Browsing by Subject "COLOR"

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  • van Bergen, Erik; Lafuente, Elvira (2018)
    ABSTRACT Is the evolution of sexual traits predictable in the wild? Using replicate experimental guppy populations, Kemp et al. (2018) addressed this question and found that males evolved more elaborate ornamentation in response to a manipulation that increased the influence of sexual selection. Moreover, the study reveals that evolutionary trajectories of male ornamentation are causally affected by female preference and the environmental conditions under which sexual coloration is displayed and perceived. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
  • Hoppu, Ulla; Puputti, Sari; Mattila, Saila; Puurtinen, Marjaana; Sandell, Mari (2020)
    The food experience is multisensory and multisensory external stimuli may affect food choice and emotions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multisensory eating environment on food choice, intake and the emotional states of the subjects in a salad lunch buffet setting. A total of 30 female subjects consumed a salad lunch twice in the multisensory laboratory. The two test conditions (control and multisensory condition with environmental stimuli) were randomized and the visits were scheduled one week apart. Subjects selected and ate a meal from a salad buffet including 14 food items and the intake of each item was weighed. They answered an online questionnaire about the meal and their emotional states (20 different emotion terms) after the lunch. There was no significant difference in the food consumption between the control and multisensory conditions. The subjects were very satisfied with their lunch for both study visits but the pleasantness of the eating environment was rated higher under the multisensory condition. In emotional terms, the subjects selected the term "happy" significantly more frequently under the multisensory condition compared with the control. In conclusion, the multisensory eating environment in this study was not related to food intake but may be associated with positive emotions. The effect of the eating environment on food choice and experience deserves further study with a larger study population in a real lunch restaurant setting.
  • Lahdenperä, Juulia; Nieminen, Juuso Henrik (2020)
    University mathematics has been described as a setting that has challenges in inviting everyone to be part of the mathematics community. Thus, university mathematics offers an important context for research on belonging. For this study, we utilised a mixed-methods approach to investigate the various ways mathematics students belong or do not belong to the mathematics community. Based on both quantitative and qualitative analyses, three student profiles were identified: Members of the Scientific Community, Members of the Social Community, and Non-Members. The first profile highlights students' belonging to the scientific community, the second profile emphasises belonging to the social community of students, and in the third profile students' responses reflected various ways of not belonging to the mathematics community. In addition, we elaborate on how university mathematics learning environments both promote and hinder students' sense of belonging. Overall, the study broadens the understanding of the ways of belonging in the mathematics context and provides suggestions for teaching to address the issues of exclusion that are currently present in the culture of university mathematics.
  • Puurtinen, Marjaana; Hoppu, Ulla; Puputti, Sari; Mattila, Saila; Sandell, Mari (2021)
    Mobile eye tracking (MET) enables the recording of gaze data in less-controlled research environments, but best practices for its use in studies about visual attention to foods are yet undetermined. This study supports the building of a coherent framework for this methodological approach by discussing current eye-tracking trends in the field, applying MET in an experiment with real foods, and proposing methodological approaches for future studies. In the experiment, 32 female participants' gaze data were recorded while they inspected a salad buffet for 20 s and then assembled a self-choice salad. The functionality of fixation, scanpath, and pupil size measures was investigated, focusing on associations between eye movements and food item color and position, eye movements and food item preference, and pupil size and selected measures. Dish placement affected the relative amount of visits to a single food item, whereas food item color and preference were not associated with the examined measures. The pupil-size measure did not function with the elderly participants. Importantly, a simple cluster analysis, based on a scanpath and a food selection measure, helped to illustrate different profiles of food view and selection. It was determined that food item position should be carefully considered in MET studies involving real foods, and scanpath measures could be useful in bringing forth behavioral differences that are not revealed by fixation parameters alone. Importantly, identifying "attention-action" profiles by combining eyetracking and other measures seems to be a fruitful way of approaching individual differences in food viewing and selection.
