Browsing by Subject "COLONIZATION"

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  • Dagan, Ron; Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Simell, Birgit; Greenberg, David; Porat, Nurith; Käyhty, Helena; Givon-Lavi, Noga (2018)
    Background: We compared PCV7 serological response and protection against carriage in infants receiving 3 doses (2, 4, 6 months; 3+0 schedule) to those receiving a booster (12 months; 3+1). Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study, conducted between 2005 and 2008, before PCVs were implemented in Israel. Healthy infants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 3+1, 3+0 and 0+2 (control group; 12, 18 months doses). Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained at all visits. Serum serotype-specific IgG concentrations and opsonic activities (OPA) were measured at 2, 7, 13 and 19 months. This study was registered with Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. ISRCTN28445844. Results: Overall, 544 infants were enrolled: 3+1 (n = 178), 3+0 (n = 178) and 0+2 (n = 188). Post-priming (7 months), antibody concentrations were similar in both groups, except for serotype 18C (higher in 3+0). Post-booster (13, 19 months), ELISA and OPA levels were significantly higher in 3+1 than in 3+0 group. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2673 (543%) visits. Acquisition rates (vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes) were similar for 3+1 and 3+0 groups at 7-30 months and for 0+2 group at 19-30 months. Conclusions: PCV7 booster after 3 priming doses increased substantially IgG concentrations but did not further reduced vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal acquisition, suggesting that protection from pneumococcal carriage does not depend primarily on serum IgG. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • He, Suxu; Ran, Chao; Qin, Chubin; Li, Shuning; Zhang, Hongling; de Vos, Willem M.; Ringo, Einar; Zhou, Zhigang (2017)
    In this study, we tested the distribution of 49 Lactobacillus strains in the mucus and mucosa of the intestine tissue of zebrafish. We observed a progressive change in the spatial distribution of Lactobacillus strains, and suggested a division of the strains into three classes: mucus type (>70% in mucus), mucosa type (>70% in mucosa) and hybrid type (others). The hybrid type strains were more efficient in protection of zebrafish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Three strains representing different distribution types (JCM1149, CGMCC1.2028, and JCM 20300) were selected. The mucosa type strain JCM1149 induced higher intestinal expression of inflammatory cytokines and Hsp70 than the other strains. Furthermore, we used L. rhamnosus GG and its mutant (PB22) lacking SpaCBA pili to investigate the influence of pili on spatial distribution. LGG showed a mucosa type distribution, while PB22 revealed a hybrid distribution and the disease protection was accordingly improved. The different protection ability between LGG and PB22 did not involve the intestinal microbiota, however, LGG induced injury to the mucosa of zebrafish. Collectively, the disease protection activity of Lactobacillus in zebrafish is correlated with their spatial distribution in the intestinal tissue, with strains showing a balanced distribution (hybrid type) more efficient in protection.
  • Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Saxen, Harri; Nikkonen, Anne; Peltola, Ville; Jaakkola, Tytti; de Vos, Willem; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2020)
    BACKGROUND The effects of antibiotics on infant gut microbiota are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of common antibiotics results in long-term aberration in gut microbiota. METHODS Antibiotic-naive infants were prospectively recruited when hospitalized because of a respiratory syncytial virus infection. Composition of fecal microbiota was compared between those receiving antibiotics during follow-up (prescribed at clinicians' discretion because of complications such as otitis media) and those with no antibiotic exposure. Fecal sampling started on day 1, then continued at 2-day intervals during the hospital stay, and at 1, 3 and 6 months at home. RESULTS One hundred and sixty-three fecal samples from 40 patients (median age 2.3 months at baseline; 22 exposed to antibiotics) were available for microbiota analyses. A single course of amoxicillin or macrolide resulted in aberration of infant microbiota characterized by variation in the abundance of bifidobacteria, enterobacteria and clostridia, lasting for several months. Recovery from the antibiotics was associated with an increase in clostridia. Occasionally, antibiotic use resulted in microbiota profiles associated with inflammatory conditions. CONCLUSIONS Antibiotic use in infants modifies especially bifidobacterial levels. Further studies are warranted whether administration of bifidobacteria will provide health benefits by normalizing the microbiota in infants receiving antibiotics.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Eklund, Marjut; Thomson, Katariina; Piiparinen, Heli; Sironen, Tarja; Rantala, Merja (2017)
    Objectives: To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and the occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), to explore the molecular structure of the MRSP population and to analyse risk factors for MRSP. Methods: Susceptibility data for clinical S. pseudintermedius isolates in 2011-15 were analysed using WHONET. All MRSP isolates in 2010-14 (n = 362) were typed using PFGE. Representative isolates (n = 87) of clusters were analysed using MLST and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Risk factors were analysed using logistic regression. Results: Of the clinical S. pseudintermedius (n-1958; 98% from dogs), 14% were MRSP. Resistance to other antimicrobials varied between 12% and 39%. No trends were observed over time. Among clinical specimens (from infection sites) and screening specimens (from potential carriers), respectively, 2.5% (267/10813) and 9% (211/2434) revealed MRSP. MLST revealed 42 different STs, including 19 new ones. Clonal complexes 71, 45 and 258 were the most common, but the MRSP population diversified over the years. A clinical S. pseudintermedius isolate was more likely to be MRSP if the patient was on antimicrobials at the time of sampling or was male. The presence of MRSP in screening specimens was more likely if the patient was on multiple antimicrobials at the time of sampling. Specimens from private clinics (versus the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki) had a higher likelihood of MRSP in both analyses. Conclusions: Resistance to antimicrobials among S. pseudintermedius in Finland is high, emphasizing the importance of infection control measures and susceptibility testing prior to therapy. The diverse MRSP population indicates non-clonal spread.
