Browsing by Subject "COMPLICATIONS"

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  • Limonte, Christine P.; Valo, Erkka; Montemayor, Daniel; Afshinnia, Farsad; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Costacou, Tina; Darshi, Manjula; Forsblom, Carol; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Miller, Rachel G.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Rossing, Peter; Sandholm, Niina; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Ye, Hongping; Zhang, Jing; Natarajan, Loki; de Boer, Ian H.; Sharma, Kumar (2020)
    Background: Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) demonstrate varied trajectories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline. The molecular pathways underlying rapid eGFR decline in T1D are poorly understood, and individual-level risk of rapid eGFR decline is difficult to predict. Methods: We designed a case-control study with multiple exposure measurements nested within 4 well-characterized T1D cohorts (FinnDiane, Steno, EDC, and CACTI) to identify biomarkers associated with rapid eGFR decline. Here, we report the rationale for and design of these studies as well as results of models testing associations of clinical characteristics with rapid eGFR decline in the study population, upon which "omics" studies will be built. Cases (n = 535) and controls (n = 895) were defined as having an annual eGFR decline of >= 3 and
  • SUMMIT Consortium (2018)
    To explore novel genetic loci for diabetic nephropathy, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed the association of 5,768,242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, 2,380 nephropathy cases and 5,234 controls. We further performed GWAS for diabetic nephropathy using independent Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, 429 cases and 358 controls and the results of these two GWAS were combined with an inverse variance meta-analysis (stage-1), followed by a de novo genotyping for the candidate SNP loci (p <1.0 x 10(-4)) in an independent case-control study (Stage-2; 1,213 cases and 1,298 controls). After integrating stage-1 and stage-2 data, we identified one SNP locus, significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy; rs56094641 in FTO, P = 7.74 x 10(-10). We further examined the association of rs56094641 with diabetic nephropathy in independent Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (902 cases and 1,221 controls), and found that the association of this locus with diabetic nephropathy remained significant after integrating all association data (P = 7.62 x 10(-10)). We have identified FTO locus as a novel locus for conferring susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Pitkänen, H. H.; Kärki, M.; Niinikoski, H.; Tanner, L.; Näntö-Salonen, K.; Pikta, M.; Kopatz, W. F.; Zuurveld, M.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Brinkman, H. J. M.; Lassila, R. (2018)
    Introduction: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a rare autosomal recessive transport disorder of cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine, affects intestines, lungs, liver and kidneys. LPI patients may display potentially life-threatening bleeding events, which are poorly understood. Aims: To characterize alterations in haemostatic and fibrinolytic variables associated with LPI. Methods: We enrolled 15 adult patients (8 female) and assessed the clinical ISTH/ SSC-BAT bleeding score (BS). A variety of metabolic and coagulation assays, including fibrin generation test derivatives, clotting time (CT) and clot lysis time (CLT), thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and PFA-100 and Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT), were used. Results: All patients had mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency, and moderate bleeding tendency (BS 4) without spontaneous bleeds. Mild anaemia and thrombocytopenia occurred. Traditional clotting times were normal, but in contrast, CT in fibrin generation test, and especially ROTEM FIBTEM was abnormal. The patients showed impaired primary haemostasis in PFA, irrespective of normal von Willebrand factor activity, but together with lowered fibrinogen and FXIII. Thrombin generation (TG) was reduced in vitro, according to CAT-derived endogenous thrombin potential, but in vivo TG was enhanced in the form of circulating prothrombin fragment 1 and 2 values. Very high D-dimer and plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin (PAP) complex levels coincided with shortened CLT in vitro. Conclusions: Defective primary haemostasis, coagulopathy, fibrin abnormality (FIBTEM, CT and CLT), low TG in vitro and clearly augmented fibrinolysis (PAP and D-dimer) in vivo were all detected in LPI. Altered fibrin generation and hyperfibrinolysis were associated with the metabolic and renal defect, suggesting a pathogenetic link in LPI.
