Browsing by Subject "CONFLICT"

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  • Matilainen, A.; Pohja-Mykrä, M.; Lähdesmäki, M.; Kurki, S. (2017)
    The use of natural resources often generates conflict among stakeholders. Conflict analysis and management in this sector has traditionally been based on compliance enforcement and/or education. Recently, however, the need for alternative approaches has been increasingly highlighted. In this study, we address the need for in-depth analysis, and introduce the theoretical concept of psychological ownership to improve the understanding and potential management of conflict situations. We suggest that ownership feelings may play a significant role both in successful co-operation, and in conflicts related to the use of natural resources. The study is qualitative in nature. The data consisted of two interview datasets related to nature tourism: nature tourism in private forests and bear watching safaris. We show that the ways the psychological ownership of stakeholder groups is constructed and taken into account in co-operative relationships are of the utmost importance for the sustainability and success of the interplay among stakeholders. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lyytikainen, Minna; Yadav, Punam (2022)
    This article explores a narrative of peacebuilding best practice: the national efforts to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Nepal. We demonstrate how the contested realities of post-conflict gender politics are skilfully transformed into internationally transferable policy knowledge. We argue that in order to construct a peacebuilding best practice, policy entrepreneurs draw on their social capital to make claims about policy as simultaneously local and context-specific as well as global and universally applicable. The credibility of the claims is based on the extent to which they can be presented to international policy audiences in formats suitable for their consumption.
  • Kunnari, Anton; Sundvall, Jukka R. I.; Laakasuo, Michael (2020)
    The process dissociation procedure (PDP) for moral cognition was created to separately measure two dispositions of moral judgment based on the dual-process theory of moral reasoning: deontological and utilitarian inclinations. In this paper we raise some concerns from a psychometrics perspective regarding the structure, reliability, and validity of the moral PDP as a measure of individual differences. Using two simulation studies as well as a real sample of N = 1,010, we investigate the psychometric properties of the moral PDP. We present novel evidence showing that (1) some correlations between PDP parameters are mathematical artifacts, and as such cannot be taken as evidence in support of a theory, (2) there are severe response inconsistencies within dilemma batteries, and (3) reliability estimates for these scores seem to be far below the accepted standards. We discuss some potential theoretical and content-related reasons for these statistical issues and their implications. We conclude that in their current form, PDP measures of utilitarian and deontological tendencies are sub-optimal for assessing individual differences.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Gronow, Antti; Stoddart, Mark C.J.; Broadbent, Jeffrey; Schneider, Volker; Tindall, David B. (2018)
    Why do some countries enact more ambitious climate change policies than others? Macro level economic and political structures, such as the economic weight of fossil fuel industries, play an important role in shaping these policies. So do the national science community and the national culture of science. But the process by which such macro-structural factors translate into political power and national climate change policies can be analyzed through focussing on meso level policy networks. The Comparing Climate Change Policy Networks (COMPON) research project has studied climate change policy networks in twenty countries since 2007. Along with some findings, this paper presents some methodological challenges faced and the solutions developed in the course of the project. After a presentation of the project, we first outline some practical challenges related to conducting cross-national network surveys and solutions to overcome them, and present the solutions adopted during the project. We then turn to challenges related to causal explanation of the national policy differences, and propose Qualitative Comparative Analysis as one solution for combining different levels of analysis (macro and meso) and different data types (quantitative, network and qualitative).
  • Klein, Johannes; Käyhkö, Janina; Räsänen, Aleksi; Groundstroem, Fanny; Eilu, Pasi (2022)
    Climate change can affect the mining sector in various ways. Physical impacts can be a threat to mines and personnel, transport infrastructure and supply chains, while the low-carbon transition may entail transition risks stemming from e.g., the need to respond to mitigation and adaptation policies, as well as opportunities in the form of increased metal and mineral demand. However, there is little knowledge of how mining companies perceive, manage, and respond to risks related to climate change. To address this knowledge gap, we examined annual and sustainability reports from 2019 for active metal mines in Finland, Sweden, and Norway. Through a structuring qualitative content analysis, we analysed the mining companies’ self-reported experience of and expectations for climate change impacts and risks, as well as adaptation and management activities taken or planned. Our findings indicate that physical impacts of climate change are not perceived as a major risk. In contrast, mitigation activities and reactions to climate policies play an important role, at least for some of the companies. Hence, the mining sector would benefit from more stringent risk reporting regulations and distinctive guidelines, as well as more research on the direct and indirect climate change impacts.
