Browsing by Subject "COLLISIONS"

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  • Mäntysaari, Heikki; Schenke, Björn (2020)
    We show how exclusive vector meson production off light ions can be used to probe the spatial distribution of small-x gluons in the deuteron and 3He wave functions. In particular, we demonstrate how short-range repulsive nucleon-nucleon interactions affect the predicted coherent J/Ψ production spectra. Fluctuations of the nucleon substructure are shown to have a significant effect on the incoherent cross section above |t|≳0.2GeV2. By explicitly performing the Jalilian-Marian–Iancu–McLerran–Weigert–Leonidov–Kovner (JIMWLK) evolution, we predict the x dependence of coherent and incoherent cross sections in the electron-ion collider energy range. In addition to the increase of the average size of the nucleus with decreasing x, both the growth of the nucleons and subnucleonic hot spots are visible in the cross sections. The decreasing length scale of color charge fluctuations with decreasing x is also present, but may not be observable for |t|<1GeV2, if subnucleonic spatial fluctuations are present.
  • Esmaeilikia, Mahsa; Radun, Igor; Grzebieta, Raphael; Olivier, Jake (2019)
    A long-standing argument against bicycle helmet use is the risk compensation hypothesis, i.e., increased feelings of safety caused by wearing a helmet results in cyclists exhibiting more risky behaviour. However, past studies have found helmet wearing is not associated with risky behaviour, e.g., committing a traffic violation was positively associated with a lower frequency of helmet use. There is a lack of consensus in the research literature regarding bicycle helmet use and the risk compensation hypothesis, although this gap in knowledge was identified in the early 2000s. This is the first study to carry out a systematic review of the literature to assess whether helmet wearing is associated with risky behaviour. Two study authors systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature using five research databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX, SCOPUS, and WEB OF SCIENCE) and identified 141 unique articles and four articles from other sources. Twenty-three articles met inclusion criteria and their findings were summarised. Eighteen studies found no supportive evidence helmet use was positively associated with risky behaviour, while three studies provided mixed findings, i.e., results for and against the hypothesis. For many of these studies, bicycle helmet wearing was associated with safer cycling behaviour. Only two studies conducted from the same research lab provided evidence to support the risk compensation hypothesis. In sum, this systematic review found little to no support for the hypothesis bicycle helmet use is associated with engaging in risky behaviour. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Boguslavski, K.; Kurkela, A.; Lappi, Tuomas; Peuron, Jarkko (2021)
    Motivated by the initial stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions, we study excitations of far-from-equilibrium 2+1 dimensional gauge theories using classical-statistical lattice simulations. We evolve field perturbations over a strongly overoccupied background undergoing self-similar evolution. While in 3+1D the excitations are described by hard-thermal loop theory, their structure in 2+1D is nontrivial and nonperturbative. These nonperturbative interactions lead to broad excitation peaks in spectral and statistical correlation functions. Their width is comparable to the frequency of soft excitations, demonstrating the absence of soft quasiparticles in these theories. Our results also suggest that excitations at higher momenta are sufficiently long-lived, such that an effective kinetic theory description for 2+1 dimensional Glasma-like systems may exist, but its collision kernel must be nonperturbatively determined.
  • The ATLAS collaboration; The CMS collaboration; Aad, G.; Aaboud, M.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    This paper presents the combinations of single-top-quark production cross-section measurements by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations, using data from LHC proton-proton collisions at = 7 and 8 TeV corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1.17 to 5.1 fb(-1) at = 7 TeV and 12.2 to 20.3 fb(-1) at = 8 TeV. These combinations are performed per centre-of-mass energy and for each production mode: t-channel, tW, and s-channel. The combined t-channel cross-sections are 67.5 +/- 5.7 pb and 87.7 +/- 5.8 pb at = 7 and 8 TeV respectively. The combined tW cross-sections are 16.3 +/- 4.1 pb and 23.1 +/- 3.6 pb at = 7 and 8 TeV respectively. For the s-channel cross-section, the combination yields 4.9 +/- 1.4 pb at = 8 TeV. The square of the magnitude of the CKM matrix element V-tb multiplied by a form factor f(LV) is determined for each production mode and centre-of-mass energy, using the ratio of the measured cross-section to its theoretical prediction. It is assumed that the top-quark-related CKM matrix elements obey the relation |V-td|, |V-ts| << |V-tb|. All the |f(LV)V(tb)|(2) determinations, extracted from individual ratios at = 7 and 8 TeV, are combined, resulting in |f(LV)V(tb)| = 1.02 +/- 0.04 (meas.) +/- 0.02 (theo.). All combined measurements are consistent with their corresponding Standard Model predictions.
