Browsing by Subject "CONCEPTIONS"

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  • Tammeleht, Anu; Rodriguez-Triana, Maria Jesus; Koort, Kairi; Lofstrom, Erika (2019)
    The increasing concern about ethics and integrity in research communities has brought attention to how students and junior academics can be trained on this regard. Moreover, it is known that ethical behaviour and integrity not only involve individual but also group norms and considerations. Thus, through action research and participant observation, this research investigates the learning processes through which 64 students collaboratively develop research ethics and integrity competencies. The aim was to understand how bachelor, master and PhD students approach ethical dilemma cases through a collaborative process. The data consisted of recorded group work on ethics cases, student group reports, and post-training questionnaires. Later, the analyses considered groups as the unit of analysis. These data were analysed through content analysis utilizing the SOLO taxonomy to identify levels of understanding and assess evolvement of ethical sensitivity during a casebased training session. The results show that all groups reached the level of understanding where the groups demonstrated that concepts had been understood appropriately, but occasionally struggled to make connections between them. Students perceived working collaboratively as beneficial. The results help teachers of research ethics and integrity to make pedagogically justified choices in their teaching. Drawing on the results of this study, we propose a tool for the formative assessment of student learning of research ethics and integrity.
  • Tolvanen, Simo; Jansson, Jan; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija (2014)
    Successful implementation of historical approach to teach nature of science (NOS) requires suitable curriculum material. Several research and development projects have produced lesson plans for science teachers. 25 lesson plans from four different projects involved in creating curriculum material utilizing historical approach in chemistry education were analyzed to describe NOS content included as well as the historical experiments and narratives used. Based on the results of descriptive content analysis of existing curriculum materials, several suggestions on the successful design of lesson plans utilizing historical approach are made. To increase the coherence and clarity of learning objectives and instruction, each lesson plan should focus on the limited amount of specific NOS issues instead of several overtly general NOS aspects. To support explicit classroom discussion on the selected NOS issues, historical narratives used in the lesson plans should illustrate these issues. The lesson plans should also include instructions on how to facilitate classroom discussion, such as questions for students to discuss and reflect. Recommendations are also made concerning the appropriate use of historical experiments and narrative elements such as viewpoint characters and conflicts.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Tuominen, Moona; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    In this article we take up the two-fold task of creating a framework for a growth mindset pedagogy on the basis of our previous studies and exploring the critical points of this pedagogy in the classroom of a mixed-mindset teacher. The data include classroom observations and stimulated recall interviews. The results show how a teacher who is socialized into the Finnish educational system pursues core features of growth mindset pedagogy, despite not having a dominant growth mindset herself. However, we identify critical points in her practices, which suggest that teaching the theory of mindset in teacher education is needed. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Nanni, Veronica; Pantini, Paolo; Isaia, Marco (2020)
    1. Spiders are able to arouse strong emotional reactions in humans. While spider bites are statistically rare events, our perception is skewed towards the potential harm spiders can cause to humans. Nevertheless, there is still limited understanding of the role of the media in spreading (mis)information about them thereby promoting this distorted perception of risk. 2. We examined the human dimension of spiders through the lens of traditional media, by analysing spider-related news published online in Italian newspapers between 2010 and 2020 (n = 314). We assessed the accuracy, circulation and sensationalistic content of each article, and assessed how each of these features drove news' share on social media. 3. We observed a recent, exponential increase in the frequency of the news, particularly those focused on medically important spiders-the Mediterranean black widow Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and the Mediterranean recluse Loxosceles rufescens. The news quality was generally poor: 70% contained different types of error, 32% were sensationalistic, and in virtually none was an expert consulted. 4. The risk scenario depicted by the media reports was unnecessarily alarmist, especially with regard to L. rufescens. A conservative estimate would suggest that less than 10% of the bites reported in the media reports analysed here were delivered by the species described in the report. Moreover, two out of three casualties associated with a bite of the Mediterranean recluse were fake news, while the third was unverifiable. 5. Overstated news referring to spider bites was shared significantly more on social media, thus contributing to frame a distorted perception of the risk. This is important given that these negative sentiments may ultimately lead to lowering public tolerance towards spiders and reducing conservation efforts towards them. We discuss open questions and avenues for future research concerning the media coverage of widely feared animals, that will help bridge knowledge gaps regarding the role of traditional and social media in framing our perception of the natural world.