  • Poutanen, Petro; Siira, Kalle; Aula, Pekka (2016)
    In recent years, a growing body of literature has emerged from the intersection of complex systems science and organizational communication. However, due to the incoherence and immaturity of complexity science, this body of research is slightly disorganized. This article explores this research node using a meta-paradigmatic framework to untangle and clarify the different paradigmatic assumptions in the field of organizational communication research that has adopted the complexity science perspective. Our analysis reveals five research clusters that differ from each other in their understanding of what complexity is and in how they define communication. Based on our analysis, we present suggestions for finding common ground and point the way towards a future research agenda in complexity-based research in the areas of organizational communication and human resource development (HRD). In addition, we discuss the implications and possibilities that the complexity perspective can offer for HRD in practice.
  • Räisänen, Helmi; Hakala, Emma; Hukkinen, Janne; Eronen, Jussi T.; Virtanen, Mikko J. (2021)
    In security and foreign policy discourse, environmental issues have been discussed increasingly as security threats that require immediate action. Yet, as the traditional security sector does not provide straightforward means to deal with climate change and other environmental issues, this has prompted concerns over undue securitisation and ill-placed extreme measures. We argue that an effective policy to address foreseeable environmental security threats can only be developed and maintained by ensuring that it remains resolutely within the domain of civil society. In this article, we consider the case of Finland, where the policy concept of comprehensive security has been presented as the official guideline for security and preparedness activities in different sectors. Comprehensive security aims to safeguard the vital functions of society through cooperation between authorities, business operators, organisations, and citizens. We analyse the opportunities and challenges of Finland's comprehensive security policy in addressing environmental changes through a three-level framework of local, geopolitical and structural security impacts. Our empirical evidence is based on a set of expert interviews (n = 40) that represent a wide range of fields relevant to unconventional security issues. We find that the Finnish comprehensive security model provides an example of a wide and inclusive perspective to security which would allow for taking into account environmental security concerns. However, due to major challenges in the implementation of the model, it does not fully incorporate the long-term, cross-sectoral, and cascading aspects of environmental threats. This weakens Finland's preparedness against climate change which currently poses some of the most urgent environmental security problems.
  • Fagerlund, Monica; Houtsonen, Jarmo; Notko, Marianne; Husso, Marita (2022)
    The focus in this Finland-based study is on violence in close relationships-a term that partly overlaps with the more commonly used 'domestic violence', 'family violence' and 'intimate partner violence'. We demonstrate how police officers' conceptualisations of such violence differ from how it is defined in relevant legal documents. The data consists of the Government Bill and legal text on the subject issued as part of a legal reform enacted in 2010, and of a qualitative sample of freelist responses from 79 police officers. We examined both sets of data using theory-driven directed content analysis and deriving from prevailing theoretical frameworks reflecting the family- and gender-based perspectives on violence. The results expose the predominance of a narrow definition of 'family' in police understandings of close relationships, but also a notably broad spectrum of conceptualisations of both physical and non-physical forms of violence. In contrast, the legal definition of a close relationship is broader and encompasses multiple types of relationships, whereas forms of violence are more strictly defined. These findings could explain some of the discrepancies between legal policies on violence in close relationships and police responses to it.
  • Neupane, Bijaya; Dhami, Bijaya; Bista, Shreyashi; Sadadev, Bipana Maiya; Regmi, Siddhartha; Shrestha, Sami; Shrestha, Bikram; Traxmandlova, Iva; Varachova, Sona; Kindlmann, Pavel (2022)
    Barking deer is found in dense tropical and subtropical forests of Asia. It is listed as “least concerned” by the International Union of Conservation of Nature and as “vulnerable” in Nepal, where it is also protected. Due to the habitat loss and fragmentation by human activities, barking deer abundance is decreasing, which may even ultimately lead to its extinction. This in turn might negatively affect local ecosystem such as the abundance of the endangered common leopard, for which barking deer is the main prey species in the mid-hills of Nepal. We therefore need to know factors affecting barking deer abundance and its habitat preferences. To determine these factors, we recorded barking deer either by direct sighting or by any evidence of its indirect presence observed through transect surveys in January and February, 2019. To analyze habitat preference, the presence of barking deer was set to 1 if the barking deer or any sign of its presence were observed “used plots,” or to 0 if the barking deer or any sign of its presence were not observed (“habitat availability plot”). We measured main four ecological drivers such as forest management regime, microclimate, disturbance and food resources, which include 11 habitat characteristics in spots where barking deer was present, and in randomly selected spots. We found that elevation, slope, distance from settlement, presence of tree species, depth of leaf litter and percentage cover of leaf litter were most significantly affecting its presence. These results can serve as guidelines for local authorities to prevent decline in abundance of barking deer.