  • Renkonen, Suvi; Linden, Riikka; Bäck, Leif; Silen, Robert; Mäenpää, Hanna; Tapiovaara, Laura; Aro, Katri (2017)
    Primary treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with lateral lymph node metastasis is surgery, but the extent of lateral neck dissection remains undefined. Preoperative imaging is used to guide the extent of surgery, although its sensitivity and specificity for defining the number and level of affected lymph nodes on the lateral neck is relatively modest. Our aim was to assess the role of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the requisite levels of neck dissection in patients with regionally metastatic PTC, with a focus on Levels II and V. All patients with PTC and lateral neck metastasis who had undergone neck dissection at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland from 2013 to 2016 and had a preoperative MRI available were retrospectively reviewed. A head and neck radiologist re-evaluated all MRIs, and the imaging findings were compared with histopathology after neck dissection. In the cohort of 39 patients, preoperative MRI showed concordance with histopathology for Levels II and V as follows: sensitivity of 94 and 67%, specificity of 20 and 91%, positive predictive value of 56 and 75%, and negative predictive value of 75 and 87%, respectively. In PTC, MRI demonstrated fairly high specificity and negative predictive value for Level V metastasis, and future studies are needed to verify our results to omit prophylactic dissection of this level. Routine dissection of Level II in patients with regionally metastatic PTC needs to be considered, as MRI showed low specificity.
  • Sunde, Geir Arne; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth; Lockey, David; Burns, Brian; Sandberg, Marten; Fredriksen, Knut; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Soti, Akos; Lyon, Richard; Jantti, Helena; Kamarainen, Antti; Reid, Bjorn Ole; Silfvast, Tom; Harm, Falko; Sollid, Stephen J. M.; Airport Study Grp (2015)
    Background: Despite numerous studies on prehospital airway management, results are difficult to compare due to inconsistent or heterogeneous data. The objective of this study was to assess advanced airway management from international physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services. Methods: We collected airway data from 21 helicopter emergency medical services in Australia, England, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Switzerland over a 12-month period. A uniform Utstein-style airway template was used for collecting data. Results: The participating services attended 14,703 patients on primary missions during the study period, and 2,327 (16 %) required advanced prehospital airway interventions. Of these, tracheal intubation was attempted in 92 % of the cases. The rest were managed with supraglottic airway devices (5 %), bag-valve-mask ventilation (2 %) or continuous positive airway pressure (0.2 %). Intubation failure rates were 14.5 % (first-attempt) and 1.2 % (overall). Cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt intubation failure rates (odds ratio: 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.5-2.6; p <0.001) compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. Complications were recorded in 13 %, with recognised oesophageal intubation being the most frequent (25 % of all patients with complications). For non-cardiac arrest patients, important risk predictors for first-attempt failure were patient age (a non-linear association) and administration of sedatives (reduced failure risk). The patient's sex, provider's intubation experience, trauma type (patient category), indication for airway intervention and use of neuromuscular blocking agents were not risk factors for first-attempt intubation failure. Conclusions: Advanced airway management in physician-staffed prehospital services was performed frequently, with high intubation success rates and low complication rates overall. However, cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt failure rates compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. All failed intubations were handled successfully with a rescue device or surgical airway.
  • Välkki, Kirsi Johanna; Thomson, Katariina Hanne; Grönthal, Thomas Sven Christer; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Rantala, Merja Hilma Johanna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi Maria; Mölsä, Sari Helena (2020)
    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To lower the incidence of SSI, antimicrobial prophylaxis is given 30-60 min before certain types of surgeries in both human and veterinary patients. However, due to the increasing concern of antimicrobial resistance, the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopaedic and neurosurgeries warrants investigation. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to review the rate of SSI and evaluate the compliance with antimicrobial guidelines in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2012-2016. In addition, possible risk factors for SSI were assessed. Results Nearly all dogs (377/406; 92.9%) received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Twenty-nine dogs (7.1%) did not receive any antimicrobials and only four (1.1%) received postoperative antimicrobials. The compliance with in-house and national protocols was excellent regarding the choice of prophylactic antimicrobial (cefazolin), but there was room for improvement in the timing of prophylaxis administration. Follow-up data was available for 89.4% (363/406) of the dogs. Mean follow-up time was 464 days (range: 3-2600 days). The overall SSI rate was 6.3%: in orthopaedic surgeries it was 6.7%, and in neurosurgeries it was 4.2%. The lowest SSI rates (0%) were seen in extracapsular repair of cranial cruciate ligament rupture, ulnar ostectomy, femoral head and neck excision, arthrotomy and coxofemoral luxation repair. The highest SSI rate (25.0%) was seen in arthrodesis. Omission of antimicrobials did not increase the risk for SSI (P = 0.56; OR 1.7; CI(95%)0.4-5.0). Several risk factors for SSI were identified, including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus pseudintermediuscarriage (P = 0.02; OR 9.0; CI(95%)1.4-57.9) and higher body temperature (P = 0.03; OR 1.69; CI(95%)1.0-2.7; mean difference + 0.4 degrees C compared to dogs without SSI). Conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis without postoperative antimicrobials is sufficient to maintain the overall rate of SSI at a level similar to published data in canine clean orthopedic and neurosurgeries.