  • Savec, Vesna Ferk; Urankar, Bernarda; Aksela, Maija; Devetak, Iztok (2017)
    The main purpose of this paper is to present Slovenian and Finnish prospective chemistry teachers' perceptions of their future profession, especially with regard to their understanding of the role of the triple nature of chemical concepts (macro, submicro and symbolic) and their representations in chemistry learning. A total of 19 prospective teachers (10 Slovenian, 9 Finnish) at master's level in chemical education participated in the research. The prospective teachers' opinions were gathered using an electronic questionnaire comprising six open-ended questions. The study revealed many parallels between Slovenian and Finnish prospective chemistry teachers' perceptions of their future profession and their understanding of the role of the triple nature of chemical concepts, especially particle representations, in chemistry learning. The majority of the prospective teachers from both countries believe that personal characteristics are the most important attribute of a successful chemistry teacher. Thus, they highly value teachers' enthusiasm for teaching and the use of contemporary teaching approaches in chemistry. The prospective teachers displayed an adequate understanding of the role of the triple nature of chemical concepts (i.e., particle representations) in the planning and implementation of a specific chemistry lesson.
  • Hurri, Karoliina (2020)
    Developed countries, defined in the global climate negotiations as the Annex I countries, have been expected to take the lead in tackling climate change. However, given the severity of climate change, reducing China’s emissions is critical. China is a developing country with world’s highest emissions and a leader in the renewable sector. Hence, outside expectations for China’s climate action have been growing. Through constructivist role theory, the article researched what external expectations there are for China’s potential climate leadership role. The leadership ex-pectations of developed countries were examined from the UN climate conference high-level segment statements from 2016 to 2018. Results of the discourse analysis explain the expecta-tions in six storylines: 1) all parties are placed on the same line, 2) the dichotomy of developing and developed countries is deconstructed, 3) the position of developing countries is highlighted, 4) China has a greater responsibility than non-Annex or a regular party, 5) China is recognized as a climate actor, and 6) China is excluded as a major player. The expectations recognize China’s structural climate leadership but acknowledging China as a global climate leader might pose a role conflict for the developed countries. The conclusion suggests that this acknowledgement would require developed countries to rethink their own climate leadership and assign the role with China
  • Vilppu, Henna; Södervik, Ilona; Postareff, Liisa; Murtonen, Mari (2019)
    The aim of the study was to explore whether short online pedagogy courses can have an effect on university teachers’ interpretations of teaching–learning situations. Before and after participating in a short online pedagogical training programme, a total of 66 participants wrote their interpretations of two short video clips, which depicted a content-focused teacher and a learning-focused teacher, respectively. The training was successful in changing participants’ interpretations from a knowledge-transmission view to a learning-facilitation view of teaching. This result indicates that even short online training programmes have the potential to affect participants’ interpretations of teaching–learning situations, especially when participants are not very experienced in teaching. Therefore, pedagogical training should be offered already at the early stages of teaching careers.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Hanhimäki, Eija; Tirri, Kirsi (2018)
    Implicit theories concerning the malleability of human qualities are known to have a powerful impact on motivation and learning, but their role in moral education is an under-researched topic. In this qualitative case study, we examined the impact of implicit theories on four Finnish teachers’ practices of teaching morally and in teaching morality. The data include preliminary and stimulated recall interviews (STR) as well as classroom observations. Our results demonstrate the multiple ways in which teachers’ implicit beliefs are communicated to students and influence teacher’s interpretations and endeavors to educate the ethical capabilities of students. The study provides evidence for the claim that implicit theories are an important construct which has been missing from the moral education literature. Directions for future research are suggested.
  • Mölsä, Mulki Elmi; Tiilikainen, Marja; Punamäki, Raija-Leena (2019)
    Objectives: The aims of the study were, first, to describe and analyze healthcare services utilization patterns of older immigrants in Finland, and particularly to compare the availability and accessibility of health services between older Somalis and Finns. The second aim was to examine the preferences for mental healthcare within the group of Somalis. The third aim was to test the existence of a service usage gap expected to be characteristic of the Somali group, in which high levels of mental health problems occur alongside simultaneous low levels of mental health service usage. Design: The participants were 256 men and women between the ages of 50–85; half were Somali migrants and the other half Finnish matched pairs. The participants were surveyed regarding their usage of somatic, mental, and preventive health services, as well as symptoms of depression, general distress, and somatization. The Somali participants were also surveyed regarding their usage of traditional healing methods and preferences for mental healthcare. Results: The Somali group had significantly lower access to personal/family doctors at healthcare centers as well as a lower availability of private doctors and occupational health services than the Finns. Instead, they used more nursing services than Finnish patients. The Somali participants attended fewer age-salient preventive check-ups than the Finns. The majority of the Somalis preferred traditional care, most commonly religious healing, for mental health problems. The hypothesized service gap was not substantiated, as a high level of depressive symptoms was not associated with a low usage of health services among the Somalis, but it was found unexpectedly among the Finns. Conclusion: Our findings call for culturally appropriate general and mental health services for older immigrants, which requires awareness of clients’ preferences, needs, and alternative healing practices. Somali participants encountered institutional barriers in accessing healthcare, and they preferred informal mental healthcare, especially religious healing instead of Western practices.