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  • Raissadati, Alireza; Nieminen, Heta; Haukka, Jari; Sairanen, Heikki; Jokinen, Eero (2016)
    BACKGROUND Comprehensive information regarding causes of late post-operative death following pediatric congenital cardiac surgery is lacking. OBJECTIVES The study sought to analyze late causes of death after congenital cardiac surgery by era and defect severity. METHODS We obtained data from a nationwide pediatric cardiac surgery database and Finnish population registry regarding patients who underwent cardiac surgery at RESULTS Overall, 10,964 patients underwent 14,079 operations, with 98% follow-up. Early mortality ( CONCLUSIONS CHD-related deaths have decreased markedly but remain a challenge after surgery for severe cardiac defects. Premature deaths are generally more common among patients than the control population, warranting long-term follow-up after congenital cardiac surgery. (C) 2016 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Thorlacius, Elin M.; Wåhlander, Håkan; Ojala, Tiina; Ylänen, Kaisa; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Synnergren, Mats; Romlin, Birgitta S.; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Castellheim, Albert (2020)
    Objective : We aimed to determine the differential effects of intra-operative administration of milrinone versus levosimendan on myocardial function after pediatric cardiac surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography was employed for myocardial function evaluation, utilizing biventricular longitudinal strain with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to conventional echocardiographic variables. Design : A secondary analysis of a randomized, prospective, double-blinded clinical drug trial Setting : Two pediatric tertiary university hospitals Participants : Infants between 1-12 months of age diagnosed with ventricular septal defect, complete atrioventricular septal defect, or tetralogy of Fallot who were scheduled for corrective surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions : The patients were randomized to receive an infusion of milrinone or levosimendan at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass and for 26 consecutive hours. Measurements and main results : Biventricular longitudinal strain and conventional echocardiographic variables were measured preoperatively, on the first postoperative morning and prior to hospital discharge. The association between perioperative parameters and postoperative myocardial function was also investigated. Images were analyzed for left ventricular (n=67) and right ventricular (n=44) function. The day after surgery, left ventricular longitudinal strain was deteriorated in both the milrinone and levosimendan groups; 33% and 39%, respectively. The difference was not significant. The corresponding deterioration in right ventricular longitudinal strain was 42% and 50% (non-significant difference). For both groups, biventricular longitudinal strain approached their preoperative values at hospital discharge. Preoperative N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide could predict the left ventricular strain on postoperative day one (p=0.014). Conclusions : Levosimendan was comparable to milrinone for left and right ventricular inotropic support in pediatric cardiac surgery.
  • Muroke, Valtteri; Jalanko, Mikko; Simonen, Piia; Holmström, Miia; Ventilä, Markku; Sinisalo, Juha (2020)
    Aims Objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the non-invasive dye dilution method to quantify shunt size related to atrial septal defects (ASD). The diagnostic accuracy of shunt size determination in ASD's has been suboptimal with common non-invasive methods. We have previously developed a cost-effective and time-effective non-invasive dye dilution method. In this method, the indocyanine green solution is injected into the antecubital vein and the appearance of the dye is detected with an earpiece densitometer. Methods and results We studied 192 patients with an ASD. Mean pulmonary blood flow/systemic blood flow (Qp/Qs) was measured with dye dilution technique and compared with following methods: Fick's invasive oximetry (n=49), transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) measuring ASD size (n=143) and cardiac MR (CMR) (n=9). For the first 49 patients, Qp/Qs was 2.05 +/- 0.70 with the Fick's invasive oximetry and 2.12 +/- 0.68 with dye dilution method with an excellent correlation between the two methods (R=0.902, p Conclusion The dye dilution method with earpiece densitometer recording is a clinically feasible and reliable method to assess shunt size in ASDs.
