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  • Pokorney, Sean D.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Gunter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.; ROCKET AF Steering Comm; Kaste, Markku (2016)
    Background-Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results-In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted warfarin. Cox proportional hazards regression with backward elimination identified factors at randomization that were independently associated with all-cause mortality in the 14 171 participants in the intention-to-treat population. The median age was 73 years, and the mean CHADS(2) score was 3.5. Over 1.9 years of median follow-up, 1214 (8.6%) patients died. Kaplan-Meier mortality rates were 4.2% at 1 year and 8.9% at 2 years. The majority of classified deaths (1081) were cardiovascular (72%), whereas only 6% were nonhemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism. No significant difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the rivaroxaban and warfarin arms (P=0.15). Heart failure (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% CI 1.33-1.70, P= 75 years (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% CI 1.51-1.90, P Conclusions-In a large population of patients anticoagulated for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, approximate to 7 in 10 deaths were cardiovascular, whereas
  • Hoglund, K.; Lequarre, A. -S.; Ljungvall, I.; Mc Entee, K.; Merveille, A. -C.; Wiberg, M.; Gouni, V.; Willesen, J. Lundgren; Hanas, S.; Wess, G.; Sorensen, L. Mejer; Tiret, L.; Kierczak, M.; Forsberg, S. K. G.; Seppälä, E.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Lohi, H.; Chetboul, V.; Fredholm, M.; Haggstrom, J. (2016)
    BackgroundThere are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. ObjectiveInvestigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. AnimalsFive-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). MethodsProspective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. ResultsMedian ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall, breed differences were found in ET-1 and cortisol concentrations, and renin activity (P <.0001 for all). Pair-wise comparisons between breeds differed in 67% of comparisons for ET-1, 22% for cortisol, and 19% for renin activity, respectively. Within centers, breed differences were found at 5/5 centers for ET-1, 4/5 centers for cortisol, and 2/5 centers for renin activity. Newfoundlands had highest median ET-1 concentration, 3 times higher than Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Doberman Pinschers, and Dachshunds. Median renin activity was highest in Dachshunds, twice the median value in Newfoundlands and Boxers. Median cortisol concentration was highest in Finnish Lapphunds, almost 3 times higher than in Boxers. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceBreed variation might be important to take into consideration when interpreting test results in clinical studies.
  • Ammirati, Enrico; Bizzi, Emanuele; Veronese, Giacomo; Groh, Matthieu; Van de Heyning, Caroline M.; Lehtonen, Jukka; de Chambrun, Marc Pineton; Cereda, Alberto; Picchi, Chiara; Trotta, Lucia; Moslehi, Javid J.; Brucato, Antonio (2022)
    The field of inflammatory disease of the heart or "cardio-immunology " is rapidly evolving due to the wider use of non-invasive diagnostic tools able to detect and monitor myocardial inflammation. In acute myocarditis, recent data on the use of immunomodulating therapies have been reported both in the setting of systemic autoimmune disorders and in the setting of isolated forms, especially in patients with specific histology (e.g., eosinophilic myocarditis) or with an arrhythmicburden. A role for immunosuppressive therapies has been also shown in severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a condition that can be associated with cardiac injury and acute myocarditis. Furthermore, ongoing clinical trials are assessing the role of high dosage methylprednisolone in the context of acute myocarditis complicated by heart failure or fulminant presentation or the role of anakinra to treat patients with acute myocarditis excluding patients with hemodynamically unstable conditions. In addition, the explosion of immune-mediated therapies in oncology has introduced new pathophysiological entities, such as immune-checkpoint inhibitor-associated myocarditis and new basic research models to understand the interaction between the cardiac and immune systems. Here we provide a broad overview of evolving areas in cardio-immunology. We summarize the use of new imaging tools in combination with endomyocardial biopsy and laboratory parameters such as high sensitivity troponin to monitor the response to immunomodulating therapies based on recent evidence and clinical experience. Concerning pericarditis, the normal composition of pericardial fluid has been recently elucidated, allowing to assess the actual presence of inflammation; indeed, normal pericardial fluid is rich in nucleated cells, protein, albumin, LDH, at levels consistent with inflammatory exudates in other biological fluids. Importantly, recent findings showed how innate immunity plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pericarditis with raised C-reactive protein, with inflammasome and IL-1 overproduction as drivers for systemic inflammatory response. In the era of tailored medicine, anti-IL-1 agents such as anakinra and rilonacept have been demonstrated highly effective in patients with recurrent pericarditis associated with an inflammatory phenotype.