  • Saarinen, Tuure; Räsänen, Jari Veli; Salo, Jarmo; Loimaala, Antti; Pitkonen, Miia; Leivonen , Marja; Juuti, Anne (2017)
    Significant weight-loss and diabetes remission have been reported after mini-gastric bypass (MGB). Concern has been raised regarding postoperative bile reflux (BR), but it has not been demonstrated in previous studies. We set out to find out if BR is evident in hepatobiliary scintigraphy after MGB. Nine consecutive patients, seven with type 2 diabetes, underwent MGB (15 cm gastric tube, 250-275 cm biliary limb) at our institution with a 12-month follow-up, with none lost to follow-up. Then, 10.7 months (8.6-13.0) after MGB, all patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy and a reflux symptom questionnaire (GerdQ) was filled out. A gastroscopy with biopsies was done for all patients with a bile-reflux-positive scintigraphy. Mean age at operation was 56 years (41-65) and preoperative BMI 43.1 kg/m(2) (34.2-54.6). Mean %EWL was 83.9 (49.5-128.3) at 12 months. Four patients reached diabetes remission and two became insulin-independent. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed a transient BR into the gastric tube for five patients. Bile tracer was found in the gastric tube at 23-58 min after the tracer injection and highest activity was 8% (1-8%) at 58 min. Bile tracer was not found in the esophagus of any of the patients. One patient with a positive scintigraphy in the gastric tube required re-operation. Two patients with reflux symptoms had a negative scintigraphy. Our results indicate that transient bile reflux is common after MGB in the gastric tube, but not in the esophagus. The clinical relevance of bile reflux needs further studies.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Dahlström, Emma H.; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol M.; Thorn, Lena M.; Jansson, Fanny J.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Context: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may differ between patients with type 1 diabetes and the general population; it is not known which clinical characteristics modify the relationship. Objective: Our aim was to assess the relationship between BMI and mortality and the interaction with clinically meaningful factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study included 5836 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the FinnDiane study. Main Outcome Measure and Methods: We retrieved death data for all participants on 31 December 2015. We estimated the effect of BMI on the risk of mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model with BMI as a restricted cubic spline as well as effect modification by adding interaction terms to the spline. Results: During a median of 13.7 years, 876 individuals died. The relationship between baseline BMI and all-cause mortality was reverse J-shaped. When analyses were restricted to those with normal albumin excretion rate, the relationship was U-shaped. The nadir BMI (BMI with the lowest mortality) was in the normal weight region (24.3 to 24.8 kg/m(2)); however, among individuals with diabetic nephropathy, the nadir BMI was in the overweight region (25.9 to 26.1 kg/m(2)). Diabetic nephropathy, diabetes-onset age, and sex modified the relationship between BMI and mortality (P-interaction <0 . 05). Conclusions: Normal weight is optimal for individuals with type 1 diabetes to delay mortality, whereas underweight might be an indication of underlying complications. Maintaining normal weight may translate into reduced risk of mortality in type 1 diabetes, particularly for individuals of male sex, later diabetes-onset age, and normal albumin excretion rate.
