Browsing by Subject "COLLISION CASCADES"

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  • Lehtola, Susi (2020)
    Knowledge of the repulsive behavior of potential energy curves V (R) at R -> 0 is necessary for understanding and modeling irradiation processes of practical interest. V (R) is in principle straightforward to obtain from electronic structure calculations; however, commonly used numerical approaches for electronic structure calculations break down in the strongly repulsive region due to the closeness of the nuclei. In this work, we show by comparison to fully numerical reference values that a recently developed procedure [S. Lehtola, J. Chem. Phys. 151, 241102 (2019)] can be employed to enable accurate linear combination of atomic orbitals calculations of V (R) even at small R by a study of the seven nuclear reactions He-2 (sic) Be, HeNe (sic) Mg, Ne-2 (sic) Ca, HeAr (sic) Ca, MgAr (sic) Zn, Ar-2 (sic) Kr, and NeCa (sic) Zn.
  • Holmstrom, E.; Kotakoski, J.; Lechner, L.; Kaiser, U.; Nordlund, K. (2012)
  • Sand, A. E.; Mason, D. R.; De Backer, A.; Yi, X.; Dudarev, S. L.; Nordlund, K. (2017)
    The sizes of defect clusters, produced in materials by energetic ion or neutron impacts, are critically important input for models describing microstructural evolution of irradiated materials. We propose a model for the distribution of sizes of vacancy and self-interstitial defect clusters formed by high-energy impacts in tungsten, and provide new data from in situ ion irradiation experiments to validate the model. The model predicts the statistics of sub-cascade splitting and the resulting distribution of primary defects extending over the entire range of cluster sizes, and is able to provide initial conditions for quantitative multi-scale simulations of microstructural evolution. [GRAPHICS] .
  • Sand, A.E.; Byggmästar, J.; Zitting, A.; Nordlund, K. (2018)
    Most experimental work on radiation damage is performed to fairly high doses, where cascade overlap effects come into play, yet atomistic simulations of the primary radiation damage have mainly been performed in initially perfect lattice. Here, we investigate the primary damage produced by energetic ion or neutron impacts in bcc Fe and W. We model irradiation effects at high fluence through atomistic simulations of cascades in pre-damaged systems. The effects of overlap provide new insights into the processes governing the formation under irradiation of extended defects. We find that cascade overlap leads to an increase in the numbers of large clusters in Fe, while in W such an effect is not seen. A significant shift in the morphology of the primary damage is also observed, including the formation of complex defect structures that have not been previously reported in the literature. These defects are highly self-immobilized, shifting the damage away from the predominance of mobile 1/2〈111〉 loops towards more immobile initial configurations. In Fe, where cascade collapse is extremely rare in molecular dynamics simulations of individual cascades, we observe the formation of vacancy-type dislocation loops from cascade collapse as a result of cascade overlap.
  • Mason, D. R.; Sand, A. E.; Yi, X.; Dudarev, S. L. (2018)
    Recently we have presented direct experimental evidence for large defect clusters being formed in primary damage cascades in self-ion irradiated tungsten [Yi et al., EPL 110:36001 (2015)]. This large size is significant, as it implies that strong elastic interaction between the defects will affect their subsequent evolution, especially if defects are formed close together. Here we present a direct experimental observation of the separation between visible defects in self-ion irradiated tungsten, in the form of a 2d pairwise radial distribution function extracted from transmission electron micrographs (TEM). We also present a detailed analysis of the observed radial distribution function, and infer the probable size and shape of individual cascades. We propose and validate a simple exponential form for the spatial distribution of defects within a single cascade. The cascade statistics necessary have been acquired by developing an automated procedure for analysing black-dot damage in TEM micrographs. We confirm that the same model also produces a high-quality fit to the separation between larger defects observed in MD simulations. For the first time we present experimental evidence for the sub-nanometre-scale spatial distribution of defect clusters within individual cascades. (C) 2017 EURATOM. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Byggmästar, J.; Granberg, F.; Nordlund, K. (2018)
    Recent work has shown that the repulsive part of the interatomic potential at intermediate atomic separations strongly affects the extent and morphology of the damage produced by collision cascades in molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we modify an existing embedded atom method interatomic potential for iron to more accurately reproduce the threshold displacement energy surface as well as the many-body repulsion at intermediate and short interatomic distances. Using the modified potential, we explore the effects of an improved repulsive potential on the primary damage production and the cumulative damage accumulation in iron. We find that the extent of the damage produced by single cascades, in terms of surviving Frenkel pairs, directly correlates with the change in threshold displacement energies. On the other hand, the damage evolution at higher doses is more dependent on the formation and stability of different defect clusters, defined by the near-equilibrium part of the interatomic potential.
  • Zhao, Junlei; Cao, Lu; Palmer, Richard E.; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2017)
    In this paper, we study the mechanisms of growth of Ag nanoclusters in a solid Ar matrix and the emission of these nanoclusters from the matrix by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The molecular dynamics simulations show that the cluster growth mechanism can be described as "thermal spike-enhanced clustering" in multiple sequential ion impact events. We further show that experimentally observed large sputtered metal clusters cannot be formed by direct sputtering of Ag mixed in the Ar. Instead, we describe the mechanism of emission of the metal nanocluster that, at first, is formed in the cryogenic matrix due to multiple ion impacts, and then is emitted as a result of the simultaneous effects of interface boiling and spring force. We also develop an analytical model describing this size-dependent cluster emission. The model bridges the atomistic simulations and experimental time and length scales, and allows increasing the controllability of fast generation of nanoclusters in experiments with a high production rate.
