Browsing by Subject "COMMUNICATION"

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  • Stotani, Silvia; Gatta, Viviana; Medda, Federico; Padmanaban, Mohan; Karawajzyk, Anna; Tammela, Päivi Sirpa Marjaana; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Tzalis, Dimitrios; Collina, Simona (2018)
    Resistance to antibiotics is an increasingly serious threat to global public health and its management translates to significant health care costs. The validation of new Gram-negative antibacterial targets as sources for potential new antibiotics remains a challenge for all the scientists working in this field. The interference with bacterial Quorum Sensing (QS) mechanisms represents a potentially interesting approach to control bacterial growth and pursue the next generation of antimicrobials. In this context, our research is focused on the discovery of novel compounds structurally related to (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, commonly known as (S)-DPD, a small signaling molecule able to modulate bacterial QS in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, a practical and versatile synthesis of racemic DPD is presented. Compared to previously reported syntheses, the proposed strategy is short and robust: it requires only one purification step and avoids the use of expensive or hazardous starting materials as well as the use of specific equipment. It is therefore well suited to the synthesis of derivatives for pharmaceutical research, as demonstrated by four series of novel DPD-related compounds described herein.
  • Vincze, Laszlo; MacIntyre, Peter (2017)
    By integrating the social context model of L2 acquisition with the pyramid model of willingness to communicate in L2, this study examined aspects of the psychological process underlying willingness to communicate (WTC) in Slovak among young Hungarian speakers in Southern Slovakia. The data was collected among Hungarian-speaking secondary school students (N = 310). The results indicated that frequent and pleasant contact with Slovak speakers was related to higher proficiency in Slovak and lower anxiety to use Slovak, and these increased the willingness to communicate in Slovak. However, it was also demonstrated that accent stigmatization moderated the relationship between perceived L2 proficiency and L2 use anxiety. Anxiety was more closely related to proficiency among those who perceived less accent stigmatization than among those who perceived more stigma because of their Hungarian accent. The theoretical implications of these findings for the role of the intergroup context in developing accent stigmatization, and the link between accent stigmatization, L2 use anxiety and willingness to communicate in the majority language are discussed.
  • Mäkinen, M.; Castren, M.; Huttunen, K.; Sundell, S.; Kaartinen, J.; Ben-Meir, M.; Renholm, M. (2019)
    Objective: The objective of the study is to assess how well the emergency department (ED) personnel succeed in instructing the patient at discharge. Methods: In November and December 2016 at Peijas Hospital ED, Finland, a structured questionnaire was conducted during a phone interview on patients the day after discharge. Results: A total of 132 patients interviewed. Ninety percent had received discharge instructions from the ED staff, most of them (75%) about medication. Almost half of the patients (45%) were satisfied with the communication at discharge, those not satisfied (47%) felt that the staff did not know enough of their background to give discharge instructions. Of the patients, 20% thought that they did not have the opportunity to ask questions during the guidance session, and 41% thought that the session was too short and restricted. Some patients (20%) felt that the instructions were ambiguous, but 63% (83/132) felt they were able to follow them well or very well. Conclusion: The pace of care in the ED is fast and duration of the stay is short. The patients must be able to take responsibility of their self-care. Failure to follow medical discharge instructions could lead to non-compliance. Attention should be paid to enhancing the quality of discharge instructing and the instructions provided by the ED personnel, as recurring visits and inquiry calls add to the ED workload.
  • Saastamoinen, Antti; Hyttinen, Virva; Kortelainen, Mika; Aaltio, Juho; Auranen, Mari; Ylikallio, Emil; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Sainio, Markus; Suomalainen, Anu; Tyynismaa, Henna; Isohanni, Pirjo (2020)
    This study examines how parents of pediatric patients might differ in their views and attitudes towards genetic technology and information when compared to adult patients. There is surprisingly little evidence on how parents compare to other parts of population in their attitudes. Previous empirical studies often relate health-related preferences and attitudes to factors such as age, education, and income instead of parental status, thus evading comparison of parents to others as health-related decision makers. Findings related to the parental status can be useful when implementing genetic technology in clinical practice. We conducted a survey of views on genetic technology and information for groups of adult neurology patients (n = 68) and parents of pediatric neurology patients (n = 31) to shed some light on this issue. In addition to our own survey instrument, we conducted other surveys to gain insight on psychosocial factors that might affect these attitudes. The results suggest that parents are more concerned about their children's genetic risk factors when compared to the attitudes of adult patients about their own risk. For both groups, negative emotional state was associated with more concerns towards genetic information. Our study provides insights on how parental views might affect the acceptance of genetic technology and information.