  • Björklund, Andreas; Husfeldt, Thore; Kaski, Petteri; Koivisto, Mikko (2017)
    We present parameterized algorithms for the k-path problem, the p-packing of q-sets problem, and the q-dimensional p-matching problem. Our algorithms solve these problems with high probability in time exponential only in the parameter (k, p, q) and using polynomial space. The constant bases of the exponentials are significantly smaller than in previous works; for example, for the k-path problem the improvement is from 2 to 1.66. We also show how to detect if a d-regular graph admits an edge coloring with d colors in time within a polynomial factor of 2((d-1)n/2). Our techniques generalize an algebraic approach studied in various recent works. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Almeida, Diana Abondano; Mappes, Johanna; Gordon, Swanne (2021)
    Predator-induced plasticity in life-history and antipredator traits during the larval period has been extensively studied in organisms with complex life-histories. However, it is unclear whether different levels of predation could induce warning signals in aposematic organisms. Here, we investigated whether predator-simulated handling affects warning coloration and life-history traits in the aposematic wood tiger moth larva, Arctia plantaginis. As juveniles, a larger orange patch on an otherwise black body signifies a more efficient warning signal against predators but this comes at the costs of conspicuousness and thermoregulation. Given this, one would expect that an increase in predation risk would induce flexible expression of the orange patch. Prior research in this system points to plastic effects being important as a response to environmental changes for life history traits, but we had yet to assess whether this was the case for predation risk, a key driver of this species evolution. Using a full-sib rearing design, in which individuals were reared in the presence and absence of a non-lethal simulated bird attack, we evaluated flexible responses of warning signal size (number of orange segments), growth, molting events, and development time in wood tiger moths. All measured traits except development time showed a significant response to predation. Larvae from the predation treatment developed a more melanized warning signal (smaller orange patch), reached a smaller body size, and molted more often. Our results suggest plasticity is indeed important in aposematic organisms, but in this case may be complicated by the trade-off between costly pigmentation and other life-history traits.
  • Silva, Sofia Marques; Ribas, Camila C.; Aleixo, Alexandre (2021)
    We assessed population structure and the spatio-temporal pattern of diversification in the Glossy Antshrike Sakesphorus luctuosus (Aves, Thamnophilidae) to understand the processes shaping the evolutionary history of Amazonian floodplains and address unresolved taxonomic controversies surrounding its species limits. By targeting ultraconserved elements (UCEs) from 32 specimens of S. luctuosus, we identified independent lineages and estimated their differentiation, divergence times, and migration rates. We also estimated current and past demographic histories for each recovered lineage. We found evidence confirming that S. luctuosus consists of a single species, comprising at least four populations, with some highly admixed individuals and overall similar levels of migration between populations. We confirmed the differentiation of the Araguaia River basin population (S. l. araguayae) and gathered circumstantial evidence indicating that the taxon S. hagmanni may represent a highly introgressed population between three distinct phylogroups of S. luctuosus. Divergences between populations occurred during the last 1.2 mya. Signs of population expansions were detected for populations attributed to subspecies S. l. luctuosus, but not for the S. l. araguayae population. Our results support that S. luctuosus has had a complex population history, resulting from a high dependence on southeastern "clear water" seasonally flooded habitats and their availability through time. Spatial and demographic expansions toward the western "white water" flooded forests might be related to recent changes in connectivity and availability of these habitats. Our study reinforces the view that isolation due to absence of suitable habitat has been an important driver of population differentiation within Amazonian flooded forests, but also that differences between varzeas ("white water" floodplains, mostly in southwestern Amazonia) and igapos ("clear water" floodplains, especially located in the east) should be further explored as drivers of micro-evolution for terrestrial species.