  • Moles, Laura; Gomez, Marta; Heilig, Hans; Bustos, Gerardo; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan M.; Jimenez, Esther (2013)
  • Gomez, Marta; Moles, Laura; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Bustos, Gerardo; de Vos, Willem M.; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan M.; Fuentes, Susana; Jimenez, Esther (2017)
    An abnormal colonization pattern of the preterm gut may affect immune maturation and exert a long-term influence on the intestinal bacterial composition and host health. However, follow-up studies assessing the evolution of the fecal microbiota of infants that were born preterm are very scarce. In this work, the bacterial compositions of fecal samples, obtained from sixteen 2-year-old infants were evaluated using a phylogenetic microarray; subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained in a previous study from samples of meconium and feces collected from the same infants while they stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In parallel, the concentration of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and immunoglobulins were determined in meconium and fecal samples. Globally, a higher bacterial diversity and a lower interindividual variability were observed in 2-year-olds' feces, when compared to the samples obtained during their first days of life. Hospital-associated fecal bacteria, that were dominant during the NICU stay, seemed to be replaced, two years later, by genera, which are usually predominant in the healthy adult microbiome. The immune profile of the meconium and fecal samples differed, depending on the sampling time, showing different immune maturation statuses of the gut.
  • Ligthart, Kate; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M.; Tytgat, Hanne L.P. (2020)
    Cell-surface-located proteinaceous appendages, such as flagella and fimbriae or pili, are ubiquitous in bacterial communities. Here, we focus on conserved type IV pili (T4P) produced by bacteria in the intestinal tract, one of the most densely populated human ecosystems. Computational analysis revealed that approximately 30% of known intestinal bacteria are predicted to produce T4P. To rationalize how T4P allow intestinal bacteria to interact with their environment, other microbiota members, and host cells, we review their established role in gut commensals and pathogens with respect to adherence, motility, and biofilm formation, as well as protein secretion and DNA uptake. This work indicates that T4P are widely spread among the known members of the intestinal microbiota and that their contribution to human health might be underestimated.
  • Greiser, Caroline; Hylander, Kristoffer; Meineri, Eric; Luoto, Miska; Ehrlen, Johan (2020)
    The role of climate in determining range margins is often studied using species distribution models (SDMs), which are easily applied but have well-known limitations, e.g. due to their correlative nature and colonization and extinction time lags. Transplant experiments can give more direct information on environmental effects, but often cover small spatial and temporal scales. We simultaneously applied a SDM using high-resolution spatial predictors and an integral projection (demographic) model based on a transplant experiment at 58 sites to examine the effects of microclimate, light and soil conditions on the distribution and performance of a forest herb, Lathyrus vernus, at its cold range margin in central Sweden. In the SDM, occurrences were strongly associated with warmer climates. In contrast, only weak effects of climate were detected in the transplant experiment, whereas effects of soil conditions and light dominated. The higher contribution of climate in the SDM is likely a result from its correlation with soil quality, forest type and potentially historic land use, which were unaccounted for in the model. Predicted habitat suitability and population growth rate, yielded by the two approaches, were not correlated across the transplant sites. We argue that the ranking of site habitat suitability is probably more reliable in the transplant experiment than in the SDM because predictors in the former better describe understory conditions, but that ranking might vary among years, e.g. due to differences in climate. Our results suggest that L. vernus is limited by soil and light rather than directly by climate at its northern range edge, where conifers dominate forests and create suboptimal conditions of soil and canopy-penetrating light. A general implication of our study is that to better understand how climate change influences range dynamics, we should not only strive to improve existing approaches but also to use multiple approaches in concert.