  • Markkula, N.; Lehti, V.; Adhikari, P.; Pena, S.; Heliste, J.; Mikkonen, E.; Rautanen, M.; Salama, E.; Guragain, B. (2019)
    Background. An essential strategy to increase coverage of psychosocial treatments globally is task shifting to non-medical counsellors, but evidence on its effectiveness is still scarce. This study evaluates the effectiveness of lay psychosocial counselling among persons with psychological distress in a primary health care setting in rural Nepal. Methods. A parallel randomized controlled trial in Dang, rural Nepal (NCT03544450). Persons aged 16 and older attending primary care and with a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score of 6 or more were randomized (1:1) to receive either non-medical psychosocial counselling (PSY) or enhanced usual care (EUC). PSY was provided by lay persons with a 6-month training and consisted of 5-weekly counselling sessions of 35-60 min with a culturally adapted solution-focused approach. EUC was provided by trained primary health workers. Participants were followed up at 1 (T1) and 6 months (T2). The primary outcome, response to treatment, was the reduction of minimum 50% in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score. Results. A total of 141 participants, predominantly socially disadvantaged women, were randomized to receive PSY and 146 to EUC. In the PSY, 123 participants and 134 in the EUC were analysed. In PSY, 101 participants (81.4%) had a response compared with 57 participants (42.5%) in EUC [percentage difference 39.4% (95% CI 28.4-50.4)]. The difference in BDI scores at T2 between PSY and EUC was -7.43 (95% CI -9.71 to -5.14). Conclusions. Non-medical (lay) psychosocial counselling appears effective in reducing depressive symptoms, and its inclusion in mental health care should be considered in low-resource settings.
  • Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Western, David; Galvin, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Pamela; Cabeza, Mar (2020)
    Local attitudes towards wildlife encompass environmental, political, sociocultural and psychological dimensions that shape human-wildlife interactions and conservation efforts. Although the political and sociocultural dimensions of these interactions have been extensively examined by political ecologists and cultural anthropologists, psychological aspects have remained largely untapped so far. This article presents an in-depth review of a long historical record of changing attitudes towards wildlife among Maasai pastoralists of the Amboseli Ecosystem in southern Kenya, examining their shifts in light of different conservation psychology theories. The historical changes are reviewed in relation to three theories of attitudinal shifts (i.e., cognitive dissonance, reactance, and motivation crowding theory) and discussed in a context of land dispossession, conservation policies and changes in Maasai lifestyles and cultural values. We conclude that conservation psychology adds an important dimension to understanding attitudes towards wildlife and how they bear on conservation policies and practices.
  • Marin, Pinja; Lindeman, Marjaana (2021)
    Although the relationship between religion and science has long been the subject of discussion, investigations into the how and why of people's science-religion perspectives are rare. This study examined how epistemic and ontological cognition predict agreement with four science-religion perspectives: conflict, independence, dialogue, and integration. Participants (N = 3911) were Finnish, Danish, and Dutch adults who had answered an online study. Most people held views that were not well captured by the commonly used four categories. When more specific perspectives were examined, differences were found especially in supernatural beliefs, over-mentalizing, and justifications for religious arguments and scientific knowledge. Thinking styles and epistemic sophistication played only a minor role. The results suggest that non-scientists evaluate the relationship between religion and science more based on their ontological beliefs than their epistemic reflection.
  • Liukka, Mari; Hupli, Markku; Turunen, Hannele (2018)
    AimThe aim of this study was to determine whether elements of transformational leadership are present in nursing managers' actions following adverse events. BackgroundTransformational leadership exerts a positive influence on organisational culture and patient safety. MethodEleven nursing managers were interviewed individually using a semi-structured format. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. ResultsFour themes emerged relating to nursing managers' actions following adverse events: patient-centredness as a principle for common action, courage to reform operational models to prevent future adverse events, nursing staff's encouragement of open and blame-free discussion, and challenge to recognize adverse events. ConclusionNursing managers must understand their responsibilities and the importance of making it clear to staff that patient-centredness should be evident in all health care actions. Nursing managers must also recognize the need to ensure that staff treat patients' interests as the top priority. Implications for Nursing ManagementIf an adverse event occurs, the situation should be discussed with the nursing staff and any unique aspects of the event must be accounted for. Nursing managers must have the skill to motivate and empower staff to find new ways to work, to prevent adverse events and to promote patient safety.