  • Nordlund, Kai; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Averback, Robert S.; Stoller, Roger; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei L.; Simeone, David (2018)
    Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Extensive experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations. In particular, the number of radiation defects produced in energetic cascades in metals is only similar to 1/3 the NRT-dpa prediction, while the number of atoms involved in atomic mixing is about a factor of 30 larger than the dpa value. Here we propose two new complementary displacement production estimators (athermal recombination corrected dpa, arc-dpa) and atomic mixing (replacements per atom, rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa by providing more physically realistic descriptions of primary defect creation in materials and may become additional standard measures for radiation damage quantification.
  • Hamedani, A.; Byggmästar, J.; Djurabekova, F.; Alahyarizadeh, G.; Ghaderi, R.; Minuchehr, A.; Nordlund, K. (2020)
    We develop a silicon Gaussian approximation machine learning potential suitable for radiation effects, and use it for the first ab initio simulation of primary damage and evolution of collision cascades. The model reliability is confirmed by good reproduction of experimentally measured threshold displacement energies and sputtering yields. We find that clustering and recrystallization of radiation-induced defects, propagation pattern of cascades, and coordination defects in the heat spike phase show striking differences to the widely used analytical potentials. The results reveal that small defect clusters are predominant and show new defect structures such as a vacancy surrounded by three interstitials. Impact statement Quantum-mechanical level of accuracy in simulation of primary damage was achieved by a silicon machine learning potential. The results show quantitative and qualitative differences from the damage predicted by any previous models.
  • Henriksson, K. O. E.; Nordlund, K. (2015)
    The effect of strain on the amount of point defects created in Fe and Cr carbide inclusions embedded in ferrite has been investigated. The spherical carbide inclusions consisted of either Fe3C or Cr23C6. Recoil energies from 100 eV to 3 keV and strains from -0.15 (compressive) to 0.01 (tensile) were used. The overall tendency is that the number of point defects - such as antisites, vacancy and interstitials - inside the carbide is lowered when the strain grows more negative (compressive). Outside the carbides, the number of defects is markedly higher for strongly compressive strains than for e.g. zero strain, especially at high energies. (C) 2015 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • Levo, E.; Granberg, F.; Fridlund, C.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F. (2017)
    Single-phase multicomponent alloys of equal atomic concentrations ("equiatomic") have proven to exhibit promising mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, that are sought after in materials intended for use in hazardous environments like next-generation nuclear reactors. In this article, we investigate the damage production and dislocation mobility by simulating irradiation of elemental Ni and the alloys NiCo, NiCoCr, NiCoFe and NiFe, to assess the effect of elemental composition. We compare the defect production and the evolution of dislocation networks in the simulation cells of two different sizes, for all five studied materials. We find that the trends in defect evolution are in good agreement between the different cell sizes. The damage is generally reduced with increased alloy complexity, and the dislocation evolution is specific to each material, depending on its complexity. We show that increasing complexity of the alloys does not always lead to decreased susceptibility to damage accumulation under irradiation. We show that, for instance, the NiCo alloy behaves very similarly to Ni, while presence of Fe or Cr in the alloy even as a third component reduces the saturated level of damage substantially. Moreover, we linked the defect evolution with the dislocation transformations in the alloys. Sudden drops in defect number and large defect fluctuations from the continuous irradiation can be explained from the dislocation activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Karaseov, P. A.; Karabeshkin, K. V.; Titov, A. I.; Ullah, Mohammad W.; Kuronen, A.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Ermolaeva, G. M.; Shilov, V. B. (2017)
    An investigation of mechanisms of enhancement of irradiation-induced damage formation in GaN under molecular in comparison to monatomic ion bombardment is presented. Ion-implantation-induced effects in wurtzite GaN bombarded with 0.6 keV amu(-1) F, P, PF2, PF4, and Ag ions at room temperature are studied experimentally and by cumulative MD simulation in the correct irradiation conditions. In the low dose regime, damage formation is correlated with a reduction in photoluminescence decay time, whereas in the high dose regime, it is associated with the thickness of the amorphous/disordered layer formed at the sample surface. In all the cases studied, a shift to molecular ion irradiation from bombardment by its monatomic constituents enhances the damage accumulation rate. Implantation of a heavy Ag ion, having approximately the same mass as the PF4 molecule, is less effective in surface damage formation, but leads to noticeably higher damage accumulation in the bulk. The cumulative MD simulations do not reveal any significant difference in the total amount of both point defects and small defect clusters produced by light monatomic and molecular ions. On the other hand, increased production of large defect clusters by molecular PF4 ions is clearly seen in the vicinity of the surface. Ag ions produce almost the same number of small, but more large defect clusters compared to the others. These findings show that the higher probability of formation of large defect clusters is important mechanism of the enhancement of stable damage formation in GaN under molecular, as well as under heavy monatomic ion irradiation.
  • Sand, A. E.; Aliaga, M. J.; Caturla, M. J.; Nordlund, K. (2016)
    We have investigated the effect of surfaces on the statistics of primary radiation damage, comparing defect production in the bcc metals iron (Fe) and tungsten (W). Through molecular dynamics simulations of collision cascades we show that vacancy as well as interstitial cluster sizes follow scaling laws in both bulk and thin foils in these materials. The slope of the vacancy cluster size distribution in Fe is clearly affected by the surface in thin foil irradiation, while in W mainly the overall frequency is affected. Furthermore, the slopes of the power law distributions in bulk Fe are markedly different from those in W. The distinct behaviour of the statistical distributions uncovers different defect production mechanisms effective in the two materials, and provides insight into the underlying reasons for the differing behaviour observed in TEM experiments of lowdose ion irradiation in these metals. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2016