  • Koivuniemi, R.; Kuuliala, A.; Kivistö, S.; Holmström, M.; Hämäläinen, M.; Moilanen, E.; Rajamäki, K.; Kautiainen, H.; Eklund, K. K.; Leirisalo-Repo, M. (2021)
    Objectives: To study whether female patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have myocardial abnormalities and whether progression of myocardial involvement can be attenuated by disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Method: Cardiac magnetic resonance (cMR; 1.5 or 3.0 T), including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), T1 relaxation time, and ventricular functions, was performed in 30 patients with untreated active early RA starting first DMARDs, and 28 patients with chronic RA with inadequate response to conventional synthetic DMARDs starting biological DMARDs. cMR was repeated in RA patients 1 year later. cMR was conducted once in 22 fibromyalgia (FM) subjects and in 35 healthy volunteers serving as controls. All subjects were non-smoking females without coronary heart disease, heart failure, or diabetes. Results: Compared with controls, 58 RA patients had slightly lower ventricular function, although in the normal range, and longer T1 time at baseline. None of the FM subjects had LGE, but it was frequent in RA (67%). During the 1 year DMARD treatment, Disease Activity Score based on 28-joint count-C-reactive protein declined, ventricular functions tended to improve, but the number of patients with LGE remained unchanged. However, the number of LGE-positive heart segments either decreased or stayed the same in 91% of RA patients. In early RA patients, achieving tight remission was associated with LGE stabilization, after adjustment for age, metabolic syndrome, baseline inflammatory activity, and leisure-time physical activity. Conclusion: Treatment targeted to tight remission in early stages of RA seems to be important to prevent not only joint damage but also myocardial abnormalities.
  • Bonnesen, Trine Gade; Winther, Jeanette F.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Licht, Sofie de Fine; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Holmqvist, Anna Saellfors; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Birn, Henrik; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Hasle, Henrik; ALiCCS Study Grp (2016)
    Background: Childhood cancer has been associated with long-term risk of urinary tract diseases, but risk patterns remain to be comprehensively investigated. We analysed the lifetime risk of urinary tract diseases in survivors of childhood cancer in the Nordic countries. Methods: We identified 32,519 one-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed since the 1940s and 1950s in the five Nordic cancer registries and selected 211,156 population comparisons of a corresponding age, sex, and country of residence from the national population registries. To obtain information on all first-time hospitalizations for a urinary tract disease, we linked all study subjects to the national hospital registry of each country. Relative risks (RRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for urinary tract diseases among cancer survivors were calculated with the appropriate morbidity rates among comparisons as reference. Results: We observed 1645 childhood cancer survivors ever hospitalized for urinary tract disease yielding an RR of 2.5 (95% CI 2.4-2.7) and an AER of 229 (95% CI 210-248) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative risk at age 60 was 22% in cancer survivors and 10% in comparisons. Infections of the urinary system and chronic kidney disease showed the highest excess risks, whereas survivors of neuroblastoma, hepatic and renal tumours experienced the highest RRs. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood cancer had an excess risk of urinary tract diseases and for most diseases the risk remained elevated throughout life. The highest risks occurred following therapy of childhood abdominal tumours. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Haggstrom, J.; Boswood, A.; O'Grady, M.; Joens, O.; Smith, S.; Swift, S.; Borgarelli, M.; Gavaghan, B.; Kresken, J. -G.; Patteson, M.; Ablad, B.; Bussadori, C. M.; Glaus, T.; Kovacevic, A.; Rapp, M.; Santilli, R. A.; Tidholm, A.; Eriksson, A.; Belanger, M. C.; Deinert, M.; Little, C. J. L.; Kvart, C.; French, A.; Ronn-Landbo, M.; Wess, G.; Eggertsdottir, A.; O'Sullivan, M. Lynne; Schneider, M.; Lombard, C. W.; Dukes-McEwan, J.; Willis, R.; Louvet, A.; DiFruscia, R. (2013)