  • Kallström, Agneta; al-Abdulla, Orwa; Parkki, Jan; Häkkinen , Mikko; Juusola, Hannu; Kauhanen, Jussi (2022)
    Background The Syrian conflict has endured for a decade, causing one of the most significant humanitarian crises since World War II. The conflict has inflicted massive damage to civil infrastructure, and not even the health care sector has been spared. On the contrary, health care has been targeted, and as a result, many health professionals have left the country. Despite the life-threatening condition, many health professionals continued to work inside Syria even in the middle of the acute crisis. This qualitative study aims to determine the factors that have motivated Syrian health professionals to work in a conflict-affected country. Methods The research is based on 20 semi-structured interviews of Syrian health care workers. Interviews were conducted in 2016-2017 in Gaziantep, Turkey. A thematic inductive content analysis examined the motivational factors Syrian health care workers expressed for their work in the conflict area. Results Motivating factors for health care workers were intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic reasons included humanitarian principles and medical ethics. Also, different ideological reasons, patriotic, political and religious, were mentioned. Economic and professional reasons were named as extrinsic reasons for continuing work in the war-torn country. Conclusions The study adds information on the effects of the Syrian crisis on health care-from healthcare workers' perspective. It provides a unique insight on motivations why health care workers are continuing their work in Syria. This research underlines that the health care system would collapse totally without local professionals and leave the population without adequate health care.
  • GBD 2015 Eastern Mediterranean Reg (2018)
    We used GBD 2015 findings to measure the burden of intentional injuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2015. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study defines intentional injuries as a combination of self-harm (including suicide), interpersonal violence, collective violence (war), and legal intervention. We estimated number of deaths, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for each type of intentional injuries. In 2015, 28,695 individuals (95% UI: 25,474-37,832) died from self-harm, 35,626 (95% UI: 20,947-41,857) from interpersonal violence, and 143,858 (95% UI: 63,554-223,092) from collective violence and legal interventions. In 2015, collective violence and legal intervention was the fifth-leading cause of DALYs in the EMR and the leading cause in Syria, Yemen, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya; they account for 49.7% of total DALYs in Syria. Our findings call for increased efforts to stabilize the region and assist in rebuilding the health systems, as well as increasing transparency and employing preventive strategies to reduce self-harm and interpersonal injuries.
  • Garoff, Ferdinand; Tinghög, Petter; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lilja, Eero; Castaneda, Anu E. (2021)
    Background: Most refugees and other forced migrants have experienced potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Torture and other traumatic experiences, as well as various daily stressors, impact the mental health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected populations. Methods: The study includes two population-based samples of Iranian and Iraqi men living in Finland and Sweden. The Finnish Migrant Health and Well-being Study (Maamu) was conducted in 2010-2012. The Linkoping study was conducted in Sweden in 2005. In both samples, health and well-being measures, social and economic outcomes as well as health service utilization were reported. Results: The final sample for analysis consisted of two groups of males of Iranian or Iraqi origin: 278 residents in Finland and 267 residents in Sweden. Both groups were subdivided according to the reported PTEs: Torture survivors; Other PTEs; No PTEs. Migrants that reported PTEs, torture survivors in particular, had significantly poorer social and health outcomes. Torture survivors also reported lower trust and confidence in authorities and public service providers, as well as more loneliness, social isolation and experiences of discrimination. Conclusions: Torture and other PTEs prevalent in refugee and migrant populations create a wide-ranging and long-term impact in terms of increased risk of various types of adverse social and health conditions. Early identification through systematic and effective screening should be the first step in guiding migrants and refugees suffering from experiences of torture and other PTEs to flexible, multidisciplinary services.
  • Kangas, Emilia; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Jyrkinen, Marjut (2019)
    It has been claimed that in the context of organizations and management, fathers are invisible. One source of tension for fathers who work and who want to participate in family life is that even though involved fatherhood is emerging in many western societies, a family-oriented male identity is likely to be problematic for men in organizations. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of a professional and managerial men's work-family relationship using discourse analysis on data from three different media sources in Finland, published during 1990-2015. We identified two competing discourses: one of stasis, the other of change. The stasis discourse is constructed around traditionally masculine management and fatherhood roles, while the changing discourse embodies more diverse masculinities and fatherhood. We conclude that although the discourse on fatherhood in the organizational context is moving towards gender equality, at the same time a strong discourse is putting a brake on such development, especially regarding management.