  • Hällfors, Maria H.; Vaara, Elina M.; Hyvärinen, Marko; Oksanen, Markku; Schulman, Leif E.; Siipi, Helena; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2014)
    Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or managed relocation, and their multiple definitions. Since this conservation approach is novel, and may for instance lead to legislative changes, it is important to aim for terminological consistency. The objective of this study is to analyse the suitability of terms and definitions used when discussing the moving of organisms as a response to climate change. An extensive literature search and review of the material (868 scientific publications) was conducted for finding hitherto used terms (N = 40) and definitions (N = 75), and these were analysed for their suitability. Based on the findings, it is argued that an appropriate term for a conservation approach relating to aiding the movement of organisms harmed by climate change is assisted migration defined as follows: Assisted migration means safeguarding biological diversity through the translocation of representatives of a species or population harmed by climate change to an area outside the indigenous range of that unit where it would be predicted to move as climate changes, were it not for anthropogenic dispersal barriers or lack of time. The differences between assisted migration and other conservation translocations are also discussed. A wide adoption of the clear and distinctive term and definition provided would allow more focused research on the topic and enable consistent implementation as practitioners could have the same understanding of the concept.
  • Siqueira, Tadeu; Saito, Victor S.; Bini, Luis M.; Melo, Adriano S.; Petsch, Danielle K.; Landeiro, Victor L.; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Jyrkänkallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Soininen, Janne; Heino, Jani (2020)
    Ecological drift can override the effects of deterministic niche selection on small populations and drive the assembly of some ecological communities. We tested this hypothesis with a unique data set sampled identically in 200 streams in two regions (tropical Brazil and boreal Finland) that differ in macroinvertebrate community size by fivefold. Null models allowed us to estimate the magnitude to which beta-diversity deviates from the expectation under a random assembly process while taking differences in richness and relative abundance into account, i.e., beta-deviation. We found that both abundance- and incidence-based beta-diversity was negatively related to community size only in Brazil. Also, beta-diversity of small tropical communities was closer to stochastic expectations compared with beta-diversity of large communities. We suggest that ecological drift may drive variation in some small communities by changing the expected outcome of niche selection, increasing the chances of species with low abundance and narrow distribution to occur in some communities. Habitat destruction, overexploitation, pollution, and reductions in connectivity have been reducing the size of biological communities. These environmental pressures might make smaller communities more vulnerable to novel conditions and render community dynamics more unpredictable. Incorporation of community size into ecological models should provide conceptual and applied insights into a better understanding of the processes driving biodiversity.
  • Wang, Kai; Wu, Ying; Ye, Mengyuan; Yang, Yifan; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Overmyer, Kirk; Liu, Shenkui; Cui, Fuqiang (2021)
    Plant-beneficial microbes have drawn wide attention due to their potential application as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Moso bamboo, which is among the monocots with the highest growth rate, lives perennially with abundant microbes that may benefit annually growing crops. Genome information of moso bamboo associated bacteria remains underexplored. We isolated and identified a novel Paraburkholderia strain Suichang626 from moso bamboo roots. Growth promoting effects of Suichang626 on both moso bamboo and seedlings of the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana were documented in laboratory conditions. To gain insight into the genetic basis of this growth promotion effect, we sequenced the genome of Suichang626. Evidenced by genome-wide phylogeny data, we propose that Suichang626 is a novel strain of Paraburkholderia sacchari. Gene homologs encoding biosynthesis of the plant growth-promoting chemicals, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, were identified in the genome of Suichang626. Comparative genomics was further performed with plant-beneficial and plant/animal pathogenic species of Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia. Genes related to volatile organic compounds, nitrogen fixation, and auxin biosynthesis were discovered specifically in the plant growth-promoting species of both genera.
