Browsing by Subject "COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS"

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  • Treanor, Charlene J; Kouvonen, Anne; Lallukka, Tea; Donnelly, Michael (2021)
    Background: Mental ill-health presents a major public health problem. A potential part solution that is receiving increasing attention is computer-delivered psychological therapy, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic as health care systems moved to remote service delivery. However, computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) requires active engagement by service users, and low adherence may minimize treatment effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to investigate the acceptability of cCBT to understand implementation issues and maximize potential benefits. Objective: This study aimed to produce a critical appraisal of published reviews about the acceptability of cCBT for adults. Methods: An umbrella review informed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology identified systematic reviews about the acceptability of cCBT for common adult mental disorders. Acceptability was operationalized in terms of uptake of, dropping out from, or completion of cCBT treatment; factors that facilitated or impeded adherence; and reports about user, carer, and health care professional experience and satisfaction with cCBT. Databases were searched using search terms informed by relevant published research. Review selection and quality appraisal were guided by the JBI methodology and the AMSTAR tool and undertaken independently by 2 reviewers. Results: The systematic searches of databases identified 234 titles, and 9 reviews (covering 151 unique studies) met the criteria. Most studies were comprised of service users with depression, anxiety, or specifically, panic disorder or phobia. Operationalization of acceptability varied across reviews, thereby making it difficult to synthesize results. There was a similar number of guided and unguided cCBT programs; 34% of guided and 36% of unguided users dropped out; and guidance included email, telephone, face-to-face, and discussion forum support. Guided cCBT was completed in full by 8%-74% of the participants, while 94% completed one module and 67%-84% completed some modules. Unguided cCBT was completed in full by 16%-66% of participants, while 95% completed one module and 54%-93% completed some modules. Guided cCBT appeared to be associated with adherence (sustained via telephone). A preference for face-to-face CBT compared to cCBT (particularly for users who reported feeling isolated), internet or computerized delivery problems, negative perceptions about cCBT, low motivation, too busy or not having enough time, and personal circumstances were stated as reasons for dropping out. Yet, some users favored the anonymous nature of cCBT, and the capacity to undertake cCBT in one's own time was deemed beneficial but also led to avoidance of cCBT. There was inconclusive evidence for an association between sociodemographic variables, mental health status, and cCBT adherence or dropping out. Users tended to be satisfied with cCBT, reported improvements in mental health, and recommended cCBT. Overall, the results indicated that service users' preferences were important considerations regarding the use of cCBT. Conclusions: The review indicated that "one size did not fit all" regarding the acceptability of cCBT and that individual tailoring of cCBT is required in order to increase population reach, uptake, and adherence and therefore, deliver treatment benefits and improve mental health.
  • Karpov, B.; Joffe, G.; Aaltonen, K.; Suvisaari, J.; Baryshnikov, I.; Naatanen, P.; Koivisto, M.; Melartin, T.; Oksanen, J.; Suominen, K.; Heikkinen, M.; Paunio, T.; Isometsa, E. (2016)
    Background: Comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders are present in many psychiatric disorders, but methodological variations render comparisons of their frequency and intensity difficult. Furthermore, whether risk factors for comorbid anxiety symptoms are similar in patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. Methods: The Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) was used to measure anxiety symptoms in psychiatric care patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SSA, n = 113), bipolar disorder (BD, n = 99), or depressive disorder (DD, n = 188) in the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium Study. Bivariate correlations and multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, early psychological trauma and distress, self-efficacy, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, and attachment style with anxiety symptoms in the three diagnostic groups. Results: Frequent or constant anxiety was reported by 40.2% of SSA, 51.5% of BD, and 55.6% of DD patients; it was