Browsing by Subject "COMPETENCE"

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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Lazarides, Rebecca; Viljaranta, Jaana; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2017)
    This longitudinal study aims to test the concept of transition preparedness in the context of educational transitions. The study investigates how adolescents' transition preparedness, conceptualized as their self-efficacy beliefs and their inoculation against setbacks, before an educational transition affect the adolescents' school value and effort related to educational goals after the transition through the effects on achievement goal orientations. Student data from three waves of a longitudinal study are used, first collected in 2004 (before the students' transition from comprehensive school to upper secondary education) and then collected twice after the transition. The students included in the analyses are those who participated at all three measurement points (N = 588; 49.5% girls; age M-TI = 15.01, SD = 0.13). Longitudinal structural equation modeling revealed that adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs (Time 1) positively predicted school value and effort (Time 3) through their effect on mastery goal orientation (Time 2). Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relation between performance-approach goal orientation (Time 1) on school value (Time 2). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for enhancing adolescents' adaptive motivational development across educational transitions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T.; Gelfand, Michele J.; Crippa, Franca; Suttora, Chiara; Stillwell, Amelia; Asbrock, Frank; Aycan, Zeynep; Bye, Hege H.; Carlsson, Rickard; Bjorklund, Fredrik; Dagher, Munqith; Geller, Armando; Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Latif, Abdel-Hamid Abdel; Mahonen, Tuuli Anna; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Teymoori, Ali (2017)
    A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations (n = 4,344), investigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth and competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with intermediate conflict (United States) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship between ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereotype ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality-ambivalence relationship.
  • Sairanen, Heidi; Kumpulainen, K.; Kajamaa, A. (2022)
    This paper investigates adult–child interaction in the early years of education. The intention is to understand how children's initiatives and practitioners’ responses support and/or hinder children's agency. Our ethnographic data include 150 h of video data supplemented by observational field notes from a Finnish Early Childhood Education (ECE) centre with eight five-year-old children and two ECE practitioners. The video data were analysed abductively by using an Interaction Analysis method. The children's initiatives were found to manifest in several modes, namely asking a question, suggesting, challenging, refusing and ideating. The responses to these initiatives by the ECE practitioners included accepting, accepting after a rejection, adapting, rejecting or ignoring. The analysis points to ways in which adult–child relationships are negotiated in everyday activities, showing the relational nature of agency and suggesting that the ways in which adult engages in the child's initiations are an intricate part of children's agency.
  • Rapeli, Lauri; Mattila, Vesa Mikko; Papageorgiou, Achillefs (2020)
    Turnout and party choice are widely held to be habitual, but little attention has been paid to factors that disrupt the pattern. Good health is an important determinant of political behaviour and a key component in the quality of life. Based on the developmental theory of turnout, we hypothesize that declining health lowers voting propensity over the life course. We employ issue ownership theory to assume that declining health increases the likelihood of voting for leftist parties. Using the British Household Panel Survey data, we show how deteriorating health significantly lowers the propensity to vote, but if a person in poor health votes, she is more likely to support Labour than the Conservatives. As expected by the developmental theory, major life events, such as declining health, affect voting propensity. Results also support issue ownership theory: declining health increases Labour voting which implies that British voters turn to the party that owns the health issue when the issue becomes salient.
  • Schaffar, Birgit (2021)
    This article considers the concept of Competence as applied to educational theory and policy, and illuminates the possibility of significant variations in meaning. Referring to Wittgenstein’s distinctions between transitive and intransitive uses of notions and Holland’s description of mastery, the article argues in favour of two senses in which someone can be described as being competent: i) as expressive of a value judgment; and ii) as pointing to a person’s (formal) qualifications. While the latter opens a path towards different forms of measurements of competence, being competent as a value judgment eludes any such treatment. Making this distinction, it is argued that competence is a less illuminative theoretical term than, for example, the pair of concepts Bildung versus Ausbildung ((self-)subjectivation vs training), that has been used in the Continental tradition in order to describe a similar distinction. With examples from educational contexts, the article demonstrates that the moment educational theory is using one word for two meanings, this central distinction in education is either concealed or forgotten. Focusing on competence purely as an empirically assessable notion risks playing into the hands of instrumentalising education.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Toom, Auli (2019)
    Background Performance assessment development is a three-phase process of (1) defining the construct of what is to be measured, (2) constructing the test items, task, and scoring criteria, and (3) collecting empirical evidence on extent to which they tap into the intended construct. Aims In the light of the three-phase process, this pilot study presents the development of performance assessment for research on critical thinking and moral judgement to be utilized in the Finnish higher education context. In particular, it explores the cognitive processes and moral judgement that occur while completing the assessment and how both task and respondent characteristics are associated with these processes. Sample The study was conducted with five participants drawn from purposeful sampling. Methods We collected the data from cognitive laboratories with think-alouds and interviews. The data were analysed using a qualitative abductive approach. Results The instructions together with sources given for completing the assessment triggered participants' critical and moral judgement. The results also indicate that the performance assessment being developed has relevance to everyday life. The theme of assessment was experienced meaningful, and it maintained the participants' interest throughout the completion of the task. The assessment was open-ended and allowed multiple lines of thinking. The participants perceived the task as being challenging. The prior knowledge of the participants, their integrity, and capability to monitor thinking and performance was related to the ways of performing the task. Conclusions Based on preliminary evidence drawn from the pilot data, the study concludes by outlining the strengths of the task as well as modifications that are needed in order to develop this specific performance assessment further.