  • Palmu, Samuel; Kuneinen, Susanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Korhonen, Päivi E. (2021)
    Background and aims: Current guidelines on prediabetes and diabetes (T2D) recommend to regularly perform an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on subjects at risk of T2D. However, it is not known why women tend to have relatively higher 2-h post-load plasma (2hPG) glucose concentrations during OGTT than men. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there are sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2hPG concentrations in relation to body size in apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that sex differences in glucose tolerance are physiological and related to different body surface area (BSA) in men and women. Methods and results: A 2-h 75 g OGTT was performed on 2010 subjects aged 45-70 years. Their BSA was calculated using the Mosteller formula. Men and women were separately divided into five BSA levels. Within the normal 2hPG range, women had higher mean 2hPG concentrations during the OGTT than men in all BSA levels estimated by sex-standardized BSA (p for linearity < 0.001). BSA adjusted for age, waist circumference, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking, showed an inverse association with 2hPG concentration in both sexes. Mean FPG concentrations were higher in men than in women. Conclusions: Body size has a negative inverse association with 2hPG concentration in an OGTT even within a physiological plasma glucose range. This may cause underestimation of glucose disorders in individuals with larger BSA and overestimation in individuals with smaller BSA when using an OGTT. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Korhonen, Kati V. M.; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Tiitinen, Aila E.; Unkila-Kallio, Leila S. (2016)
    Objectives: Many in vitro fertilization (IVF) complications are inflammatory by nature, some of which are even life-threatening. We evaluated the response of C-reactive protein (CRP) in IVF complications, especially in early and late ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), to support clinical decision making in gynecological emergency policlinics. Study design: In a prospective two-year study at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, we recruited patients with IVF complications including moderate or severe OHSS (n = 47 patients: 36 early and 14 late OHSS cases), or other IVF complications (n = 13). As controls, we recruited women in an uncomplicated IVF cycle (n = 27). Serial blood samples (CRP, blood count, platelets, albumin, estradiol, creatinine, and electrolytes) were collected from patients upon admission to the emergency polyclinic and during and after treatment on the ward, and from the controls prior, during, and after the IVF protocol. All samples were categorized according to oocyte pick-up (OPU). The statistics included comparisons between and within the study groups, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for diagnostic accuracy of CRP for early OHSS at emergency polyclinics. Results: On admission, CRP did not differentiate OHSS from other IVF complications, but CRP was higher in early (median 21; IQR 8-33 mg/L) than in late (6; 3-9 mg/L, p = 0.001) OHSS. In ROC analysis for CRP (12 mg/L), the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.74 (p = 0.001) with sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 71% for early OHSS. CRP was significantly higher (28; 10-46 mg/L) in patients with early OHSS two days after oocyte pick-up (OPU) than in the controls (5; Conclusions: Early OHSS associates with a distinct rise in CRP level beyond that induced by uncomplicated oocyte pick-up, whereas the CRP levels in late OHSS are comparable to those in the control cycles. CRP identifies, but cannot distinguish IVF complications. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jacob, Louis; Weber, Katherina; Sechet, Ingeborg; Macharey, Georg; Kostev, Karel; Ziller, Volker (2016)
    To analyze the impact of caesarean section (CS) on fertility and time to pregnancy in German gynecological practices. Women initially diagnosed for the first time with a vaginal delivery (VD) or CS between 2000 and 2013 were identified by 227 gynecologists in the IMS Disease Analyzer database. They were included if they were aged between 16 and 40 years, and were not previously diagnosed with female sterility. The two main outcomes were the first-time diagnosis of female sterility and the time between the first delivery and the next pregnancy within 10 years. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to predict these outcomes on the basis of patient characteristics. 6483 patients were included in the CS group and 6483 in the VD group. Mean age was 30.6 years and the proportion of individuals with private health insurance amounted to 9.0 %. Within 10 years of the index date, 19.5 % of women who delivered by CS and 18.3 % of women who delivered vaginally were diagnosed with sterility (p value = 0.0148). CS and polycystic ovary syndrome significantly increased the risk of sterility. Within 10 years of the index date, 57.9 % of women who underwent a CS and 64.0 % of women who delivered vaginally were pregnant for the second time (p value <0.001). CS, polycystic ovary syndrome, and the deterioration of menstrual cycle significantly decreased the chance of becoming pregnant a second time. CS is associated with an increased risk of sterility and a decreased number of subsequent pregnancies in Germany.
  • Grahn-Shahar, Petra M; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä; Syvänen, Johanna; Salonen, Anne; Ahonen, Matti; Helenius, Ilkka (2021)
    Introduction The forearm is the most common fracture location in children, with an increasing incidence. Displaced forearm shaft fractures have traditionally been treated with closed reduction and cast immobilisation. Diaphyseal fractures in children have poor remodelling capacity. Malunion can cause permanent cosmetic and functional disability. Internal fixation with flexible intramedullary nails has gained increasing popularity, without evidence of a better outcome compared with closed reduction and cast immobilisation. Method and analysis This is a multicentre, randomised superiority trial comparing closed reduction and cast immobilisation to flexible intramedullary nails in children aged 7-12 years with >10 degrees of angulation and/or >10 mm of shortening in displaced both bone forearm shaft fractures (AO-paediatric classification: 22D/2.1-5.2). A total of 78 patients with minimum 2 years of expected growth left are randomised in 1:1 ratio to either treatment group. The study has a parallel non-randomised patient preference arm. Both treatments are performed under general anaesthesia. In the cast group a long arm cast is applied for 6 weeks. The flexible intramedullary nail group is immobilised in a collar and cuff sling for 4 weeks. Data are collected at baseline and at each follow-up until 1 year. Primary outcome is (1) PROMIS paediatric upper extremity and (2) forearm pronation-supination range of motion at 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes are Quick DASH, Paediatric Pain Questionnaire, Cosmetic Visual Analogue Scale, wrist and elbow range of motion as well as any complications and costs of treatment. We hypothesise that flexible intramedullary nailing results in a superior outcome. Ethics and dissemination We have received ethical board approval (number: 78/1801/2020) and permissions to conduct the study from all five participating university hospitals. Informed consent is obtained from the parent(s). Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications.
