Browsing by Subject "CONSEQUENCES"

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  • Kess, Tony; Bentzen, Paul; Lehnert, Sarah J.; Sylvester, Emma V.A.; Lien, Sigbjorn; Kent, Matthew P.; Sinclair-Waters, Marion; Morris, Corey J.; Regular, Paul; Fairweather, Robert; Bradbury, Ian R. (2019)
    Chromosome structural variation may underpin ecologically important intraspecific diversity by reducing recombination within supergenes containing linked, coadapted alleles. Here, we confirm that an ancient chromosomal rearrangement is strongly associated with migratory phenotype and individual genetic structure in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the Northwest Atlantic. We reconstruct trends in effective population size over the last century and reveal declines in effective population size matching onset of industrialized harvest (after 1950). We find different demographic trajectories between individuals homozygous for the chromosomal rearrangement relative to heterozygous or homozygous individuals for the noninverted haplotype, suggesting different selective histories across the past 150 years. These results illustrate how chromosomal structural diversity can mediate fine-scale genetic, phenotypic, and demographic variation in a highly connected marine species and show how overfishing may have led to loss of biocomplexity within Northern cod stock.
  • van Bemmelen, Rob S. A.; Kolbeinsson, Yann; Ramos, Raül; Gilg, Olivier; Alves, José A.; Smith, Malcolm; Schekkerman, Hans; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Petersen, Ib Krag; Þórisson, Böðvar; Sokolov, Aleksandr A.; Välimäki, Kaisa; van der Meer, Tim; Okill, J. David; Bolton, Mark; Moe, Børge; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Bollache, Loïc; Petersen, Aevar; Thorstensen, Sverrir; González-Solís, Jacob; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Tulp, Ingrid (2019)
    Non-breeding movement strategies of migratory birds may be expected to be flexibly adjusted to the distribution and quality of habitat, but only few studies compare movement strategies between populations using distinct migration routes and wintering areas. In thisour study, individual movement strategies of Rred-necked pPhalaropes Phalaropus lobatus, a long-distance migratory wader using saline waters in the non-breeding period, were studied using light-level geolocators. Results revealed the existence of two populations with distinct migration routes and wintering areas: one breeding in the north-eastern North Atlantic and migrating ca. 10,000 km oversea to the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean and the other breeding in Fennoscandia and Russia migrating ca. 6,000 km – largely over land – to the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean). In line with our expectations, the transoceanic migration between the North Atlantic and the Pacific was associated with proportionately longer wings, a more even spread of stopovers in autumn and a higher migration speed in spring compared to the migration between Fennoscandian-Russian breeding grounds and the Arabian Sea. In the wintering period, birds wintering in the Pacific were stationaryresided in roughly a singlethe same area, whereas individuals wintering in the Arabian Sea showed individually consistent movementsd extensively between different areas, reflecting differences in spatio-temporal variation in primary productivity between the two wintering areas. Our study is unique in showing how habitat distribution shapes movement strategies over the entire non-breeding period within a species.
  • Wendt, Frank R.; Novroski, Nicole M. M.; Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce (2019)
    Predicting metabolizer phenotype (MP) is typically performed using data from a single gene. Cytochrome p450 family 2 subfamily D polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) is considered the primary gene for predicting MP in reference to approximately 30% of marketed drugs and endogenous toxins. CYP2D6 predictions have proven clinically effective but also have well-documented inaccuracies due to relatively high genotype-phenotype discordance in certain populations. Herein, a pathway-driven predictive model employs genetic data from uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase, family 1, polypeptide B7 (UGT2B7), adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette, subfamily B, number 1 (ABCB1), opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to predict the tramadol to primary metabolite ratio (T:M1) and the resulting toxicologically inferred MP (t-MP). These data were then combined with CYP2D6 data to evaluate performance of a fully combinatorial model relative to CYP2D6 alone. These data identify UGT2B7 as a potentially significant explanatory marker for T:M1 variability in a population of tramadol-exposed individuals of Finnish ancestry. Supervised machine learning and feature selection were used to demonstrate that a set of 16 loci from 5 genes can predict t-MP with over 90% accuracy, depending on t-MP category and algorithm, which was significantly greater than predictions made by CYP2D6 alone.
  • Eriksson, Johan G.; Salonen, Minna K.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mikkola, Tuija M. (2022)
    The main objective of this study was to study predictors of vascular health with focus on adiposity-related factors. Glucose metabolism, blood lipids, inflammatory markers and body composition were assessed 15 years before assessment of vascular health which was assessed with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 660 subjects born 1934-44. In a univariate analysis in women the strongest association with PWV was seen for age, systolic blood pressure, dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammatory markers and body fat percentage measured in late midlife and PWV measured 15 years later. In men age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, dysglycemia, and body fat percentage in late midlife were associated with PWV. One novel finding was that adiposity-related factors were strong predictors of vascular health, something not fully encapsulated in BMI, lean body mass or body fat percentage alone. A higher fat mass index was associated with worse vascular health, which was not ameliorated by a higher lean mass index. Our findings stress the importance to study body composition and fat and lean body mass simultaneously because of their close interaction with each other also in relation to vascular health.