  • Kleemola, Katri; Hyytinen, Heidi; Toom, Auli (2022)
    Critical thinking is a combination of complex cognitive skills that are used for purposeful thinking. It is important for the successful acquisition of disciplinary skills in higher education and thus, it is a valuable competency for a new student. The complex nature of critical thinking leads to challenges for its assessment even in performance assessments such as CLA+ International (Collegiate Learning Assessment). The aim with this study is to examine internal associations of a critical thinking assessment for new students in higher education. The sample consisted of 1469 first-year students in 18 higher education institutions in Finland. An open-ended performance task and multiple-choice tasks were used to assess six measures of critical thinking, namely analysis and problem solving, writing effectiveness, writing mechanics, scientific and quantitative reasoning, critical reading and critiquing an argument. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to analyse the data. A latent component indicated by the measures derived from the performance task was identified. The measures derived from the multiple-choice tasks did not form a factorial structure. Multiple-choice questions are problematic in critical thinking assessment as they focus on individual skills instead of holistic use of skills. Implications for assessment development and higher education are discussed.
  • Laamanen, Petra; Kiuru, Noona; Flykt, Marjo; Vanska, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Kurkela, Enni; Poikkeus, Piia; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu (2022)
    Facial emotion recognition (FER) is a fundamental element in human interaction. It begins to develop soon after birth and is important in achieving developmental tasks of middle childhood, such as developing mutual friendships and acquiring social rules of peer groups. Despite its importance, FER research during middle childhood continues to be rather limited. Moreover, research is ambiguous on how the quality of one's early social-emotional environment shapes FER development, and longitudinal studies spanning from infancy to later development are scarce. In this study, we examine how the cohesive, authoritarian, disengaged and enmeshed family system types, assessed during pregnancy and infancy, predict children's FER accuracy and interpretative biases towards happiness, fear, anger and sadness at the age of 10 years (N = 79). The results demonstrated that children from disengaged families (i.e., highly distressed relationships) show superior FER accuracy to those from cohesive families (i.e., harmonious and stable relationships). Regarding interpretative biases, children from cohesive families showed a greater fear bias compared to children from disengaged families. Our findings suggest that even in a relatively low-risk population, variation in the quality of children's early family relationships may shape children's subsequent FER development, perhaps as an evolution-based adaptation to their social-emotional environment.
  • Hytönen, Hanna; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Eväsoja, Taina; Kallio, Anu; Kokkari, Anne; Tuononen, Tiina; Lahti, Satu (2021)
    Aim The aims were to describe the development of a modified national online OSCE during COVID-19 and assess related student feedback. Material and methods The modified online OSCE comprising of eight question entities was organised simultaneously in all four dental institutes of Finland using the Moodle virtual learning environment. All fourth-year students (n = 179) attended the examination online at home. Student feedback was collected via an anonymous questionnaire with multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions concerning attitudes towards the modified online OSCE, as well as content and usability of the question entities in the examination. Means and standard deviations were calculated for multiple-choice questions. Content analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results Of 179 students, 119 (66%) consented to the study. Students experienced they had received adequate information (mean 3.8; SD 1.2), had a positive attitude before the examination (4.0; 1.0) and found the practice test useful (3.7; 1.1) (range 1-5). Technical implementation (2.7; 0.7) and the difficulty of the questions (2.9; 0.6) (range 1-4) were found to be good. The teaching students received during their studies was sufficient (3.2; 0.5) (range 1-4). Content (mean 3.2; 0.4) and usability (2.9; 0.4) of the question entities were good (range 1-4). The themes arising from open-ended questions were importance and practicality of the topic (in questions) in relation to the work of a dentist and gratitude for the rapid conversion of the OSCE into an online examination despite COVID-19. The themes arising from negative experiences included difficulties in completing the examination within the time allocated, and dissatisfaction with the model answers provided after the examination. Conclusion The positive student feedback towards the modified online OSCE encourages including an online examination to complement the traditional OSCE.