  • Albacete, Javier L.; Niemi, Harri; Petersen, Hannah; Soto-Ontoso, Alba (2019)
    We present a systematic study on the influence of spatial correlations between the proton constituents, in our case gluonic hot spots, their size and their number on the symmetric cumulant SC(2, 3), at the eccentricity level, within a Monte Carlo Glauber framework [1]. When modeling the proton as composed by 3 gluonic hot spots, the most common assumption in the literature, we find that the inclusion of spatial correlations is indispensable to reproduce the negative sign of SC(2, 3) in the highest centrality bins as dictated by data. Further, the subtle interplay between the different scales of the problem is discussed. To conclude, the possibility of feeding a 2+1D viscous hydrodynamic simulation with our entropy profiles is exposed.
  • Tiurev, Konstantin; Kuopanportti, Pekko; Möttönen, Mikko (2019)
    We theoretically demonstrate that a pair of Dirac monopoles with opposite synthetic charges can be created within a single spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate by steering the spin degrees of freedom by external magnetic fields. Although the net synthetic magnetic charge of this configuration vanishes, both the monopole and the antimonopole are accompanied by vortex filaments carrying opposite angular momenta. Such a Dirac dipole can be realized experimentally by imprinting a spin texture with a nonlinear magnetic field generated by a pair of coils in a modified Helmholtz configuration. We also investigate the case where the initial state for the dipole-creation procedure is pierced by a quantized vortex line with a winding number kappa. It is shown that if kappa = -1, the resulting monopole and antimonopole lie along the core of a singly quantized vortex whose sign is reversed at the locations of the monopoles. For kappa = -2, the monopole and antimonopole are connected by a vortex line segment carrying two quanta of angular momentum, and hence the dipole as a whole is an isolated configuration. In addition, we simulate the long-time evolution of the dipoles in the magnetic field used to create them. For kappa = 0, each of the semi-infinite doubly quantized vortices splits into two singly quantized vortices, as in the case of a single Dirac monopole. For kappa = -1 and kappa = -2, the initial vortices deform into a vortex with a kink and a vortex ring, respectively.
  • Mäntysaari, Heikki; Mueller, Niklas; Schenke, Björn (2019)
    Experimental processes that are sensitive to partonWigner distributions provide a powerful tool to advance our understanding of proton structure. In this work, we compute gluon Wigner and Husimi distributions of protons within the color glass condensate framework, which includes a spatially dependent McLerran-Venugopalan initial configuration and the explicit numerical solution of the Jalilian-Marian-IancuMcLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner equations. We determine the leading anisotropy of the Wigner and Husimi distributions as a function of the angle between the impact parameter and transverse momentum. We study experimental signatures of these angular correlations at a proposed electron-ion collider by computing coherent diffractive dijet production cross sections in e + p collisions within the same framework. Specifically, we predict the elliptic modulation of the cross section as a function of the relative angle between the nucleon recoil and dijet transversemomentumfor a wide kinematical range. We further predict its dependence on the collision energy, which is dominated by the growth of the proton with decreasing x.