  • Aro, Aapo L.; Chugh, Sumeet S. (2017)
    In the present review, we summarize current approaches to the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in children and young adults, focusing on age
  • Sellier, Chantal; Cerro-Herreros, Estefania; Blatter, Markus; Freyermuth, Fernande; Gaucherot, Angeline; Ruffenach, Frank; Sarkar, Partha; Puymirat, Jack; Udd, Bjarne; Day, John W.; Meola, Giovanni; Bassez, Guillaume; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Takahashi, Masanori P.; Schoser, Benedikt; Furling, Denis; Artero, Ruben; Allain, Frederic H. T.; Llamusi, Beatriz; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas (2018)
    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 (DM1, DM2) are caused by expansions of CTG and CCTG repeats, respectively. RNAs containing expanded CUG or CCUG repeats interfere with the metabolism of other RNAs through titration of the Muscleblind-like (MBNL) RNA binding proteins. DM2 follows a more favorable clinical course than DM1, suggesting that specific modifiers may modulate DM severity. Here, we report that the rbFOX1 RNA binding protein binds to expanded CCUG RNA repeats, but not to expanded CUG RNA repeats. Interestingly, rbFOX1 competes with MBNL1 for binding to CCUG expanded repeats and overexpression of rbFOX1 partly releases MBNL1 from sequestration within CCUG RNA foci in DM2 muscle cells. Furthermore, expression of rbFOX1 corrects alternative splicing alterations and rescues muscle atrophy, climbing and flying defects caused by expression of expanded CCUG repeats in a Drosophila model of DM2.
  • Oldereid, Nan B.; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Laivuori, Hannele; Petzold, Max; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Soderstrom-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to January 2017 were searched. Paternal factors examined included paternal age and life-style factors such as body mass index (BMI), adiposity and cigarette smoking. The outcome variables assessed were short-term outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, birth defects and chromosomal anomalies. Long-term outcome variables included mortality, cancers, psychiatric diseases/disorders and metabolic diseases. The systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines. Relevant meta-analyses were performed. OUTCOMES: The search included 14 371 articles out of which 238 met the inclusion criteria, and 81 were included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses). Paternal age and paternal life-style factors have an association with adverse outcome in offspring. This is particularly evident for psychiatric disorders such as autism, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but an association is also found with stillbirth, any birth defects, orofacial clefts and trisomy 21. Paternal height, but not BMI, is associated with birth weight in offspring while paternal BMI is associated with BMI, weight and/or body fat in childhood. Paternal smoking is found to be associated with an increase in SGA, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, and orofacial clefts, cancers, brain tumours and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These associations are significant although moderate in size, with most pooled estimates between 1.05 and 1.5, and none exceeding 2.0. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest.
  • Hautala, J.; Gissler, M.; Ritvanen, A.; Tekay, A.; Pitkänen-Argillander, O.; Stefanovic, V.; Sarkola, T.; Helle, E.; Pihkala, J.; Pätilä, T.; Mattila, I. P.; Jokinen, E.; Räsänen, J.; Ojala, T. (2019)
    Objective To evaluate whether a nationwide prenatal anomaly screening programme improves detection rates of univentricular heart (UVH) and transposition of great arteries (TGA), and whether maternal risk factors for severe fetal heart disease affect prenatal detection. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Nationwide data from Finnish registries 2004-14. Population A total of 642 456 parturients and 3449 terminated pregnancies due to severe fetal anomaly. Methods Prenatal detection rates were calculated in three time periods (prescreening, transition and screening phase). The effect of maternal risk factors (obesity, in vitro fertilisation, pregestational diabetes and smoking) was evaluated. Main outcome measures Change in detection rates and impact of maternal risk factors on screening programme efficacy. Results In total, 483 cases of UVH and 184 of TGA were detected. The prenatal detection rate of UVH increased from 50.4% to 82.8% and of TGA from 12.3% to 41.0% (P <0.0001). Maternal risk factors did not affect prenatal detection rate, but detection rate differed substantially by region. Conclusions A nationwide screening programme improved overall UVH and TGA detection rates, but regional differences were observed. Obesity or other maternal risk factors did not affect the screening programme efficacy. The establishment of structured guidelines and recommendations is essential when implementing the screening programme. In addition, a prospective screening register is highly recommended to ensure high quality of screening.