  • Eivazi, Shahram; Hafez, Ahmad; Fuhl, Wolfgang; Afkari, Hoorieh; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Lehecka, Martin; Bednarik, Roman (2017)
    Background Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic magnified view in the context of micro-neurosurgery and what this implies for medical training. Method We report on an investigation of the eye movement patterns in micro-neurosurgery using a state-of-the-art eye tracker. We studied the eye movements of nine neurosurgeons while performing cutting and suturing tasks under a surgical microscope. Eye-movement characteristics, such as fixation (focus level) and saccade (visual search pattern), were analysed. Results The results show a strong relationship between the level of microsurgical skill and the gaze pattern, whereas more expertise is associated with greater eye control, stability, and focusing in eye behaviour. For example, in the cutting task, well-trained surgeons increased their fixation durations on the operating field twice as much as the novices (expert, 848 ms; novice, 402 ms). Conclusions Maintaining steady visual attention on the target (fixation), as well as being able to quickly make eye jumps from one target to another (saccades) are two important elements for the success of neurosurgery. The captured gaze patterns can be used to improve medical education, as part of an assessment system or in a gaze-training application.
  • Volmer, Daisy; Sokirskaja, Aleksandra; Laaksonen, Raisa Aurora; Vainio, Kirsti; Sandler, Niklas; Halvorsen, Kjell; Kjome, Reidun; Gizurarson, Sveinbjörn; Muceniece, Ruta; Maurina, Baiba; Dauksiene, Jurgita; Ruuben, Lilian; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Ratassepp, Tagne; Heinämäki, Jyrki (2016)
    With increased development of medical technology (MT), new challenges emerge related to education and training of pharmacists and other healthcare specialists. Currently, only a few universities in the EU promote MT education and research. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current status, views on, and need for the education on MT for the pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic countries. Methods: The representatives of higher education institutions and community/hospital pharmacists from six Baltic and Nordic countries participated in a qualitative cross-sectional exploratory internet-based study from May to October 2014. Results: Approximately two-third of the respondents considered professional knowledge about MT products important for pharmacists, but half of them had never participated in any MT courses. More practicing pharmacists than representatives of academia underlined the need for increased MT education for pharmacy students in the future. Conclusions: The pharmacists in the Baltic and Nordic countries consider the professional knowledge about MT as pertinent in their education and work. The limited number and status of MT courses available today, however, is a major concern among both pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists in these countries. In the future, increasing education combining theory and practice about MT products would be one possible solution to overcome this challenge.
  • Holmström, Edua (2020)
    Purpose The collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) is a first-encounter suicide-specific brief intervention that motivates suicidal individuals for voluntary treatment engagement and choosing life. How the intervention works, however, has not been theoretically explained. The purpose of this paper is to explain the effectiveness using self-determination theory (SDT). Design/methodology/approach The paper focuses the theoretical examination on the philosophy of care and the clinical procedures of the CAMS suicide intervention. SDT is used as the theoretical lens of the examination. Findings The underlying philosophy of care and the clinical procedures of CAMS enhance the autonomy, relatedness and competence of the client in the first encounter. The paper proposes that fulfilling these basic human needs results in the intervention outcomes of treatment engagement and choosing life for the time being. Originality/value CAMS has not previously been theoretically explained. This paper explains the effectiveness of the intervention in engaging suicidal clients in further treatment through SDT.
  • Eurenius, Eva; Mohamed, Amal Farah; Lindkvist, Marie; Ivarsson, Anneli; Öhlund, Inger; Vaezghasemi, Masoud (2021)
    Introduction: Little attention has been paid to the association between preschool children's social-emotional problems and lifestyle at the population level.Objective: This study aimed to overcome this knowledge gap by investigating to what extent children's social-emotional problems are associated with their lifestyle and if there are any gender differences.Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the regional Salut Register in northern Sweden, including 7,179 3-year-olds during 2014-2017. Parents responded to a questionnaire including the 36-month interval of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE) and questions regarding family and lifestyle characteristics. Single and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the association between children's social-emotional problems and multiple family lifestyle characteristics.Results: More reports of social-emotional problems were found among children who did not have parents living together or had markers of an unhealthy lifestyle. Children who ate vegetables less frequently, whose parent/-s brushed their teeth less often and did not read to them regularly were more likely to have social-emotional problems. Playing outdoors 1 h of sedentary screen time during weekends increased the risk of social-emotional problems among boys only, while >1 h of sedentary screen time during weekdays increased the risk among girls. When it comes to lifestyle and gender differences, a high proportion of the 3-year-olds had an unhealthy lifestyle, more so for boys than for girls. The dietary quality and tooth brushing were somewhat more adequate for the girls than for the boys, but boys spent more time playing outdoors compared to the girls.Conclusions: This study provides us with an important overview picture of the family life situation of three-year-olds, including those with social-emotional problems. Such problems were significantly associated with markers of unhealthy lifestyle, with significant gender differences. Therefore, this study suggests that in order to maintain children's social-emotional ability and support children at risk of problems, public health intervention programs should have a broader perspective on improving children's lifestyle rather than merely focusing on their social and emotional problems, and the gender differences found may be taken in account.