  • Hagge, Jonas; Abrego, Nerea; Baessler, Claus; Bouget, Christophe; Brin, Antoine; Brustel, Herve; Christensen, Morten; Gossner, Martin M.; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Horak, Akub; Gruppe, Axel; Isacsson, Gunnar; Koehler, Frank; Lachat, Thibault; Larrieu, Laurent; Schlaghamersky, Jiri; Thorn, Simon; Zapponi, Livia; Mueller, Joerg (2019)
    Aim: Beech forests comprise a globally unique temperate forest type in Europe. The dominance of beech in these forests developed during the ongoing post-glacial northward re-colonization, concurrently with intensified forest use by humans. We investigated how these two processes together with climate shaped the patterns of functional diversity of two major species groups involved in wood decomposition and whether functional diversity is determined on the local or regional species pool level. Location: European beech forest distribution range. Taxon: Saproxylic beetles and fungi. Methods: We analysed records of 532,496 saproxylic beetles of 788 species and 8,630 records of 234 saproxylic fungal species based on sets of traits similar to both groups. We tested how space, climate and landscape composition affect trait-based functional diversity on local and regional scales. Using structural equation modelling, we tested whether functional diversity is shaped on the local or regional scale. Results: The response of local functional diversity of both saproxylic beetles and fungi followed a highly congruent pattern of decreasing functional diversity towards the north, with higher elevation and accounted for overall geographical gradients with higher temperature, while increasing with higher precipitation. Structural equation modelling revealed that local functional diversity is determined by community changes operating on the level of the regional species pool. Main conclusions: Our findings suggest that the functional diversity patterns of saproxylic organisms in European beech forests are mainly determined on the regional scale and driven by anthropogenic and biogeographical processes. To conserve the variation and hotspots of functional diversity in beech forests, activities have to focus on a broad spatial and climatic range of sites throughout Europe, including the primeval forests in the east, as started by the UNESCO World Heritage selection of "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe".
  • Sheppard, Samuel K.; Cheng, Lu; Meric, Guillaume; De Haan, Caroline P. A.; Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Marttinen, Pekka; Vidal, Ana; Ridley, Anne; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity; Connor, Thomas R.; Strachan, Norval J. C.; Forbes, Ken; Colles, Frances M.; Jolley, Keith A.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Parkhill, Julian; Hanage, William P.; Corander, Jukka (2014)
  • Kantele, Anu; Lääveri, Tinja; Mero, Sointu; Häkkinen, Inka M. K.; Kirveskari, Juha; Johnston, Brian D.; Johnson, James R. (2020)
    Background. One-third of the 100 million travelers to the tropics annually acquire extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), with undefined clinical consequences. Methods. Symptoms suggesting Enterobacteriaceae infections were recorded prospectively among 430 Finnish travelers, 90 (21%) of whom acquired ESBL-PE abroad. ESBL-PE isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction-based detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes (enteroaggregative E. coli [EAEC], enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC], enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC], enteroinvasive E. coli, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli), and extraintestinal pathogenic/uropathogenic E. coli (ExPEC/UPEC). Laboratory-confirmed ESBL-PE infections were surveyed 5 years before and after travel. Results. Among the 90 ESBL-PE carriers, manifestations of Enterobacteriaceae infection included travelers' diarrhea (TD) (75/90 subjects) and urinary tract infection (UTI) (3/90). The carriers had 96 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, 51% exhibiting a molecular pathotype: 13 (14%) were DEC (10 EAEC, 2 EPEC, 1 ETEC) (12 associated with TD) and 39 (41%) ExPEC/UPEC (none associated with UTI). Of ESBL-PE, 3 (3%) were ExPEC/UPEC-EAEC hybrids (2 associated with diarrhea, none with UTI). Potential ESBL-PE infections were detected in 15 of 90 subjects (17%). The 10-year medical record survey identified 4 laboratory-confirmed ESBL-PE infections among the 430 travelers, all in subjects who screened ESBL-PE negative after returning home from their index journeys but had traveled abroad before their infection episodes. Conclusions. Half of all travel-acquired ESBL-producing E. coli strains qualified molecularly as pathogens. Extraintestinal and uropathogenic pathotypes outnumbered enteric pathotypes (41% vs 14%), yet the latter correlated more closely with symptomatic infection (0% vs 92%). Despite more ESBL-PE strains qualifying as ExPEC/UPEC than DEC, travel-acquired ESBL-PE are more often associated with TD than UTI.
  • Zöldi, Viktor; Sane, Jussi; Kantele, Anu; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lyytikäinen, Outi (2018)
    Background: Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics. Method: Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions. Results: Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics. Conclusions: Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas.
  • Jian, Ching; Carpén, Noora K; Helve, Otto; Vos de, Willem Meindert; Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne (2021)
    The colonisation and development of the gut microbiota has been implicated in paediatric metabolic disorders via its powerful effect on host metabolic and immune homeostasis. Here we summarise the evidence from human studies on the early gut microbiota and paediatric overweight and obesity. Manipulation of the early gut microbiota may represent a promising target for countering the burgeoning metabolic disorders in the paediatric population, provided the assembly patterns of microbiota and their health consequences can be decoded. Therefore, in this review, we pay particular attention to the important ecological drivers affecting the community dynamics of the early gut microbiota. We then discuss the knowledge gaps in commonly studied exposures linking the gut microbiota to metabolic disorders, especially regarding maternal factors and antibiotic use. This review also attempts to give directions for future studies aiming to identify predictive and corrective measures for paediatric metabolic disorders based on the gut microbiota.