  • Stolzenburg, Dominik; Simon, Mario; Ranjithkumar, Ananth; Kuerten, Andreas; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Gordon, Hamish; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Finkenzeller, Henning; Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Nieminen, Tuomo; Brilke, Sophia; Xiao, Mao; Amorim, Antonio; Baalbaki, Rima; Baccarini, Andrea; Beck, Lisa; Brakling, Steffen; Murillo, Lucia Caudillo; Chen, Dexian; Chu, Biwu; Dada, Lubna; Dias, Antonio; Dommen, Josef; Duplissy, Jonathan; El Haddad, Imad; Fischer, Lukas; Carracedo, Loic Gonzalez; Heinritzi, Martin; Kim, Changhyuk; Koenig, Theodore K.; Kong, Weimeng; Lamkaddam, Houssni; Lee, Chuan Ping; Leiminger, Markus; Li, Zijun; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Manninen, Hanna E.; Marie, Guillaume; Marten, Ruby; Mueller, Tatjana; Nie, Wei; Partoll, Eva; Petaja, Tuukka; Pfeifer, Joschka; Philippov, Maxim; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rorup, Birte; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Schuchmann, Simone; Shen, Jiali; Sipila, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tauber, Christian; Tham, Yee Jun; Tome, Antonio; Vazquez-Pufleau, Miguel; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Yonghong; Weber, Stefan K.; Wimmer, Daniela; Wlasits, Peter J.; Wu, Yusheng; Ye, Qing; Zauner-Wieczorek, Marcel; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Hansel, Armin; Kulmala, Markku; Lelieveld, Jos; Volkamer, Rainer; Kirkby, Jasper; Winkler, Paul M.; He, Xucheng (2020)
    In the present-day atmosphere, sulfuric acid is the most important vapour for aerosol particle formation and initial growth. However, the growth rates of nanoparticles (<10 nm) from sulfuric acid remain poorly measured. Therefore, the effect of stabilizing bases, the contribution of ions and the impact of attractive forces on molecular collisions are under debate. Here, we present precise growth rate measurements of uncharged sulfuric acid particles from 1.8 to 10 nm, performed under atmospheric conditions in the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) CLOUD chamber. Our results show that the evaporation of sulfuric acid particles above 2 nm is negligible, and growth proceeds kinetically even at low ammonia concentrations. The experimental growth rates exceed the hard-sphere kinetic limit for the condensation of sulfuric acid. We demonstrate that this results from van derWaals forces between the vapour molecules and particles and disentangle it from charge-dipole interactions. The magnitude of the enhancement depends on the assumed particle hydration and collision kinetics but is increasingly important at smaller sizes, resulting in a steep rise in the observed growth rates with decreasing size. Including the experimental results in a global model, we find that the enhanced growth rate of sulfuric acid particles increases the predicted particle number concentrations in the upper free troposphere by more than 50 %.
  • Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Broulim, P.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Campanella, C. E.; Catanesi, M. G.; Csanad, M.; Csoergo, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Karev, A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajicek, M. V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Palocko, L.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prochazka, J.; Prudenzano, F.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sodzawiczny, T.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K. (2015)
    The TOTEM experiment has made a precise measurement of the elastic proton proton differential cross-section at the centre-of-mass energy root s = 8 TeV based on a high-statistics data sample obtained with the beta* = 90 m optics. Both the statistical and systematic uncertainties remain below 1%, except for the t-independent contribution from the overall normalisation. This unprecedented precision allows to exclude a purely exponential differential cross-section in the range of four-momentum transfer squared 0.027 <vertical bar t vertical bar <0.2 GeV2 with a significance greater than 7 sigma. Two extended parametrisations, with quadratic and cubic polynomials in the exponent, are shown to be well compatible with the data. Using them for the differential cross-section extrapolation to t = 0, and further applying the optical theorem, yields total cross-section estimates of (101.5 +/- 2.1) mb and (101.9 +/- 2.1) mb, respectively, in agreement with previous TOTEM measurements. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) decaying to b(b)over-bar when produced in association with an electroweak vector boson is reported for the following processes: Z(vv)H, W(mu v)H, W(ev)H, Z(mu mu)H, and Z(ee)H. The search is performed in data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 f( -1) at root s = 13 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC during Run 2 in 2016. An excess of events is observed in data compared to the expectation in the absence of a H -> b(b)over-bar, signal. The significance of this excess is 3.3 standard deviations, where the expectation from SM Higgs boson production is 2.8. The signal strength corresponding to this excess, relative to that of the SM Higgs boson production, is 1.2 +/- 0.4. When combined with the Run 1 measurement of the same processes, the signal significance is 3.8 standard deviations with 3.8 expected. The corresponding signal strength, relative to that of the SM Higgs boson, is 1.06(-0.29)(+0.31). (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Kajantie, K.; McLerran, Larry D.; Paatelainen, Risto (2019)
    We consider an initially at rest colored particle which is struck by an ultrarelativistic nucleus. The particle is treated classically with respect to both its motion and its color charge. The nucleus is treated as a sheet of colored glass within the context of the color glass condensate framework. We compute both the momentum and coordinates of the struck classical particle and the emitted radiation. Our computations generalize the classic electrodynamics computation of the radiation of an accelerated charged particle to include the radiation induced by the charged gluon field. This latter contribution adds to the classic electrodynamics result and produces a gluon rapidity distribution that is roughly constant as a function of rapidity at rapidities far from the fragmentation region of the struck particles. These computations may form the basis of a first principles treatment for the initial conditions for the evolution of matter produced in the fragmentation region of asymptotically high energy collisions.