  • Mustajoki, Arto; Baikulova, Alla (2022)
    In an ordinary interaction, communicants have various, mostly unconscious goals which reflect their interactional, social and personal needs. In these interactions, people's minds try to find a balance between reaching these goals and consuming cognitive energy. If a speaker puts too little effort into speech production, she risks not achieving her communicative goals. This is especially typical when the atmosphere is relaxed, a good example of which is family discourse. An analysis of recorded conversations shows that there are certain regular manifestations of risk-taking in family discourse, such as expressing immature thoughts, raising a large variety of topics and overguessing. A substantial amount of risk-taking in family discourse is in one way or another connected with false confidence in the interlocutors' common ground. Family members know each other well, which results in an overestimation of the similarity of their understanding of words and objects. This attitude leads them to use cryptic, hard-to-comprehend speech. Quick, everyday interactions are mostly automated, and the speakers do not recognise that their speech is full of implicitness and underdeterminacy.
  • Cantell, Hannele; Tolppanen, Sakari; Aarnio-Linnanvuori, Essi; Lehtonen, Anna (2019)
    This article presents and evaluates a model made for climate change education - the bicycle model. The model was created based on an extensive literature review, from which, essential aspects of climate change education were drawn out. The bicycle model is a representation of holistic climate change education and emphasizes the importance of the following aspects: knowledge, thinking skills, values, identity, worldview, action, motivation, participation, future orientation, hope and other emotions, and operational barriers. In this study, the model is also evaluated by climate education researchers and educators. The evaluation was done through documented group discussions and an electronic questionnaire. The findings suggest that the model is useful in developing climate change education policy, research and practice. The findings also give insight into expert's perceptions on climate education. Finally, the article discusses how this model could be developed further.
  • Maseide, Ragnhild J.; Berntorp, Erik; Nummi, Vuokko; Lassila, Riitta; Tjonnfjord, Geir E.; Holme, Pal A. (2021)
    Introduction Predicting the bleeding phenotype is crucial for the management of patients with moderate haemophilia. Global coagulation assays evaluate haemostasis more comprehensively than conventional methods. Aim To explore global coagulation assays and the bleeding phenotype of patients with moderate haemophilia A (MHA) and B (MHB). Methods The MoHem study is a cross-sectional, multicentre study covering Nordic patients with MHA and MHB. Thromboelastometry in whole blood and thrombin generation (TG) in platelet-poor plasma (1, 2.5 and 5 pM tissue factor (TF)) were compared with joint health (Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS)) and treatment modality. Results We report on 61 patients from Oslo and Helsinki: 24 MHA and 37 MHB. By TG (2.5 pM TF), patients who had been without replacement therapy during the previous 12 months depicted higher endogenous thrombin potential (P = .03). In contrast, those who had low ETP (< median) captured higher HJHS (P = .02). Patients who had undergone orthopaedic surgery generated least thrombin (P = .02). By thromboelastometry, those without the need of factor consumption had short clotting times, and quick times to maximum velocity (< median values) (P = .03). Factor VIII/factor IX activity (FVIII/FIX:C) did not align with the bleeding phenotype, but FIX:C Conclusion TG differentiated patients with moderate haemophilia according to HJHS, annual factor consumption, and whether orthopaedic surgery had been performed. Thromboelastometry differentiated according to factor consumption only. Global coagulation assays may assist predicting the bleeding phenotype in moderate haemophilia.
  • Kindler, Oliver; Pulkkinen, Otto; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf (2019)
    Quorum-sensing bacteria in a growing colony of cells send out signalling molecules (so-called "autoinducers") and themselves sense the autoinducer concentration in their vicinity. Once-due to increased local cell density inside a "cluster" of the growing colony-the concentration of autoinducers exceeds a threshold value, cells in this clusters get "induced" into a communal, multi-cell biofilm-forming mode in a cluster-wide burst event. We analyse quantitatively the influence of spatial disorder, the local heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of cells in the colony, and additional physical parameters such as the autoinducer signal range on the induction dynamics of the cell colony. Spatial inhomogeneity with higher local cell concentrations in clusters leads to earlier but more localised induction events, while homogeneous distributions lead to comparatively delayed but more concerted induction of the cell colony, and, thus, a behaviour close to the mean-field dynamics. We quantify the induction dynamics with quantifiers such as the time series of induction events and burst sizes, the grouping into induction families, and the mean autoinducer concentration levels. Consequences for different scenarios of biofilm growth are discussed, providing possible cues for biofilm control in both health care and biotechnology.