described as severe or extreme by 43.8%, 41.4%, and 41.2% of these patients, respectively. SSA patients were significantly less anxious (P = 0.010) and less often avoided anxiety-provoking situations (P = 0.009) than the other patients. In regression analyses, OASIS was associated with high neuroticism, symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder and low self-efficacy in all patients, and with early trauma in patients with mood disorders. Conclusions: Comorbid anxiety symptoms are ubiquitous among psychiatric patients with mood or schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and in almost half of them, reportedly severe. Anxiety symptoms appear to be strongly related to both concurrent depressive symptoms and personality characteristics, regardless of principal diagnosis. (C) 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Kivimaki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2013)
  • Markkula, N.; Lehti, V.; Adhikari, P.; Pena, S.; Heliste, J.; Mikkonen, E.; Rautanen, M.; Salama, E.; Guragain, B. (2019)
    Background. An essential strategy to increase coverage of psychosocial treatments globally is task shifting to non-medical counsellors, but evidence on its effectiveness is still scarce. This study evaluates the effectiveness of lay psychosocial counselling among persons with psychological distress in a primary health care setting in rural Nepal. Methods. A parallel randomized controlled trial in Dang, rural Nepal (NCT03544450). Persons aged 16 and older attending primary care and with a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score of 6 or more were randomized (1:1) to receive either non-medical psychosocial counselling (PSY) or enhanced usual care (EUC). PSY was provided by lay persons with a 6-month training and consisted of 5-weekly counselling sessions of 35-60 min with a culturally adapted solution-focused approach. EUC was provided by trained primary health workers. Participants were followed up at 1 (T1) and 6 months (T2). The primary outcome, response to treatment, was the reduction of minimum 50% in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Results. A total of 141 participants, predominantly socially disadvantaged women, were randomized to receive PSY and 146 to EUC. In the PSY, 123 participants and 134 in the EUC were analysed. In PSY, 101 participants (81.4%) had a response compared with 57 participants (42.5%) in EUC [percentage difference 39.4% (95% CI 28.4-50.4)]. The difference in BDI scores at T2 between PSY and EUC was -7.43 (95% CI -9.71 to -5.14). Conclusions. Non-medical (lay) psychosocial counselling appears effective in reducing depressive symptoms, and its inclusion in mental health care should be considered in low-resource settings.
  • Lassale, Camille; Batty, G. David; Baghdadli, Amaria; Jacka, Felice; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime (2019)
    With depression being the psychiatric disorder incurring the largest societal costs in developed countries, there is a need to gather evidence on the role of nutrition in depression, to help develop recommendations and guide future psychiatric health care. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the link between diet quality, measured using a range of predefined indices, and depressive outcomes. Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched up to 31st May 2018 for studies that examined adherence to a healthy diet in relation to depressive symptoms or clinical depression. Where possible, estimates were pooled using random effect meta-analysis with stratification by observational study design and dietary score. A total of 20 longitudinal and 21 cross-sectional studies were included. These studies utilized an array of dietary measures, including: different measures of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative HEI (AHEI), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index. The most compelling evidence was found for the Mediterranean diet and incident depression, with a combined relative risk estimate of highest vs. lowest adherence category from four longitudinal studies of 0.67 (95% CI 0.55-0.82). A lower Dietary Inflammatory Index was also associated with lower depression incidence in four longitudinal studies (relative risk 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63-0.92). There were fewer longitudinal studies using other indices, but they and cross-sectional evidence also suggest an inverse association between healthy diet and depression (e.g., relative risk 0.65; 95% CI 0.50-0.84 for HEI/AHEI). To conclude, adhering to a healthy diet, in particular a traditional Mediterranean diet, or avoiding a pro-inflammatory diet appears to confer some protection against depression in observational studies. This provides a reasonable evidence base to assess the role of dietary interventions to prevent depression.
