Browsing by Subject "CONSENSUS STATEMENT"

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  • Klebe, Sonja; Leigh, James; Henderson, Douglas W.; Nurminen, Markku (2020)
    This review updates the scientific literature concerning asbestos and lung cancer, emphasizing cumulative exposure and synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke, and proposes an evidence-based and equitable approach to compensation for asbestos-related lung cancer cases. This update is based on several earlier reviews written by the second and third authors on asbestos and lung cancer since 1995. We reevaluated the peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies. In addition, selected in vivo and in vitro animal studies and molecular and cellular studies in humans were included. We conclude that the mechanism of lung cancer causation induced by the interdependent coaction of asbestos fibers and tobacco smoke at a biological level is a multistage stochastic process with both agents acting conjointly at all times. The new knowledge gained through this review provides the evidence for synergism between asbestos exposure and tobacco smoke in lung cancer causation at a biological level. The evaluated statistical data conform best to a multiplicative model for the interaction effects of asbestos and smoking on the lung cancer risk, with no requirement for asbestosis. Any asbestos exposure, even in a heavy smoker, contributes to causation. Based on this information, we propose criteria for the attribution of lung cancer to asbestos in smokers and non-smokers.
  • Swann, J. R.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Salonen, A.; Sakwinska, O.; Gill, C.; Meynier, A.; Fanca-Berthon, P.; Schelkle, B.; Segata, N.; Shortt, C.; Tuohy, K.; Hasselwander, O. (2020)
    With the growing appreciation for the influence of the intestinal microbiota on human health, there is increasing motivation to design and refine interventions to promote favorable shifts in the microbiota and their interactions with the host. Technological advances have improved our understanding and ability to measure this indigenous population and the impact of such interventions. However, the rapid growth and evolution of the field, as well as the diversity of methods used, parameters measured and populations studied, make it difficult to interpret the significance of the findings and translate their outcomes to the wider population. This can prevent comparisons across studies and hinder the drawing of appropriate conclusions. This review outlines considerations to facilitate the design, implementation and interpretation of human gut microbiota intervention studies relating to foods based upon our current understanding of the intestinal microbiota, its functionality and interactions with the human host. This includes parameters associated with study design, eligibility criteria, statistical considerations, characterization of products and the measurement of compliance. Methodologies and markers to assess compositional and functional changes in the microbiota, following interventions are discussed in addition to approaches to assess changes in microbiota-host interactions and host responses. Last, EU legislative aspects in relation to foods and health claims are presented. While it is appreciated that the field of gastrointestinal microbiology is rapidly evolving, such guidance will assist in the design and interpretation of human gut microbiota interventional studies relating to foods.
  • Trachsel, Dagmar S.; Calloe, Kirstine; Mykkänen, Anna K.; Raistakka, Pia; Anttila, Marjukka; Fredholm, Merete; Tala, Martti; Lamminpää, Katariina; Klaerke, Dan A.; Buhl, Rikke (2021)
    Exercise-associated sudden deaths (EASDs) are deaths occurring unexpectedly during or immediately after exercise. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one cause of EASD. Cardiac arrhythmias caused by genetic variants have been linked to SCD in humans. We hypothesize that genetic variants may be associated with SCD in animals, including horses. Genetic variants are transmitted to offspring and their frequency might increase within a family. Therefore, the frequency of such variants might increase with the inbreeding factor. Higher inbreeding could have a negative impact on racing performance. Pedigree data and career earnings from racehorses diagnosed with SCD between 2002 and 2017 were compared using non-parametric tests with 1) control horses that died due to catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries and 2) horses that raced during the same period without reported problems. Diagnosis of SCD was based on necropsy reports, including macroscopic and microscopic examinations. Death was registered in the study period for 61 horses. Eleven of these horses were excluded due to missing autopsy reports. In 25 cases, the diagnosis remained unknown and death was possibly caused by cardiac arrhythmia, in two cases cardiac disease was identified, in seven cases a rupture of a major vessel had occurred. In addition, 16 horses died or were euthanized due to severe musculoskeletal injuries. No significant differences in inbreeding coefficients or in career earnings were found between the groups or between horses with EASD compared with other horses racing during the same period. The study provides no evidence for increased inbreeding factor in Finnish racehorses with SCD. (c) 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lourenco, Olga; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Costa, Elisio; Fonseca, Joao A.; Menditto, Enrica; Cvetkovski, Biljana; Kritikos, Vicky; Tan, Rachel; Bedbrook, Anna; Scheire, Sophie; Bachert, Claus; Bialek, Slawomir; Briedis, Vitalis; Boussery, Koen; Canonica, G. Walter; Haahtela, Tari; Kuna, Piotr; Novellino, Ettore; Samoliski, Boleslaw; Schunemann, Holger J.; Wallace, Dana; Bousquet, Jean (2020)
    The paradigm of how we manage allergic rhinitis is shifting with a growing understanding that it is a complex process, requiring a coordinated effort from healthcare providers and patients. Pharmacists are key members of these integrated care pathways resolving medication-related problems, optimizing regimens, improving adherence and recommending therapies while establishing liaisons between patients and physicians. Community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals to the public and allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases managed by pharmacists. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines developed over the past 20 years have improved the care of allergic rhinitis patients through an evidence-based, integrated care approach. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach to allergic rhinitis management in community pharmacy following the 2019 ARIA in the pharmacy guidelines.