  • Heikkilä, Juha Markus; Parkkamäki, Stina; Salimäki, Johanna; Westermarck, Sari; Pohjanoksa-Mantyla, Marika (2018)
    Background and purpose: COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although medication counseling interventions by pharmacists have been found to support the management of COPD, little is known about pharmacists' knowledge concerning COPD and regular practices and perceptions concerning medication counseling of COPD patients. The purpose of this study was to research these topics among Finnish community pharmacists. Materials and methods: In January 2017, an electronic survey was e-mailed to Finnish community pharmacies (n=741) via the Association of the Finnish Pharmacies. One pharmacist from each pharmacy, preferably a specialist in asthma, was invited to answer the survey. Results: Completed responses were received from 263 pharmacists (response rate =35%), of whom 196 pharmacists were specialists in asthma. Response rate among asthma pharmacists was 42%. Pharmacists were positive about their role in medication counseling and in support of the self-management of COPD patients. COPD-related knowledge was self-assessed as being good and was on a good level in respect of basic facts. However, almost half (46%) of the pharmacists did not know that COPD is considered a national public health issue, and similar to 50% of the pharmacists were not familiar with the current care guideline on COPD. Medication counseling was found to be more medicinal product-driven and less advisory concerning lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and physical exercise. Conclusion: Although the pharmacists' knowledge of COPD was good on general topics, there were some gaps in their knowledge on the current care guideline and status of the disease. Pharmacists should more systematically individually target medication counseling according to patients' needs. In addition, lifestyle treatments, including smoking cessation and physical exercise, should be part of the medication counseling.
  • Kurhila, Salla; Lehtimaja, Inkeri; Drew, Paul (2020)
    During daily hospital ward rounds, medical teams, led by doctors, assess the progress of an individual patient's health. It is widely reported in the research literature that nurses play a relatively passive role during these rounds, because although they may have valuable information about the patient's condition and progress, and indeed their role includes advocacy on behalf of their patients, nurses nevertheless can experience difficulties in participating during case constructions. Here we report an instance from a (gastro-surgical) ward round in a Finnish hospital, in which nurses played a key role in reversing a consultant's initial decision to discharge a patient. They did so not by directly challenging the consultant's opinion, but by employing indirect means to introduce their discrepant perspective: they provide descriptions and ask questions that draw attention to information that results in the doctor coming to a different assessment than theirs of the patient's condition, and a different decision about what should be done (the patient was not discharged from hospital). The encounter reported here is taken from a corpus of ward round discussions in a Finnish hospital. The method of our study is Conversation Analysis.
  • Kurhila, Salla; Lehtimaja, Inkeri (2019)
    Nurses need to adapt to various interactional situations and design their talk for different recipients. One essential communicative task for nurses is to transmit information on test and measurement results both to the patient and to the physician. This article examines how nurses design their talk on numerical values according to the recipient and the activity. The nurse can deliver the information either plainly through numbers or by formulating some type of qualitative description of the value. The data consist of 7.5 hours of video-recorded interaction in a Finnish hospital. Using conversation analysis, we demonstrate how the institutional roles and the ongoing activity sequence affect how nurses formulate their talk. When nurses discuss results with their patients, they typically use qualitative descriptions, whereas when they talk with doctors, the typical turn involves numeric information. It will be demonstrated that nurses construct their professional identity involving both care and medical expertise through their linguistic-interactional choices.
  • Mäki, Tarja; Kerosuo, Hannele (2020)
    This study explores designers, engineers, and managers sharing their knowledge and resolving design-related issues during construction site meetings. It provides new insights into the collaboration and the expertise of the different partners. In addition, the study provides new knowledge of using LPS in the design phase and its influence on the site meeting discussions in the construction phase. The research data comprise video recordings of 17 site meetings in two BIM-based renovation projects. Based on the data, the construction managers were the most active in addressing issues; however, all partners were actively involved in the discussion and shared their expertise to address the open questions. The use of the Last Planner System in the design phase seemed to decrease the number of design-related open questions in the construction phase. The findings emphasize the need to develop more collaborative design management methods and practices for sharing each expertise.