  • Ducloué, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S. (2016)
    We study the production of two forward jets with a large interval of rapidity at hadron colliders, which was proposed by Mueller and Navelet as a possible test of the high energy dynamics of QCD, within a complete next-to-leading logarithm framework. We show that using the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie procedure to fix the renormalization scale leads to a very good description of the recent CMS data at the LHC for the azimuthal correlations of the jets. We show that the inclusion of next-to-leading order corrections to the jet vertex significantly reduces the importance of energy-momentum non-conservation which is inherent to the BFKL approach, for an asymmetric jet configuration. Finally, we argue that the double parton scattering contribution is negligible in the kinematics of actual CMS measurements.
  • Niemi, H.; Eskola, K. J.; Paatelainen, R.; Tuominen, K. (2019)
    We present the latest results from the NLO pQCD + saturation + viscous hydrodynamics (EbyE NLO EKRT) model. The parameters in the EKRT saturation model are fixed by the charged hadron multiplicity in the 0-5 % 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions. The root s, A and centrality dependence of the initial particle production follows then from the QCD dynamics of the model. This allows us to predict the root s and A dependence of the particle production. We show that our results are in an excellent agreement with the low-p(T) data from 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC as well as with the data from the 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC. In particular, we study the centrality dependences of hadronic multiplicities, flow coefficients, and various flow correlations. Furthermore, the nuclear mass number dependence of the initial particle production and hydrodynamic evolution can be tested in the 5.44 TeV Xe+Xe collisions at the LHC. To this end, we show our predictions for charged particle multiplicities, and in particular, show how the deformations of the Xe nuclei reflect into the flow coefficients.
  • Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Broulim, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F. S.; Campanella, C. E.; Catanesi, M. G.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Karev, A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajicek, M. V.; Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Österberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J.; TOTEM Collaboration (2016)
    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy root s = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical bar t vertical bar, from 6 x 10(-4) to 0.2GeV(2). Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second-or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the.-parameter is found to be 0.12 +/- 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are sigma(tot) = (102.9 +/- 2.3) mb and (103.0 +/- 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Rytkonen, H.; Räsänen, Sami; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J.; Zhou, Z. (2020)
    Two-particle correlation functions were measured for p (p) over bar, p (Lambda) over bar, (p) over bar Lambda, and Lambda(Lambda) over bar pairs in Pb-Pb collisions at root sNN = 2.76 TeV and root sNN = 5.02 TeV recorded by the ALICE detector. From a simultaneous fit to all obtained correlation functions, real and imaginary components of the scattering lengths, as well as the effective ranges, were extracted for combined p (Lambda) over bar and (p) over bar Lambda pairs and, for the first time, for Lambda(Lambda) over bar pairs. Effective averaged scattering parameters for heavier baryon-antibaryon pairs, not measured directly, are also provided. The results reveal similarly strong interaction between measured baryon-antibaryon pairs, suggesting that they all annihilate in the same manner at the same pair relative momentum k*. Moreover, the reported significant non-zero imaginary part and negative real part of the scattering length provide motivation for future baryon-antibaryon bound state searches. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV is presented. The analysis is based on events with energy deposits in the forward calorimeters, which cover pseudorapidities of -6.6 < eta < -3.0 and +3.0 < eta < +5.2. An inelastic cross section of 68.6 +/- 0.5(syst) +/- 1.6(lumi) mb is obtained for events with M-x > 4.1 GeV and/or M-Y > 13 GeV, where M-x and M-Y are the masses of the diffractive dissociation systems at negative and positive pseudorapidities, respectively. The results are compared with those from other experiments as well as to predictions from high-energy hadron-hadron interaction models.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Four-lepton production in proton-proton collisions, pp -> (Z/gamma*)(Z/gamma*) -> 4l, where l = e or mu, is studied at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The ZZ production cross section, sigma(pp -> ZZ) = 17.2 +/- 0.5 (stat) +/- 0.7 (syst) +/- 0.4 (theo) +/- 0.4 (lumi) pb, measured using events with two opposite-sign, same-flavor lepton pairs produced in the mass region 60 <m(l+l-) <120 GeV, is consistent with standard model predictions. Differential cross sections are measured and are well described by the theoretical predictions. The Z boson branching fraction to four leptons is measured to be B(Z -> 4l) = 4.83(-0.22)(+0.23) (stat)(-0.29)(+0.32) (syst) +/- 0.08 (theo) +/- 0.12(lumi) x 10(-6) for events with a four-lepton invariant mass in the range 80 <m(4l) <100 GeV and a dilepton mass m(ll) > 4GeV for all opposite-sign, same-flavor lepton pairs. The results agree with standard model predictions. The invariant mass distribution of the four-lepton system is used to set limits on anomalous ZZZ and ZZ. couplings at 95% confidence level: -0.0012 <f(4)(Z) <0.0010, -0.0010 <f(5)(Z) <0.0013, -0.0012 <f(4)(gamma) <0.0013, -0.0012 <f(5)(gamma) <0.0013.
  • Perez-Loureiro, D.; Benlliure, J.; Diaz-Cortes, J.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J. L.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Blank, B.; Casarejos, E.; Dragosavac, D.; Foehr, C.; Gascon, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Heinz, A.; Helariutta, K.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Lukic, S.; Montes, F.; Pienkowski, L.; Schmidt, K-H; Staniou, M.; Subotic, K.; Suemmerer, K.; Taieb, J.; Trzcinska, A. (2019)
    The production cross sections of neutron-rich fission residues in reactions induced by U-238 projectiles at 950A MeV impinging on Pb and Be targets are investigated at the Fragment Separator at GSI. These two targets allow us to investigate fission processes induced by two reaction mechanisms, Coulomb and nuclear excitations, and to study the role of these mechanisms in the neutron excess of the final fragments.
  • Aschenauer, E. C.; Fazio, S.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Paukkunen, H.; Zurita, P. (2017)
    The quantitative knowledge of heavy nuclei's partonic structure is currently limited to rather large values of momentum fraction x-robust experimental constraints below x similar to 10(-2) at low resolution scale Q(2) are particularly scarce. This is in sharp contrast to the free proton's structure which has been probed in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) measurements down to x similar to 10(-5) at perturbative resolution scales. The construction of an electron-ion collider (EIC) with a possibility to operate with a wide variety of nuclei, will allow one to explore the low-x region in much greater detail. In the present paper we simulate the extraction of the nuclear structure functions from measurements of inclusive and charm reduced cross sections at an EIC. The potential constraints are studied by analyzing simulated data directly in a next-toleading order global fit of nuclear Parton Distribution Functions based on the recent EPPS16 analysis. A special emphasis is placed on studying the impact an EIC would have on extracting the nuclear gluon parton distribution function, the partonic component most prone to nonlinear effects at low Q(2). In comparison to the current knowledge, we find that the gluon parton distribution function can be measured at an EIC with significantly reduced uncertainties.