  • Sakki, Anniina; Mäkinen, Laura K.; Roine, Risto P.; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna (2019)
    Objectives: We analyzed trends in tonsil surgery over a 10-year period in a single tertiary care hospital and evaluated the effects of these changes on use of hospital services and healthcare costs. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study based on data from databases at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Children under 16 years of age with tonsillectomy (TE) or tonsillotomy (TT) performed during 2007-2016 were included in the study. Results: In 10 years, 4979 tonsil surgeries were performed on 4951 children: TE in 3170 (64%) and TT in 1781 (36%) children. The total number of tonsil surgeries stayed nearly constant. TT operations commenced in the study hospital in 2009 and from 2012 onwards have been more common than TE procedures. Altogether 279 patients visited the emergency department because of complications; TE patients had 9.0 visits/100 surgeries and TT patients 1.8 visits/100 surgeries. The most common complication was postoperative hemorrhage: 200 cases (6.3%) in the TE group and 11 cases (0.6%) in the TT group. During the two-year follow-up after tonsil surgery the total costs of healthcare services were significantly lower in the TT group than in the TE group. Conclusion: Considerable changes have occurred in tonsil surgery in children during the 10-year study period; TT is today performed more often than TE. As a consequence, complications, readmissions to hospital, and number of patients treated in the operating room because of postoperative hemorrhage have decreased, lowering the costs of healthcare.
  • Uutela, Pauliina; Passweg, Jakob; Halter, Jorg; Weiger, Roland; Waltimo, Tuomas; Mauramo, Matti (2019)
    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of common oral diseases between allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients and healthy controls. Materials and methods A total of 143 adult allogeneic HSCT recipients who were treated for haematological malignancies between 2008 and 2016 were included in the study. The HSCT recipients were age and sex matched with healthy controls. A dental examination was performed on the HSCT recipients prior to HSCT. Differences in stimulated saliva flow rate (SSFR), decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, number of teeth, number of caries lesions, and measures of current or previous periodontitis (radiological attachment loss >3 mm or probing pocket depth >= 4 mm) between HSCT recipients and controls were examined. Results Stimulated saliva flow rate, DMFT index and the number of caries lesions were poorer in the HSCT recipients pre-HSCT compared to controls (all P-values
  • Tapiovaara, Laura K.; Aro, Katri L. S.; Bäck, Leif J. J.; Koskinen, Anni I. M. (2019)
    Purpose In acute epiglottitis (AE) or acute supraglottitis (AS), the management of the airway is crucial. We hypothesized that tracheotomized patients recover faster than intubated patients do. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all adult AE and AS patients, who underwent intubation or tracheotomy between 2007 and 2018 in a tertiary care center. Patient demographics, treatment, and complications were analyzed. Results The cohort comprised 42 patients. The airway was secured with intubation in 50% and with tracheotomy in 50%. All intubated patients (n = 21) and three tracheotomized patients were treated in the intensive care unit (p <0.0001). Procedure-related complications were encountered in three intubated and eight tracheotomized patients (p = 0.892). Median overall treatment cost was 11.547 euro and 5.856 euro in the intubated and tracheotomized patient groups, respectively (p <0.001). The median duration of sick leave after discharge from hospital was 13 days in the tracheotomy group and 7 days in the intubation group (p = 0.097). Conclusion Tracheotomy resulted in a less expensive management in securing the airway in AE or AS, but tracheotomized patients had a trend towards more complications and longer sick leaves compared to intubated patients.