  • Konerding, Uwe; Bowen, Tom; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Faubel, Raquel; Forte, Paul; Karampli, Eleftheria; Malmstrom, Tomi; Pavi, Elpida; Torkki, Paulus (2019)
    Objective A short questionnaire which can be applied for assessing patient satisfaction in different contexts and different countries is to be developed. Methods Six items addressing tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and communication were analysed. The first five items stem from SERVQUAL (SERVice QUALity), the last stems from the discussion about SERVQUAL. The analyses were performed with data from 12 surveys conducted in six different countries (England, Finland, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain) covering two different conditions (type 2 diabetes, stroke). Sample sizes for included participants are 247 in England, 160 in Finland, 231 in Germany, 152 in Greece, 316 in the Netherlands and 96 in Spain for the diabetes surveys; and 101 in England, 139 in Finland, 107 in Germany, 58 in Greece, 185 in the Netherlands, and 92 in Spain for the stroke surveys. The items were tested by (1) bivariate correlations between the items and an item addressing 'general satisfaction', (2) multivariate regression analyses with 'general satisfaction' as criterion and the items as predictors, and (3) bivariate correlations between sum scores and 'general satisfaction'. Results The correlations with 'general satisfaction' are 0.48 for tangibles, 0.56 for reliability, 0.58 for responsiveness, 0.47 for assurance, 0.53 for empathy, and 0.56 for communication. In the multivariate regression analysis, the regression coefficient for assurance is significantly negative while all other regression coefficients are significantly positive. In a multivariate regression analysis without the item 'assurance' all regression coefficients are positive. The correlation between the sum score and 'general satisfaction' is 0.608 for all six items and 0.618 for the finally remaining five items. The country specific results are similar. Conclusions The five items which remain after removing 'assurance', i.e. the SERVQUAL-MOD-5, constitute a short patient satisfaction index which can usefully be applied for different medical conditions and in different countries.
  • Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Aaltonen, Tarja; Lonka, Eila; Salmenlinna, Inkeri; Laakso, Minna (2020)
    The quality of interaction between hearing health professionals and patients is one prominent, yet under-studied explanation for the low adherence in acquiring and using a hearing aid. This study describes two different ways of introducing hearing aid to the patients at their first visits at the hearing clinic: an inquiry asking patients opinion followed by offer, and an expert evaluation of the necessity of a hearing aid; and shows two different trajectories ensuing from these introductions. The trajectories represent two extreme ends of a continuum of practices of starting a discussion about hearing aid rehabilitation, in terms of how these practices affect patient participation in decision-making. The analysis shows how granting different degrees of deontic and epistemic rights to professionals and patients has different consequences with regard to the activity of reaching shared understanding on the treatment. The data consist of 17 video-recorded encounters at the hearing clinic. The method used is conversation analysis.
  • Kurth, Charlie; Pihkala, Panu (2022)
    Researchers are increasingly trying to understand both the emotions that we experience in response to ecological crises like climate change and the ways in which these emotions might be valuable for our (psychical, psychological, and moral) wellbeing. However, much of the existing work on these issues has been hampered by conceptual and methodological difficulties. As a first step toward addressing these challenges, this review focuses on eco-anxiety. Analyzing a broad range of studies through the use of methods from philosophy, emotion theory, and interdisciplinary environmental studies, the authors show how looking to work on anxiety in general can help researchers build better models of eco-anxiety in particular. The results of this work suggest that the label "eco-anxiety" may be best understood as referring to a family of distinct, but related, ecological emotions. The authors also find that a specific form of eco-anxiety, "practical eco-anxiety," can be a deeply valuable emotional response to threats like climate change: when experienced at the right time and to the right extent, practical eco-anxiety not only reflects well on one's moral character but can also help advance individual and planetary wellbeing.
  • Peltokorpi, Sini; Daelman, Marlene; Salo, Saara; Laakso, Minna (2020)
    Interaction between parents and children with congenital deafblindness (CDB) is easily hampered due to dual sensory loss. This case report examines imitation and emotional availability in interaction between a mother and her 3-year-old child with CDB first in unguided play and then in three play sessions with tactile imitation guidance. The video recorded play sessions were analyzed for frequency, length, and modality of imitation. Emotional Availability Scales were used to code the emotional quality of interaction. The results showed that before the guidance the mother imitated the child mainly vocally. After the guidance, the use of tactility in imitations increased. Imitation exchanges lasted longest in the last session. The emotional availability between the mother and the child was higher after the guidance. Further research is needed to confirm the positive outcomes of this case study.