  • Vitikainen, Emma I. K.; Thompson, Faye J.; Marshall, Harry H.; Cant, Michael A. (2019)
    Kin selection theory defines the conditions for which altruism or 'helping' can be favoured by natural selection. Tests of this theory in cooperatively breeding animals have focused on the short-term benefits to the recipients of help, such as improved growth or survival to adulthood. However, research on early-life effects suggests that there may be more durable, lifelong fitness impacts to the recipients of help, which in theory should strengthen selection for helping. Here, we show in cooperatively breeding banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) that care received in the first 3 months of life has lifelong fitness benefits for both male and female recipients. In this species, adult helpers called 'escorts' form exclusive one-to-one caring relationships with specific pups (not their own offspring), allowing us to isolate the effects of being escorted on later reproduction and survival. Pups that were more closely escorted were heavier at sexual maturity, which was associated with higher lifetime reproductive success for both sexes. Moreover, for female offspring, lifetime reproductive success increased with the level of escorting received per se, over and above any effect on body mass. Our results suggest that early-life social care has durable benefits to offspring of both sexes in this species. Given the well-established developmental effects of early-life care in laboratory animals and humans, we suggest that similar effects are likely to be widespread in social animals more generally. We discuss some of the implications of durable fitness benefits for the evolution of intergenerational helping in cooperative animal societies, including humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Developing differences: early-life effects and evolutionary medicine'.
  • Rotkirch, Anna; Janhunen, Kristiina (2009)
    The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63) described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent-offspring conflict). Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the “motherhood myth” induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting.
  • GBD 2020 Release 1 Vaccine Coverag; Galles, Natalie C.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Updike, Rachel L.; Meretoja, Tuomo J. (2021)
    Background Measuring routine childhood vaccination is crucial to inform global vaccine policies and programme implementation, and to track progress towards targets set by the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) and Immunization Agenda 2030. Robust estimates of routine vaccine coverage are needed to identify past successes and persistent vulnerabilities. Drawing from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2020, Release 1, we did a systematic analysis of global, regional, and national vaccine coverage trends using a statistical framework, by vaccine and over time. Methods For this analysis we collated 55 326 country-specific, cohort-specific, year-specific, vaccine-specific, and dosespecific observations of routine childhood vaccination coverage between 1980 and 2019. Using spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, we produced location-specific and year-specific estimates of 11 routine childhood vaccine coverage indicators for 204 countries and territories from 1980 to 2019, adjusting for biases in countryreported data and reflecting reported stockouts and supply disruptions. We analysed global and regional trends in coverage and numbers of zero-dose children (defined as those who never received a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] vaccine dose), progress towards GVAP targets, and the relationship between vaccine coverage and sociodemographic development. Findings By 2019, global coverage of third-dose DTP (DTP3; 81.6% [95% uncertainty interval 80.4-82 .7]) more than doubled from levels estimated in 1980 (39.9% [37.5-42.1]), as did global coverage of the first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1; from 38.5% [35.4-41.3] in 1980 to 83.6% [82.3-84.8] in 2019). Third- dose polio vaccine (Pol3) coverage also increased, from 42.6% (41.4-44.1) in 1980 to 79.8% (78.4-81.1) in 2019, and global coverage of newer vaccines increased rapidly between 2000 and 2019. The global number of zero-dose children fell by nearly 75% between 1980 and 2019, from 56.8 million (52.6-60. 9) to 14.5 million (13.4-15.9). However, over the past decade, global vaccine coverage broadly plateaued; 94 countries and territories recorded decreasing DTP3 coverage since 2010. Only 11 countries and territories were estimated to have reached the national GVAP target of at least 90% coverage for all assessed vaccines in 2019. Interpretation After achieving large gains in childhood vaccine coverage worldwide, in much of the world this progress was stalled or reversed from 2010 to 2019. These findings underscore the importance of revisiting routine immunisation strategies and programmatic approaches, recentring service delivery around equity and underserved populations. Strengthening vaccine data and monitoring systems is crucial to these pursuits, now and through to 2030, to ensure that all children have access to, and can benefit from, lifesaving vaccines. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.