  • Elgert, Christina Barbro Cecilia; Hopkins, Juhani; Kaitala, Arja Leena; Candolin, Ulrika (2020)
    The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-wormLampyris noctiluca-which glow in the night to attract males-mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light conditions. We found females do not move away from light when exposed to a gradient of artificial light, but delay or even refrain from glowing. Further, we demonstrate that this response is maladaptive, as our field study showed that staying still when exposed to artificial light from a simulated streetlight decreases mate attraction success, while moving only a short distance from the light source can markedly improve mate attraction. These results indicate that glow-worms are unable to respond to spatial variation in artificial light, which may be a factor in their global decline. Consequently, our results support the hypothesis that animals often lack adaptive behavioural responses to anthropogenic environmental changes and underlines the importance of considering behavioural responses when investigating the effects of human activities on wildlife.
  • Kilpelainen, Markku; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Theeuwes, Jan (2013)
  • Jonauskaite, Domicele; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Atitsogbe, Kokou Amenyona; Barma, Marodégueba; Barratt, Daniel; Bogushevskaya, Victoria; Bouayed Meziane, Maliha Khadidja; Chamseddine, Amer; Charernboom, Thammanard; Chkonia, Eka; Ciobanu, Teofil; Corona, Violeta; Creed, Allison; Dael, Nele; Daouk, Hassan; Dimitrova, Nevena; Doorenbos, Cornelis B.; Fomins, Sergejs; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Gaspar, Augusta; Gizdic, Alena; Griber, Yulia A.; Grimshaw, Gina; Hasan Aya, Ahmed; Havelka, Jelena; Hirnstein, Marco; Karlsson, Bodil S.A.; Kim, Jejoong; Konstantinou, Nikos; Laurent, Eric; Lindeman, Marjaana; Manav, Banu; Marquardt, Lynn; Mefoh, Philip; Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Mutandwa, Phillip; Muthusi, Steve; Ngabolo, Georgette; Oberfeld, Daniel; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Perchtold, Corinna M.; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia; Pouyan, Niloufar; Rashid Soron, Tanjir; Roinishvili, Maya; Romanyuk, Lyudmyla; Salgado Montejo, Alejandro; Sultanova, Aygun; Tau, Ramiro; Uusküla, Mari; Vainio, Suvi; Vargas-Soto, Veronica; Volkan, Eliz; Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Zdravković, Sunčica; Zhang, Meng; Mohr, Christine (2019)
    Across cultures, people associate colours with emotions. Here, we test the hypothesis that one driver of this cross-modal correspondence is the physical environment we live in. We focus on a prime example – the association of yellow with joy, – which conceivably arises because yellow is reminiscent of life-sustaining sunshine and pleasant weather. If so, this association should be especially strong in countries where sunny weather is a rare occurrence. We analysed yellow-joy associations of 6625 participants from 55 countries to investigate how yellow-joy associations varied geographically, climatologically, and seasonally. We assessed the distance to the equator, sunshine, precipitation, and daytime hours. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants who live further away from the equator and in rainier countries are more likely to associate yellow with joy. We did not find associations with seasonal variations. Our findings support a role for the physical environment in shaping the affective meaning of colour.
  • Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Bottcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Tanis, Cemal Melih; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Arslan, Ali Nadir (2018)
    In recent years, monitoring of the status of ecosystems using low-cost web (IP) or time lapse cameras has received wide interest. With broad spatial coverage and high temporal resolution, networked cameras can provide information about snow cover and vegetation status, serve as ground truths to Earth observations and be useful for gap-filling of cloudy areas in Earth observation time series. Networked cameras can also play an important role in supplementing laborious phenological field surveys and citizen science projects, which also suffer from observer-dependent observation bias. We established a network of digital surveillance cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation and snow cover in the boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted at 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. Here, we document the network, basic camera information and access to images in the permanent data repository (http://www.zenodo.org/communities/phenology_camera/). Individual DOI-referenced image time series consist of half-hourly images collected between 2014 and 2016 (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1066862). Additionally, we present an example of a colour index time series derived from images from two contrasting sites.