  • Loponen, Tiina; Lallukka, Tea; Holstila, Ansku; Lahti, Jouni (2015)
    Background: Physical activity level and overweight have shown associations with mental health problems but it is not known whether the risk of mental health problems due to overweight varies by physical activity. We examined joint association of physical activity and overweight with subsequent psychotropic medication among 40-60-year-old employees. Methods: The questionnaire survey data were derived from Helsinki Health Study baseline postal questionnaires in 2000-02 among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (n = 8960, response rate 67 %). Baseline survey data were linked with prospective register data on prescribed psychotropic medication (ATC-codes N05 and N06, except N06D) among those with written consent (74 %) for such linkage. The analyses included 6169 responders (78 % women, corresponding to the target population). We divided participants into six groups according to their baseline self-reported body mass index and leisure-time physical activity using physically highly active normal-weight participants as a reference group. We used Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, psychotropic medication prior to baseline, and socioeconomic position, marital status, working conditions, limiting long-standing illness, alcohol use, and smoking. Results: At baseline, 49 % were overweight and 23 % were physically inactive. After adjusting for age and gender, inactive normal-weight (hazard ratio (HR) 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.5), moderately active overweight (HR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.5) and inactive overweight (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6) had higher risk for any psychotropic medication compared with group of highly active normal-weight. After adjusting for prior medication, only the inactive overweight group had higher risk (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). Other covariates made but a minor contribution to the examined associations. For antidepressants the associations were somewhat stronger than for sedatives. Conclusions: Both normal-weight and physical activity help prevent psychotropic medication but physical activity dominates the association over normal-weight.
  • Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders are major causes of long-term sickness absence in Western countries. Although sickness absence is generally more common in lower occupational classes, little is known about class differences in diagnostic-specific absence over time. Focusing on Finland during 2005-2014, we therefore set out to examine the magnitude of and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence due to major diagnostic causes. Methods: A 70-per-cent random sample of Finns aged 25-64 linked to register data on medically certified sickness absence (of over 10 working days) in 2005-2014 was retrieved from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Information on occupational class was obtained from Statistics Finland and linked to the data. The study focused on female (n = 658,148-694,142) and male (n = 604,715-642,922) upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers. The age-standardised prevalence, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated for each study year to facilitate examination of the class differences. Results: The prevalence of each diagnostic cause of sickness absence declined during the study period, the most common causes being musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders and injuries. The prevalence of other causes under scrutiny was less than 1 % annually. By far the largest absolute and relative differences were in musculoskeletal diseases among both women and men. Moreover, the absolute differences in both genders (p <0. 0001) and the relative differences in men (p <0.0001) narrowed over time as the prevalence declined most among manual workers. Both genders showed modest and stable occupational class differences in mental disorders. In the case of injuries, no major changes occurred in absolute differences but relative differences narrowed over time in men (p <0.0001) due to a strong decline in prevalence among manual workers. Class differences in the other studied diagnostic causes under scrutiny appeared negligible. Conclusions: By far the largest occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence concerned musculoskeletal diseases, followed by injuries. The results highlight potential targets for preventive measures aimed at reducing sickness absence and narrowing class differences in the future.
  • Salama, Essi S.; Castaneda, Anu E.; Lilja, Eero; Suvisaari, Jaana; Rask, Shadia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Niemela, Solja (2020)
    Background and aims The associations between traumatic events, substance use and perceived discrimination have been rarely studied among migrants in host countries. We examined whether pre-migration potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) or perceived discrimination (PD) are associated with substance use among migrants with voluntary (Russians) and forced (Kurds) migration backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional interview and health examination data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study were used. The target sample (n = 1000 for each group) was drawn from the national population register using stratified random sampling by participants' country of birth and native language. Setting Population-based data were collected from six cities in Finland during 2010-12. Participants The participation rates were 68% (Russians) and 59% (Kurds). The analytical sample size varied (Russians n = 442-687, Kurds n = 459-613), as some participants completed only interview, health examination or short interview. The majority of Kurds had a refugee background (75%) while Russians had mainly migrated for other reasons (99%). Measurements The three main outcomes were self-reported binge drinking, daily smoking and life-time cannabis use. PTEs and PD were self-reported in the interview. Socio-demographic background, migration-related factors and current affective symptoms were adjusted for. Findings Among Kurds, PTEs were associated with binge drinking [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-5.42] and PD was associated with life-time cannabis use (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.38-10.97) after adjusting for contextual factors. Among Russians, PTEs were associated with life-time cannabis use adjusting for contextual factors (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.12-4.18). Conclusions In Finland, pre-migration traumatic experiences appear to be associated with life-time cannabis use among the Russian migrant population (voluntary migration) and binge drinking among the Kurdish migrant population (forced migration). Perceived discrimination in Finland appears to be associated with life-time cannabis use among Kurdish migrants.
