to search for evidence of PT-dependent flow vector fluctuations. For Ph-Ph collisions at 2.76 TeV, the measurements indicate that PT-dependent fluctuations are only present for the second order flow vector. Similar results have been found for p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic model calculations with event-by-event geometry fluctuations in the initial state to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties of the matter created in Ph-Ph and p-Pb collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The correlations between event-by-event fluctuations of anisotropic flow harmonic amplitudes have been measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The results are reported in terms of multiparticle correlation observables dubbed symmetric cumulants. These observables are robust against biases originating from nonflow effects. The centrality dependence of correlations between the higher order harmonics (the quadrangular v(4) and pentagonal v(5) flow) and the lower order harmonics (the elliptic v(2) and triangular v(3) flow) is presented. The transverse momentum dependences of correlations between v(3) and v(2) and between v(4) and v(2) are also reported. The results are compared to calculations from viscous hydrodynamics and a multiphase transport (AMPT) model calculations. The comparisons to viscous hydrodynamic models demonstrate that the different order harmonic correlations respond differently to the initial conditions and the temperature dependence of the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density (eta/s). Asmall average value of eta/s is favored independent of the specific choice of initial conditions in the models. The calculations with the AMPT initial conditions yield results closest to the measurements. Correlations among the magnitudes of v(2), v(3), and v(4) show moderate p(T) dependence in midcentral collisions. This might be an indication of possible viscous corrections to the equilibrium distribution at hadronic freeze-out, which might help to understand the possible contribution of bulk viscosity in the hadronic phase of the system. Together with existing measurements of individual flow harmonics, the presented results provide further constraints on the initial conditions and the transport properties of the system produced in heavy-ion collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Vargyas, M. (2019)
    We present measurements of two-particle differential number correlation functions R-2 and transverse momentum correlation functions P-2, obtained from p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The results are obtained by using charged particles in the pseudorapidity range vertical bar eta vertical bar <1.0 and transverse momentum range 0.2 <p(T) <2.0 GeV/c as a function of pair separation in pseudorapidity, vertical bar Delta eta vertical bar, azimuthal angle Delta phi, and for several charged-particle multiplicity classes. Measurements are carried out for like-sign and unlike-sign charged-particle pairs separately and combined to obtain charge-independent and charge-dependent correlation functions. We study the evolution of the width of the near-side peak of these correlation functions with collision centrality. Additionally, we study Fourier decompositions of the correlators in Delta phi as a function of pair separation vertical bar Delta eta vertical bar. Significant differences in the dependence of their harmonic coefficients on multiplicity classes are found. These differences can be exploited, in theoretical models, to obtain further insight into charged-particle production and transport in heavy-ion collisions. Moreover, an upper limit of nonflow contributions to flow coefficients nu(n) measured in Pb-Pb collisions based on the relative strength of Fourier coefficients measured in p-Pb interactions is estimated.