  • Maria Guadalupe, Ortiz-Lopez; Katy, Sanchez-Pozos; Charmina, Aguirre-Alvarado; Vihko, Pirkko; Marta, Menjivar (2022)
    Background: The 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency (5 alpha-RD2) is a specific form of disorder of sexual development (DSD). Pathogenic variants in the SRD5A2 gene, which encodes this enzyme, are responsible for 46,XY DSD.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic etiology of 46,XY DSD in two Mexican families with affected children.Materials and methods: The SRD5A2 gene of the parents and affected children was screened in both families via polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA direct sequencing. The role of genetic variants in enzymatic activity was tested by site-directed mutagenesis.Results: Subject 1 presented two variants: p.Glu197Asp and p.Pro212Arg. Subject 2 was homozygous for the variant p.Glu197Asp. The two variants were reported in early studies. The directed mutagenesis study showed that the p.Glu197Asp and p.Pro212Arg variants lead to a total loss of enzymatic activity and, consequently, abnormal genitalia development in the patients.Conclusion: These results suggest that p.Glu197Asp and p.Pro212Arg are pathogenic variants that lead to the phenotypic expression of DSD. 5 alpha-RD2 is of extreme importance not only because of its frequency (it is rare) but also because of its significance in understanding the mechanism of androgen action, the process of sexual differentiation, and the factors that influence normal sexual behavior.
  • Kettunen, Oona; Heikkilä, Maria; Linnamo, Vesa; Ihalainen, Johanna K. (2021)
    The aim of this study was to provide information on energy availability (EA), macronutrient intake, nutritional periodization practices, and nutrition knowledge in young female cross-country skiers. A total of 19 skiers filled in weighted food and training logs before and during a training camp. Nutrition knowledge was assessed via a validated questionnaire. EA was optimal in 11% of athletes at home (mean 33.7 +/- 9.6 kcal center dot kgFFM(-1)center dot d(-1)) and in 42% at camp (mean 40.3 +/- 17.3 kcal center dot kgFFM(-1)center dot d(-1)). Most athletes (74%) failed to meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake at home (mean 5.0 +/- 1.2 g center dot kg(-1)center dot d(-1)) and 63% failed to do so at camp (mean 7.1 +/- 1.6 g center dot kg(-1)center dot d(-1)). The lower threshold of the pre-exercise carbohydrate recommendations was met by 58% and 89% of athletes while percentages were 26% and 89% within 1 h after exercise, at home and at camp, respectively. None of the athletes met the recommendations within 4 h after exercise. Nutrition knowledge was associated with EA at home (r = 0.52, p = 0.023), and with daily carbohydrate intake at home (r = 0.62, p = 0.005) and at camp (r = 0.52, p = 0.023). Carbohydrate intake within 1 and 4 h post-exercise at home was associated with better nutrition knowledge (r = 0.65, p = 0.003; r = 0.53, p = 0.019, respectively). In conclusion, young female cross-county skiers had difficulties meeting recommendations for optimal EA and carbohydrate intake. Better nutrition knowledge may help young athletes to meet these recommendations.
  • Seppala, Toni T.; Pylvanainen, Kirsi; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka (2017)
    Many Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers remain unidentified, thus missing early cancer detection and prevention opportunities. Tested probands should inform their relatives about cancer risk and options for genetic counselling and predictive gene testing, but many fail to undergo testing. To assess predictive testing uptake and demographic factors influencing this decision in LS families, a cross-sectional registry-based cohort study utilizing the Finnish Lynch syndrome registry was undertaken. Tested LS variant probands (1184) had 2068 children divided among three generations: 660 parents and 1324 children (first), 445 and 667 (second), and 79 and 77 (third). Of children aged 418 years, 801 (67.4%), 146 (43.2%), and 5 (23.8%), respectively, were genetically tested. Together, 539 first-generation LS variant carriers had 2068 children and grandchildren (3.84 per carrier). Of the 1548 (2.87 per carrier) eligible children, 952 (61.5%) were tested (1.77 per carrier). In multivariate models, age (OR 1.08 per year; 95% CI 1.06-1.10), family gene (OR 2.83; 1.75-4.57 for MLH1 and 2.59; 1.47-4.56 for MSH2 compared with MSH6), one or more tested siblings (OR 6.60; 4.82-9.03), no siblings (OR 4.63; 2.64-8.10), and parent under endoscopic surveillance (OR 5.22; 2.41-11.31) were independent predictors of having genetic testing. Examples of parental adherence to regular surveillance and genetically tested siblings strongly influenced children at 50% risk of LS to undergo predictive gene testing. High numbers of untested, adult at-risk individuals exist even among well-established cohorts of known LS families with good adherence to endoscopic surveillance.