  • Kornilov, Roman; Puhka, Maija; Mannerström, Bettina; Hiidenmaa, Hanna; Peltoniemi, Hilkka; Siljander, Pia Riitta-Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kaur, Sippy (2018)
    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most commonly used supplement in studies involving cell-culture experiments. However, FBS contains large numbers of bovine extracellular vesicles (EVs), which hamper the analyses of secreted EVs from the cell type of preference and, thus, also the downstream analyses. Therefore, a prior elimination of EVs from FBS is crucial. However, the current methods of EV depletion by ultracentrifugation are cumbersome and the commercial alternatives expensive. In this study, our aim was to develop a protocol to completely deplete EVs from FBS, which may have wide applicability in cell-culture applications. We investigated different EVdepleted FBS prepared by our novel ultrafiltration-based protocol, by conventionally used overnight ultracentrifugation, or commercially available depleted FBS, and compared them with regular FBS. All sera were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, Western blotting and RNA quantification. Next, adipose-tissue mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) and cancer cells were grown in the media supplemented with the three different EV-depleted FBS and compared with cells grown in regular FBS media to assess the effects on cell proliferation, stress, differentiation and EV production. The novel ultrafiltration-based protocol depleted EVs from FBS clearly more efficiently than ultracentrifugation and commercial methods. Cell proliferation, stress, differentiation and EV production of AT-MSCs and cancer cell lines were similarly maintained in all three EV-depleted FBS media up to 96 h. In summary, our ultrafiltration protocol efficiently depletes EVs, is easy to use and maintains cell growth and metabolism. Since the method is also cost-effective and easy to standardize, it could be used in a wide range of cell-culture applications helping to increase comparability of EV research results between laboratories.
  • Smedowski, Adrian; Akhtar, Saeed; Liu, Xiaonan; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Podracka, Lucia; Toropainen, Elisa; Alkanaan, Aljoharah; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto; Varjosalo, Markku; Kaarniranta, Kai; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna (2020)
    Abstract Purpose To characterize newly discovered electrical synapses, formed by connexin (Cx) 36 and 45, between neighbouring axons within the optic nerve head. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were killed by CO2 inhalation. Proximal and distal optic nerve (ON) stumps were collected and processed for immunostainings, electron microscopy (EM) with immunogold labelling, PCR and Western blots (WB). Additional 15 animals were deeply anaesthetized, and flash visual evoked potentials (fVEP) after retrobulbar injection of saline (negative control) or 100 ?m meclofenamic acid solution (gap junctions? blocker) were recorded. Human paraffin cross-sections of eyeballs for immunostainings were obtained from the Human Eye Biobank for Research. Results Immunostainings of both rat and human ON revealed the presence of Cx45 and 36 colocalizing with ?3-tubulin, but not with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In WB, Cx36 content in optic nerve was approximately halved when compared with retina (0.58 ± 0.005 in proximal stump and 0.44 ± 0.02 in distal stump), Cx45 showed higher levels (0.68 ± 0.01 in proximal stump and 0.9 ± 0.07 in distal stump). In immunogold-EM of optic nerve sections, we found electric synapses (formed mostly by Cx45) directly coupling neighbouring axons. In fVEP, blocking of gap junctions with meclofenamic acid resulted in significant prolongation of the latency of P1 wave up to 160% after 30 min (p 
  • Laine, Outi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Lassila, Riitta; Huhtala, Heini; Vaheri, Antti; Makela, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka (2016)
    We evaluated the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia and procoagulant changes in relation with clinical variables in a cohort of patients with acute hantavirus disease. Blood samples of 33 prospectively recruited, consecutive, hospitalized patients with acute Puumala virus-induced hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) were collected acutely and at the recovery visit (control). Serum thrombopoietin (TPO) and activity of plasma microparticles (MPs) from various cell sources were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based methods. The results were related to data on platelet indices and functions, coagulation variables, and clinical disease. Serum TPO was nearly 4-fold higher acutely compared with the control (median 207pg/mL, range 56-1258pg/mL vs. median 58 pg/mL, range 11-241pg/mL, P Upregulated TPO together with high MPV and IPF% confirm active thrombopoiesis, but do not predict severity of HFRS. Simultaneously, elevated prothrombin fragments and D-dimer suggest increased consumption of platelets in patients with severe AKI. Activity of platelet-derived MPs in HFRS should be studied with flow cytometry in a larger cohort of patients.