  • Skarstein, Frode; Wolff, Lili-Ann (2020)
    The field of geography is important for any sustainability education. The aim of geography education is to enable students to understand the environment, its influence on human activity, and how humans influence the environment. In this article we present a study on how the interplay between the three pillars of sustainability thinking (environment, society and economy) play out on smaller and larger scales of time, space and multitude in geography education. In this paper, we argue that central issues in high quality sustainability education in geography relates to students’ deeper grasp of how to shift between magnitudes of time, space and multitude patterns. We show how an appreciation of many core issues in sustainability education require students to understand and traverse different magnitudes of the scalable concepts of time, space and multitude. Furthermore, we argue and exemplify how common sustainability misconceptions arise due to an inability to make the cognitive shift between relevant magnitudes on these scalable concepts. Finally, we briefly discuss useful educational approaches to mediating this problem, including the use of digital tools in order to allow geography teachers to facilitate the students’ better understanding of different magnitudes of slow, fast, small and large scale entities and processes.
  • Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Troise, Antonio Dario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; de Vos, Willem M. (2019)
    Modifications of lysine contribute to the amount of dietary advanced glycation end-products reaching the colon. However, little is known about the ability of intestinal bacteria to metabolize dietary N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML). Successive transfers of fecal microbiota in growth media containing CML were used to identify and isolate species able to metabolize CML under anaerobic conditions. From our study, only donors exposed to processed foods degraded CML, and anaerobic bacteria enrichments from two of them used 77 and 100% of CML. Oscillibacter and Cloacibacillus evryensis increased in the two donors after the second transfer, highlighting that the bacteria from these taxa could be candidates for anaerobic CML degradation. A tentative identification of CML metabolites produced by a pure culture of Cloacibacillus evryensis was performed by mass spectrometry: carboxymethylated biogenic amines and carboxylic acids were identified as CML degradation products. The study confirmed the ability of intestinal bacteria to metabolize CML under anoxic conditions.
  • Pajunen, Virpi; Jyrkänkallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Luoto, Miska; Soininen, Janne (2019)
    Species occurrences are influenced by numerous factors whose effects may be context dependent. Thus, the magnitude of the effects and their relative importance to species distributions may vary among ecosystems due to anthropogenic stressors. To investigate context dependency in factors governing microbial bioindicators, we developed species distribution models (SDMs) for epilithic stream diatom species in human-impacted and pristine sites separately. We performed SDMs using boosted regression trees for 110 stream diatom species, which were common to both data sets, in 164 human-impacted and 164 pristine sites in Finland (covering similar to 1,000 km, 60 degrees to 68 degrees N). For each species and site group, two sets of models were conducted: climate model, comprising three climatic variables, and full model, comprising the climatic and six local environmental variables. No significant difference in model performance was found between the site groups. However, climatic variables had greater importance compared with local environmental variables in pristine sites, whereas local environmental variables had greater importance in human-impacted sites as hypothesized. Water balance and conductivity were the key variables in human-impacted sites. The relative importance of climatic and local environmental variables varied among individual species, but also between the site groups. We found a clear context dependency among the variables influencing stream diatom distributions as the most important factors varied both among species and between the site groups. In human-impacted streams, species distributions were mainly governed by water chemistry, whereas in pristine streams by climate. We suggest that climatic models may be suitable in pristine ecosystems, whereas the full models comprising both climatic and local environmental variables should be used in human-impacted ecosystems.
  • Salonen, Anne; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2017)
    Background: Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n = 4484) and 2015 (n = 4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Results: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64. Conclusions: Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
  • Teuber, Ziwen; Tang, Xin; Sielemann, Lena; Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke (2022)
    The important role of parenting is widely acknowledged, but as most studies have understood and examined it as a stable attribute (e.g., parenting style), the stability of and changes in parenting are less well understood. Using longitudinal person-oriented approaches (i.e., latent profile analyses and latent transition analyses), this study aimed to examine the stability of and changes in autonomy-related parenting profiles and their effects on adolescents' academic and psychological development. Four autonomy-related dimensions (i.e., autonomy support, warmth, psychological control, conditional regard) were chosen to identify parenting profiles on the basis of Self-Determination Theory. Using five-year longitudinal data from 789 German secondary school students (50.06% female, M-age at T1 = 10.82 years, age span = 10-17), four autonomy-related parenting profiles were found: Supportive (similar to 17%), Controlling (similar to 31%), Unsupportive-Uncontrolling (similar to 17%), and Limited Supportive (similar to 35%). The results suggest that the Supportive profile contributes to adolescents' positive academic and psychological development, whereas the Controlling profile, which thwarts autonomy development, exacerbates the development of psychopathology, and impairs academic achievement. More importantly, the Limited Supportive profile is as maladaptive as the Unsupportive-Uncontrolling profile. Regarding parenting profiles' stability and changes, the results showed that about half of each profile stayed in the same group. Overall, it could be observed that parents became more supportive and less controlling over time. However, the findings also indicate that parenting profiles are less stable than expected and can still change during early-to-mid adolescence.