  • Knaappila, Noora; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Lindberg, Nina; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2018)
  • Simpson, Ashley; Dervin, Fred (2019)
    The popularity of the idea of the intercultural in different parts of the world, means that there are many differing meanings and ways in which the notion is understood, represented, expressed and used. In contrast to this polysemy, democracy often appears on the surface to be understood through universalist and/or absolutist conceptualisations. Combining the intercultural and democracy thus requires problematization. In this article we use The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences For Democratic Culture (2018a, 2018b, 2018c), a document that will have a non-negligible influence on education in Europe and the rest of the world, as an example showing how the notion of the intercultural is constructed. In order to do so, we use a form of intertextuality to analyze the Framework, focusing on three key instances found in the document;: identity, the political, and, intercultural competence. Some of the ideologies within the Framework clearly point to Eurocentric discourses and a stigmatization of the Other. Also, the way in which the political is sanitized can engender a language of depoliticization and obedience. As a result, we propose Critical Interculturality as a way to move beyond culturalist self-centered notions of the intercultural, arguing that the political and the social cannot be separated from the intercultural when discussing democracy.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Ursin, Jani; Silvennoinen, Kaisa; Kleemola, Katri; Toom, Auli (2021)
    Our aim was to explore higher education students’ response and self-regulatory processes plus the relationship between these, as evidenced in two types of performance-based critical thinking tasks included in the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA+) International instrument. The data collection consisted of 20 cognitive laboratories. The data were analyzed using a qualitative approach. The tasks were found to trigger different response and self-regulatory processes. Overall, the performance task evoked more holistic processes than the selected-response questions, in which students’ processes were more question-oriented. The results also indicated the entanglement of students’ response and self-regulation processes. Three self-regulation groups were identified. Students with versatile self-regulation skills were able to complete the task thoroughly, whereas students with moderate self-regulation skills faced challenges in monitoring and evaluating their performance. Students who were lacking in self-regulation struggled both with the task as a whole and their own progress. Implications for higher education are discussed.
  • Pantsar, Markus (2019)
    The basic human ability to treat quantitative information can be divided into two parts. With proto-arithmetical ability, based on the core cognitive abilities for subitizing and estimation, numerosities can be treated in a limited and/or approximate manner. With arithmetical ability, numerosities are processed (counted, operated on) systematically in a discrete, linear, and unbounded manner. In this paper, I study the theory of enculturation as presented by Menary (2015) as a possible explanation of how we make the move from the proto-arithmetical ability to arithmetic proper. I argue that enculturation based on neural reuse provides a theoretically sound and fruitful framework for explaining this development. However, I show that a comprehensive explanation must be based on valid theoretical distinctions and involve several stages in the development of arithmetical knowledge. I provide an account that meets these challenges and thus leads to a better understanding of the subject of enculturation.
  • Polet, Juho; Hassandra, Mary; Lintunen, Taru; Laukkanen, Arto; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Tammelin, Tuija; Hagger, Martin (2019)
    Background Given the documented decline in levels of physical activity in early adolescence, promoting physical activity in young people is a priority for health promotion. School physical education (PE) is an important existing network in which participation in physical activity beyond school can be promoted to the captive young people. The objective of current article is to present the protocol for a PE teacher-delivered theory-based trial to promote secondary school students’ participation in physical activity out-of-school contexts. The intervention will be guided by the trans-contextual model explaining the processes by which PE teachers’ support for autonomous motivation in the classroom promotes students’ motivation to engage in out-of-school physical activity. We hypothesize that school students receiving the teacher-delivered intervention to promote autonomous motivation toward physical activity will exhibit greater participation in physical activities outside of school, relative to students receiving a control intervention. Methods The trial will adopt a waitlist-control design with cluster-randomization by school. PE teachers assigned to the intervention condition will receive a two-week, 12-h training program comprising basic information on how to promote out-of-school physical activity and theory-based training on strategies to promote students’ autonomous motivation toward physical activity. Teachers assigned to the waitlist control condition will receive an alternative training on how to monitor physical functional capacity in children with special needs. PE teachers (n = 29) from eleven schools will apply the intervention program to students (n = 502) in PE classes for one month. Physical activity participation, the primary outcome variable, and psychological mediators from the trans-contextual model will be measured at pre-trial, post-trial, and at one-, three- and six-months post-trial. We will also assess teachers’ autonomy-supportive techniques and behaviours by observation. Discussion The study will make a unique contribution to the literature by testing a theory-based intervention delivered by PE teachers to promote school students’ participation in out-of-school physical activity. Information will be useful for educators, community stakeholders and policy makers interested in developing programs to promote students’ out-of-school physical activity.