  • Blakstad, Elin W.; Korpela, Katri; Lee, Sindre; Nakstadl, Britt; Moltu, Sissel J.; Strommen, Kenneth; Ronnestad, Arild E.; Braekke, Kristin; Iversen, Per O.; de Vos, Willem M.; Drevon, Christian A. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Promoting a healthy intestinal microbiota may have positive effects on short- and long-term outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW; BW <1500 g) infants. Nutrient supply influences the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an intervention group receiving enhanced nutrient supply or a control group. Fecal samples from 45 infants collected between birth and discharge were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: There was considerable individual variation in microbiota development. Microbial richness decreased towards discharge in the controls compared to the intervention group. In the intervention group, there was a greater increase in diversity among moderately/very preterm (MVP, gestational age >= 28 weeks) infants and a steeper decrease in relative Staphylococcus abundance in extremely preterm (EP, gestational age <28 weeks) infants as compared to controls. Relative Bifidobacterium abundance tended to increase more in MVP controls compared to the intervention group. Abundance of pathogens was not increased in the intervention group. Higher relative Bifidobacterium abundance was associated with improved weight gain. CONCLUSION: Nutrition may affect richness, diversity, and microbiota composition. There was no increase in relative abundance of pathogens among infants receiving enhanced nutrient supply. Favorable microbiota development was associated with improved weight gain.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja (2015)
    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012-2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Results: Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1-8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0-3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1-64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0-2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. Conclusions: MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.
  • Lääveri, Tinja; Vlot, Jessica A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Häkkinen, Hanni K.; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; Visser, Leo G.; Kantele, Anu (2018)
    Background: One third of travellers to low- and middle-income regions of the tropics and subtropics become colonized by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). The risk varies by destination and, for each traveller, may be substantially further increased by travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and antibiotic use. Despite the risk of TD in Africa, ESBL-PE acquisition rates in all studies are lower there than in Asia. Africa has become increasingly popular as a destination for international travellers, yet minimal data are available from the continent's subregions and countries. Methods: We analysed subregion- and country-specific data on carriage and risk factors for ESBL-PE colonization pooled from three prospective studies conducted between 2009 and 2013 among Finnish and Dutch travellers. The data were subjected to multivariable analysis of risk factors. In addition, we compared our data to two recent large investigations reporting data by subregion and country. Results: Our joint analysis comprised data on 396 travellers. The ESBL-PE colonization rate was highest in Northern Africa, followed by Middle and Eastern Africa, and lowest in Southern and Western Africa. Of individual countries with more than 15 visitors, the highest rates were seen for Egypt (12/17; 70.6%), Ghana (6/23; 26.1%), and Tanzania (14/81; 17.3%); the rates among travellers to Egypt were comparable to those reported in South and Southeast Asia. In a pooled multivariable analysis, travel destination, age, overnight hospitalisation abroad, TD, and use of fluoroquinolones were independently associated with increased ESBL-PE colonization rates. Conlusions: Even in areas with relatively low risk of colonization, antimicrobials clearly predispose to colonization with ESBL-PE. Travellers to Africa should be cautioned against unnecessary use of antibiotics.
  • Demirözer, Ozan; Pekbey, Gamze; Hayat, Rustem; Herdogan, Azime; Acanski, Jelena; Milicic, Marija; Uzun, Asiye (2020)
    Despite the increasing importance of species richness of blowfly fauna and their environmental, medical, and agricultural importance in the world they are poorly studied in Turkey. This study was carried out in 2014 and 2015 to determine the distribution, abundance, and species richness of blowfly species in Isparta Province of Turkey. A total of 15 species (10 from Calliphoridae, 4 from Polleniidae, and 1 from Rhiniidae) were identified from 13 different localities. The adult specimens were obtained from areas of organic and decayed organic matters, waste and dumpsite, surrounding waste water deposits, and flowering plants. While all the species were new for Isparta, Bellardia tatrica (Enderlein, 1933), Calliphora subalpina (Ringdahl, 1931), Lucilia silvarium (Meigen, 1826), Melinda gentilis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Pollenia griseotomentosa (Jacentkovsky, 1944) were determined as new records for the Turkish fauna. According to the study results, the highest levels of blowfly species richness will be mainly focused in the eastern part of Isparta Province. Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata were determined as the most common species in the study.