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  • Kisdi, Eva; Geritz, Stefan A.H. (2016)
    We study the joint adaptive dynamics of n scalar-valued strategies in ecosystems where n is the maximum number of coexisting strategies permitted by the (generalized) competitive exclusion principle. The adaptive dynamics of such saturated systems exhibits special characteristics, which we first demonstrate in a simple example of a host-pathogen-predator model. The main part of the paper characterizes the adaptive dynamics of saturated polymorphisms in general. In order to investigate convergence stability, we give a new sufficient condition for absolute stability of an arbitrary (not necessarily saturated) polymorphic singularity and show that saturated evolutionarily stable polymorphisms satisfy it. For the case , we also introduce a method to construct different pairwise invasibility plots of the monomorphic population without changing the selection gradients of the saturated dimorphism.
  • Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Ovaskainen, Otso; Abrego, Nerea; Grøtan, Vidar; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Prado, Paulo I.; de Lima, Renato A. F. (2021)
    Species co-occurrences in local communities can arise independent or dependent on species' niches. However, the role of niche-dependent processes has not been thoroughly deciphered when generalized to biogeographical scales, probably due to combined shortcomings of data and methodology. Here, we explored the influence of environmental filtering and limiting similarity, as well as biogeographical processes that relate to the assembly of species' communities and co-occurrences. We modelled jointly the occurrences and co-occurrences of 1016 tropical tree species with abundance data from inventories of 574 localities in eastern South America. We estimated species co-occurrences as raw and residual associations with models that excluded and included the environmental effects on the species' co-occurrences, respectively. Raw associations indicate co-occurrence of species, whereas residual associations indicate co-occurrence of species after accounting for shared responses to environment. Generally, the influence of environmental filtering exceeded that of limiting similarity in shaping species' co-occurrences. The number of raw associations was generally higher than that of the residual associations due to the shared responses of tree species to the environmental covariates. Contrary to what was expected from assuming limiting similarity, phylogenetic relatedness or functional similarity did not limit tree co-occurrences. The proportions of positive and negative residual associations varied greatly across the study area, and we found a significant tendency of some biogeographical regions having higher proportions of negative associations between them, suggesting that large-scale biogeographical processes limit the establishment of trees and consequently their co-occurrences.
  • Kisdi, Eva (2015)
    Evolutionary singularities are central to the adaptive dynamics of evolving traits. The evolutionary singularities are strongly affected by the shape of any trade-off functions a model assumes, yet the trade-off functions are often chosen in an ad hoc manner, which may unjustifiably constrain the evolutionary dynamics exhibited by the model. To avoid this problem, critical function analysis has been used to find a trade-off function that yields a certain evolutionary singularity such as an evolutionary branching point. Here I extend this method to multiple trade-offs parameterized with a scalar strategy. I show that the trade-off functions can be chosen such that an arbitrary point in the viability domain of the trait space is a singularity of an arbitrary type, provided (next to certain non-degeneracy conditions) that the model has at least two environmental feedback variables and at least as many trade-offs as feedback variables. The proof is constructive, i.e., it provides an algorithm to find trade-off functions that yield the desired singularity. I illustrate the construction of trade-offs with an example where the virulence of a pathogen evolves in a small ecosystem of a host, its pathogen, a predator that attacks the host and an alternative prey of the predator.
  • Oikarainen, Paula E.; Pohjola, Leena K.; Pietola, Eeva S.; Heikinheimo, Annamari (2019)
    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli are found in the poultry production even without antibiotic use. The spread of these bacteria has been suggested to occur via imported parent birds, enabling transmission to production level broilers vertically via eggs. We studied transmission of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli and E. coli without antibiotic selection by sampling imported parent birds (n = 450), egg surfaces prior to and after the incubation period (n = 300 and n = 428, respectively) and the laying house environment (n = 20). Samples were additionally taken from embryos (n = 422). To study the prevention of transmission, a competitive exclusion (CE) solution was added onto freshly laid eggs prior to incubation period (n = 150). Results showed carriage of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coil in parent birds (26.7%), the environment (5%) and egg surfaces before the incubation period (1.3%), but not from egg surfaces or embryos after the incubation period. Whole genome sequencing revealed ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coil isolates belonging to clonal lineages ST429 and ST2040. However, the finding of E. coli cultured without antibiotic selection in two (2.2%) embryos strengthens the need to study E. coil transmission in poultry production in more depth. Since ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli seem not to persist on egg surfaces, there is no need to use CE solution ex ovo as a prevention method. The results indicate that other routes, such as for example transmission through fomites or horizontal gene transfer by other bacterial species, could be more important than vertical transmission in the spread of resistance in broiler production.
  • Passy, Sophia I.; Bottin, Marius; Soininen, Janne; Hillebrand, Helmut (2017)
    We examined the relationship between species richness (S) and evenness (J) within a novel, community assembly framework. We hypothesized that environmental stress leads to filtering (increasing the proportional abundance of tolerant species) and taxonomic dispersion (decreasing the number of species within genera and families). Environmental filtering would cause a decline in S by eliminating some stress-sensitive species and a reduction of J by allowing only tolerant species to maintain large populations. Taxonomic relatedness may influence both S and J by controlling the nature of interspecific interactions-positive under taxonomic dispersion versus negative under taxonomic clustering. Therefore, the S-J relationship may be a product of environmental filtering and taxonomic relatedness. We tested this framework with redundancy analyses and structural equation models using continental stream diatom and fish data. We confirmed that (i) environmental stress, defined by watershed forest cover, slope, and temperature, caused filtering (lower sensitive: tolerant species abundance ratios) and taxonomic dispersion (elevated genus: species richness and family: species richness ratios); (ii) S and J, which declined with filtering and taxonomic dispersion, exhibited a positive relationship; and (iii) the role of filtering on J was pronounced only under stressful conditions, while taxonomic dispersion remained an important predictor of J across stressful and favorable environments.
  • Karisto, Petteri; Kisdi, Eva (2017)
    The pattern of connectivity between local populations or between microsites supporting individuals within a population is a poorly understood factor affecting the evolution of dispersal. We modify the well-known Hamilton May model of dispersal evolution to allow for variable connectivity between microsites. For simplicity, we assume that the microsites are either solitary, i.e., weakly connected through costly dispersal, or part of a well-connected cluster of sites with low-cost dispersal within the cluster. We use adaptive dynamics to investigate the evolution of dispersal, obtaining analytic results for monomorphic evolution and numerical results for the co-evolution of two dispersal strategies. A monomorphic population always evolves to a unique singular dispersal strategy, which may be an evolutionarily stable strategy or an evolutionary branching point. Evolutionary branching happens if the contrast between connectivities is sufficiently high and the solitary microsites are common. The dimorphic evolutionary singularity, when it exists, is always evolutionarily and convergence stable. The model exhibits both protected and unprotected dimorphisms of dispersal strategies, but the dimorphic singularity is always protected. Contrasting connectivities can thus maintain dispersal polymorphisms in temporally stable environments.