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  • Tuovinen, Elina A.; Pöysti, Sakari; Hamdan, Firas; Le, Kim My; Keskitalo, Salla; Turunen, Tanja; Minier, Lea; Mamia, Nanni; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Varjosalo, Markku; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Kere, Juha; Seppänen, Mikko R. J.; Hänninen, Arno; Grönholm, Juha (2023)
    Abnormally high gamma delta T cell numbers among individuals with atypical SCID have been reported but detailed immunopheno typing and functional characterization of these expanded gamma delta T cells are limited. We have previously reported atypical SCID phenotype caused by hypomorphic IL2RG (NM_000206.3) c.172C > T;p.(Pro58Ser) variant. Here, we have further investigated the index patient's abnormally large gamma delta T cell population in terms of function and phenotype by studying IL2RG cell surface expression, STAT tyrosine phosphorylation and blast formation in response to interleukin stimulation, immunophenotyping, TCRv gamma sequencing, and target cell killing. In contrast to his alpha beta T cells, the patient's gamma delta T cells showed normal IL2RG cell surface expression and normal or enhanced IL2RG-mediated signaling. V delta 2 + population was proportionally increased with a preponderance of memory phenotypes and high overall tendency towards perforin expression. The patient's gamma delta T cells showed enhanced cytotoxicity towards A549 cancer cells. His TCRv gamma repertoire was versatile but sequencing of IL2RG revealed a novel c.534C > A; p.(Phe178Leu) somatic missense variant restricted to gamma delta T cells. Over time this variant became predominant in gamma delta T cells, though initially present only in part of them. IL2RG-Pro58Ser/Phe178Leu variant showed higher cell surface expression compared to IL2RG-Pro58Ser variant in stable HEK293 cell lines, suggesting that somatic p.(Phe178Leu) variant may at least partially rescue the pathogenic effect of germline p.(Pro58Ser) variant. In conclusion, our report indicates that expansion of gamma delta T cells associated with atypical SCID needs further studying and cannot exclusively be deemed as a homeostatic response to low numbers of conventional T cells.
  • Gadina, Massimo; Le, Mimi T.; Schwartz, Daniella M.; Silvennoinen, Olli; Nakayamada, Shingo; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; O'Shea, John J. (2019)
    Cytokines are critical mediators of diverse immune and inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytokines and cytokine receptors with biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many of these diseases, but targeting intracellular signalling with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (jakinibs) now represents a major new therapeutic advance. We are still in the first decade since these drugs were approved and there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms of action of these drugs and the practical use of these agents. Herein we will review cytokines that do, and just as importantly, do not signal by JAKs, as well as explain how this relates to both efficacy and side effects in various diseases. We will review new, next-generation selective jakinibs, as well as the prospects and challenges ahead in targeting JAKs.
  • Tuovinen, Elina A.; Grönholm, Juha; Öhman, Tiina; Pöysti, Sakari; Toivonen, Raine; Kreutzman, Anna; Heiskanen, Kaarina; Trotta, Luca; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Routes, John M.; Verbsky, James; Mustjoki, Satu; Saarela, Janna; Kere, Juha; Varjosalo, Markku; Hänninen, Arno; Seppänen, Mikko R. J. (2020)
    Hypomorphic IL2RG mutations may lead to milder phenotypes than X-SCID, named variably as atypical X-SCID or X-CID. We report an 11-year-old boy with a novel c. 172C>T;p.(Pro58Ser) mutation in IL2RG, presenting with atypical X-SCID phenotype. We also review the growing number of hypomorphic IL2RG mutations causing atypical X-SCID. We studied the patient's clinical phenotype, B, T, NK, and dendritic cell phenotypes, IL2RG and CD25 cell surface expression, and IL-2 target gene expression, STAT tyrosine phosphorylation, PBMC proliferation, and blast formation in response to IL-2 stimulation, as well as protein-protein interactions of the mutated IL2RG by BioID proximity labeling. The patient suffered from recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections, bronchiectasis, and reactive arthritis. His total lymphocyte counts have remained normal despite skewed T and B cells subpopulations, with very low numbers of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Surface expression of IL2RG was reduced on his lymphocytes. This led to impaired STAT tyrosine phosphorylation in response to IL-2 and IL-21, reduced expression of IL-2 target genes in patient CD4+ T cells, and reduced cell proliferation in response to IL-2 stimulation. BioID proximity labeling showed aberrant interactions between mutated IL2RG and ER/Golgi proteins causing mislocalization of the mutated IL2RG to the ER/Golgi interface. In conclusion, IL2RG p.(Pro58Ser) causes X-CID. Failure of IL2RG plasma membrane targeting may lead to atypical X-SCID. We further identified another carrier of this mutation from newborn SCID screening, lost to closer scrutiny.