Browsing by Subject "CONNECTED POROSITY"

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  • Voutilainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Arttu; Sardini, Paul; Parkkonen, Joni; Sammaljärvi, Juuso; Gylling, Björn; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Yli-Kaila, Maarit; Koskinen, Lasse; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja (2019)
    The spatial porosity and mineral distribution of geological materials strongly affects transport processes in them. X-ray micro computed tomography (X-mu CT) has proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing the spatial mineral distribution of geological samples in 3-D. However, limitations in resolution prevent an accurate characterization of pore space especially for tight crystalline rock samples and 2-D methods such as C-14-polymethylmethacrylate (C-14-PMMA) autoradiography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are needed. The spatial porosity and mineral distributions of tight crystalline rock samples from Aspo, Sweden, and Olkiluoto, Finland, were studied here. The X-mu CT were used to characterize the spatial distribution of the main minerals in 3-D. Total porosities, fracture porosities, fracture densities and porosity distributions of the samples were determined using the C-14-PMMA autoradiography and characterization of mineral-specific porosities were assisted using chemical staining of rock surfaces. SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine pore apertures and identify the minerals. It was shown that combination of the different imaging techniques creates a powerful tool for the structural characterization of crystalline rock samples. The combination of the results from different methods allowed the construction of spatial porosity, mineral and mineral grain distributions of the samples in 3-D. These spatial distributions enable reactive transport modeling using a more realistic representation of the heterogeneous structure of samples. Furthermore, the realism of the spatial distributions were increased by determinig the densities and porosities of fractures and by the virtual construction heterogeneous mineral distributions of minerals that cannot be separated by X-mu CT.
  • Mori, Andreas; Mazurek, Martin; Ota, Kunio; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Eichinger, Florian; Leuenberger, Markus (2021)
    The porosity and pore geometry of rock samples from a coherent granodioritic rock body at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland was characterised by different methods using injection techniques. Results from in situ and laboratory techniques are compared by applying innovative in situ resin impregnation techniques as well as rock impregnation and mercury injection under laboratory conditions. In situ resin impregnation of the rock matrix shows an interconnected pore network throughout the rock body, consisting mainly of grain-boundary pores and solution pores in magmatic feldspar, providing an important reservoir for pore water and solutes, accessible by diffusion. Porosity and pore connectivity do not vary as a function of distance to brittle shear zones. In situ porosity was found to be about 0.3 vol.%, which is about half the porosity value that was determined based on rock samples in the laboratory. Samples that were dried and impregnated in the laboratory were affected by artefacts created since core recovery, and thus showed higher porosity values than samples impregnated under in situ conditions. The extrapolation of laboratory measurements to in situ conditions requires great care and may not be feasible in all cases.