Browsing by Subject "CONFINEMENT"

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  • ASDEX Upgrade Team; EUROfusion MST1 Team; Trier, E.; Hakola, A.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Marchand, B. (2019)
    In ASDEX Upgrade, the propagation of cold pulses induced by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) is studied using electron cyclotron emission measurements, in a dataset of plasmas with moderate triangularity. It is found that the edge safety factor or the plasma current are the main determining parameters for the inward penetration of the T-e perturbations. With increasing plasma current the ELM penetration is more shallow in spite of the stronger ELMs. Estimates of the heat pulse diffusivity show that the corresponding transport is too large to be representative of the inter-ELM phase. Ergodization of the plasma edge during ELMs is a possible explanation for the observed properties of the cold pulse propagation, which is qualitatively consistent with non-linear magneto-hydro-dynamic simulations.
  • Lemetti, Laura; Hirvonen, Sami-Pekka; Fedorov, Dmitrii; Batys, Piotr; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Tenhu, Heikki; Linder, Markus B.; Sesilja Aranko, A. (2019)
    Gaining insights into the processes that transform dispersed biopolymers into well-ordered structures, such as soluble spidroin-proteins to spider silk threads, is essential for attempts to understand their biological function and to mimic their unique properties. One of these processes is liquid-liquid phase separation, which can act as an intermediate step for molecular assembly. We have shown that a self-coacervation step that occurs at a very high protein concentration (> 200 gl(-1)) is crucial for the fiber assembly of an engineered triblock silk-like molecule. In this study, we demonstrate that the addition of a crowding agent lowers the concentration at which coacervation occurs by almost two orders of magnitude. Coacervates induced by addition of a crowding agent are functional in terms of fiber formation, and the crowding agent appears to affect the process solely by increasing the effective concentration of the protein. Furthermore, induction at lower concentrations allows us to study the thermodynamics of the system, which provides insights into the coacervation mechanism. We suggest that this approach will be valuable for studies of biological coacervating systems in general.
  • JET Contributors; Joffrin, E.; Ahlgren, Tommy (2019)
    For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.