  • Airaksinen, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for long-term sickness absence. Methods Survey responses on work-and lifestyle-related questions from 65 775 public-sector employees were linked to sickness absence records to develop a prediction score for medically-certified sickness absence lasting > 9 days and >= 90 days. The score was externally validated using data from an independent population-based cohort of 13 527 employees. For both sickness absence outcomes, a full model including 46 candidate predictors was reduced to a parsimonious model using least-absolute-shrinkage-and-selection-operator (LASSO) regression. Predictive performance of the model was evaluated using C-index and calibration plots. Results Variance explained in >= 90-day sickness absence by the full model was 12.5%. In the parsimonious model, the predictors included self-rated health (linear and quadratic term), depression, sex, age (linear and quadratic), socioeconomic position, previous sickness absences, number of chronic diseases, smoking, shift work, working night shift, and quadratic terms for body mass index and Jenkins sleep scale. The discriminative ability of the score was good (C-index 0.74 in internal and 0.73 in external validation). Calibration plots confirmed high correspondence between the predicted and observed risk. In > 9-day sickness absence, the full model explained 15.2% of the variance explained, but the C-index of the parsimonious model was poor ( Conclusions Individuals' risk of a long-term sickness absence that lasts >= 90 days can be estimated using a brief risk score. The predictive performance of this score is comparable to those for established multifactorial risk algorithms for cardiovascular disease, such as the Framingham risk score.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Joensuu, Matti; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Ahola, Kirsi; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna (2017)
    Knowledge about factors influencing return to work (RTW) after depression-related absence is highly relevant, but the evidence is scattered. We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to February 1, 2016 to retrieve cohort studies on the association between various predictive factors and return to work among employees with depression for review and meta-analysis. We also analyzed unpublished data from the Finnish Public Sector study. Most-adjusted estimates were pooled using fixed effects meta-analysis. Eleven published studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, representing 22 358 person-observations from five different countries. With the additional unpublished data from the 14 101 person-observations from the Finnish Public Sector study, the total number of person observations was 36 459. The pooled estimates were derived from 2 to 5 studies, with the number of observations ranging from 260 to 26 348. Older age (pooled relative risk [RR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.87), somatic comorbidity (RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), psychiatric comorbidity (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.83-0.88) and more severe depression (RR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98) were associated with a lower rate of return to work, and personality trait conscientiousness with higher (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10) return to work. While older age and clinical factors predicted slower return, significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. There is a dearth of observational studies on the predictors of RTW after depression. Future research should pay attention to quality aspects and particularly focus on the role of workplace and labor market factors as well as individual and clinical characteristics on RTW. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Hiilamo, Aapo; Butterworth, Peter; Wooden, Mark; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna; Sivertsen, Borge; Aalto, Ville; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    Background: Uncertainty remains whether associations for psychological distress and sickness absence (SA) observed between and within individuals differ, and whether age, gender and work-related factors moderate these associations. Methods: We analyzed SA records of 41,184 participants of the Finnish Public Sector study with repeated survey data between 2000 and 2016 (119,024 observations). Psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), while data on SA days were from the employers' registers. We used a hybrid regression estimation approach adjusting for time-variant confounders-age, marital status, occupational class, body mass index, job contract type, months worked in the follow-up year, job demand, job control, and workplace social capital-and time-invariant gender (for between-individual analysis). Results: Higher levels of psychological distress were consistently associated with SA, both within- and between-individuals. The within-individual association (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.68, 95% CI 1.61-1.75 for SA at high distress), however, was substantially smaller than the between-individual association (IRR 2.53, 95% CI 2.39-2.69). High levels of psychological distress had slightly stronger within-individual associations with SA among older (>45 years) than younger employees, lower than higher occupational class, and among men than women. None of the assessed work unit related factors (e.g. job demand, job control) were consistent moderators. Limitations: These findings may not be generalizable to other working sectors or cultures with different SA policies or study populations that are male dominated. Conclusions: Focus on within-individual variation over time provides more accurate estimates of the contribution of mental health to subsequent sickness absence.