  • Saat, R.; Mahmood, G.; Laulajainen-Hongisto, A.; Lempinen, Laura; Aarnisalo, A. A.; Jero, J.; Markkola, Antti Thor Olavi (2016)
    To compare MR imaging features in patients with incidental mastoid T2-hyperintensity with those of clinical acute mastoiditis, to ascertain characteristic differences between them. MR images of 35 adult and paediatric patients with clinical acute mastoiditis and 34 consecutive age-matched controls without relevant middle ear pathology and with incidental T2-hyperintensity that covered >= 50 % of the mastoid were retrospectively analysed with regard to signal, diffusion, and enhancement characteristics, and presence of complications. Incidental mastoid T2-hyperintensity that covered >= 50 % of the mastoid volume was found in 4.6 % of reviewed MR scans (n = 2341), and associated significantly (p <0.05) less with the involvement of the tympanic cavity (38 % vs. 74 %) and mastoid antrum (56 % vs. 80 %), hypointense-to-CSF signal intensity on T2 FSE (6 % vs. 86 %), intramastoid diffusion restriction (0 % vs. 62 %), intense intramastoid enhancement (0 % vs. 51 %), periosteal enhancement (3 % vs. 69 %), perimastoid dural enhancement 3 % vs. 43 %), bone destruction (0 % vs 49 %), intratemporal abscess or cholesteatoma (0 % vs. 24 %), labyrinth involvement (0 % vs. 14 %), and extracranial abscesses (0 % vs. 20 %). Hypointense-to-CSF signal intensity on T2WI, restricted diffusion, intense intramastoid enhancement among other MR imaging characteristics favoured an acute mastoiditis diagnosis over clinically non-relevant incidental mastoid pathology. Intramastoid T2-hyperintensity alone is not a reliable sign for acute mastoiditis. In acute mastoiditis, intramastoid T2-weighted signal intensity is usually hypointense to CSF. Diffusion restriction and intense intramastoid enhancement are absent in incidental mastoid effusion. An ADC value >= 1.72 x 10 (-3) mm (2) /s contradicts the AM diagnosis.
  • Holma, Reetta; Laatikainen, Reijo; Orell, Helena; Joensuu, Heikki; Peuhkuri, Katri; Poussa, Tuija; Korpela, Riitta; Österlund, Pia (2020)
    Chemotherapy-induced mucosal injury of the small intestine may interfere with the enzymes and transporters responsible for the hydrolysis and absorption of dietary carbohydrates causing diarrhoea, abdominal discomfort and pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of foods rich in FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols) and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. The patients (n = 52) filled in a 4-day food diary at baseline and during therapy and kept a symptom diary. The intakes of FODMAP-rich foods were calculated as portions and the intakes were divided into two consumption categories. Patients with high consumption of FODMAP-rich foods had diarrhoea more frequently than those with low consumption (for lactose-rich foods the odds ratio (OR) was 2.63, P = 0.03; and for other FODMAP-rich foods 1.82, P = 0.20). Patients with high consumption of both lactose-rich and other FODMAP-rich foods had an over 4-fold risk of developing diarrhoea as compared to those with low consumption of both (OR, 4.18; P = 0.02). These results were confirmed in multivariate models. Conclusion: Consumption of lactose-rich foods results in an increased risk of diarrhoea during adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer, especially when the consumption of other FODMAP-rich foods is also high.
  • Przybyla, Beata; Pinomäki, Anne; Petäjä, Jari; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Strandberg, Karin; Hillarp, Andreas; Öhlin, Ann-Kristin; Ruutu, Tapani; Volin, Liisa; Lassila, Riitta (2017)
    Background Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) enhances coagulation via endothelial perturbation and inflammation. Role of natural anticoagulants in interactions between coagulation and inflammation as well as in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are not well known. The purpose of this study was to define changes in natural anticoagulants over time in association with GVHD. Patients and methods This prospective study included 30 patients who received grafts from siblings (n = 19) or unrelated donors (n = 11). Eight patients developed GVHD. Standard clinical assays were applied to measure natural anticoagulants, represented by protein C (PC), antithrombin (AT), protein S (PS), complex of activated PC with its inhibitor (APC-PCI) and by markers of endothelial activation: Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII: C) and soluble thrombomodulin (s-TM) at 6-8 time points over three months. Results Overall, PC, AT and FVIII: C increased in parallel after engraftment. Significant correlations between PC and FVIII: C (r = 0.64-0.82, p Conclusion The coordinated activation of natural anticoagulants in our longitudinal study indicates the sustained ability of adaptation to endothelial and inflammatory activation during allogenic SCT treatment. The suboptimal control of coagulation by natural anticoagulants at early stage of SCT may contribute to onset of GVHD.