  • Morrison, C. A.; Aunins, A.; Benko, Z.; Brotons, L.; Chodkiewicz, T.; Chylarecki, P.; Escandell, Jose M.; Eskildsen, D. P.; Gamero, A.; Herrando, S.; Jiguet, F.; Kålås, J. A.; Kamp, J.; Klvanova, A.; Kmecl, P.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lindström, Å.; Moshøj, C.; Noble, D. G.; Qien, I. J.; Paquet, J-Y; Reif, J.; Sattler, T.; Seaman, B. S.; Teufelbauer, N.; Trautmann, S.; van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Vorisek, P.; Butler, S. J. (2021)
    Birdsong has long connected humans to nature. Historical reconstructions using bird monitoring and song recordings collected by citizen scientists reveal that the soundscape of birdsong in North America and Europe is both quieter and less varied, mirroring declines in bird diversity and abundance. Natural sounds, and bird song in particular, play a key role in building and maintaining our connection with nature, but widespread declines in bird populations mean that the acoustic properties of natural soundscapes may be changing. Using data-driven reconstructions of soundscapes in lieu of historical recordings, here we quantify changes in soundscape characteristics at more than 200,000 sites across North America and Europe. We integrate citizen science bird monitoring data with recordings of individual species to reveal a pervasive loss of acoustic diversity and intensity of soundscapes across both continents over the past 25 years, driven by changes in species richness and abundance. These results suggest that one of the fundamental pathways through which humans engage with nature is in chronic decline, with potentially widespread implications for human health and well-being.
  • Quesada, J.; Chavez-Zichinelli, Carlos A.; Garcia-Arroyo, Michelle; Yeh, Pamela J.; Guevara, R.; Izquierdo-Palma, J.; MacGregor-Fors, I. (2022)
    Bold or shy? Examining the risk-taking behavior and neophobia of invasive and non-invasive house sparrows. Behavior provides a useful framework for understanding specialization, with animal personality aiding our understanding of the invasiveness of birds. Invasions imply dispersion into unknown areas and could require changes in behavior or spatial clustering based on personality. Reduced neophobia and increased exploring behavior could allow individuals to colonize new areas as they test and use non-familiar resources. Here, we hypothesized that house sparrow (Passer domesticus) individuals from invasive populations would exhibit bolder behavior than in non-invasive populations. We assessed risk taking and neophobia in male house sparrows in Barcelona (where it is considered native) and in Mexico City (where it has become widely invasive), captured in two different habitats, urban and non-urban. We assessed latency to enter an experimental cage and to explore it, and latency to feed and feeding time in the presence of a novel object. We found that sparrows from Mexico City, both from urban and non-urban areas, were quicker to enter the experimental cage than the sparrows from Barcelona. The time it took the birds to start exploring the cage gave a similar result. We found no differences between cities or habitats in the latency to feed and feeding time while exposed to a novel object. Our results partially support the view that the invader populations from Mexico City are bolder than those from Barcelona. Behavior is an important component of plasticity and its variability may have an important effect on adaptation to local situations. Future studies should disentangle the underlying mechanisms that explain the different personalities found in populations of different regions, contrasting populations of different densities, and taking different food availability scenarios into account.
  • O'Sullivan, Ronan James; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Rogan, Ger; Poole, Russell; Prodohl, Paulo A.; de Eyto, Elvira; Primmer, Craig R.; McGinnity, Philip; Reed, Thomas Eric (2020)
    The release of captive-bred animals into the wild is commonly practised to restore or supplement wild populations but comes with a suite of ecological and genetic consequences. Vast numbers of hatchery-reared fish are released annually, ostensibly to restore/enhance wild populations or provide greater angling returns. While previous studies have shown that captive-bred fish perform poorly in the wild relative to wild-bred conspecifics, few have measured individual lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and how this affects population productivity. Here, we analyse data on Atlantic salmon from an intensely studied catchment into which varying numbers of captive-bred fish have escaped/been released and potentially bred over several decades. Using a molecular pedigree, we demonstrate that, on average, the LRS of captive-bred individuals was only 36% that of wild-bred individuals. A significant LRS difference remained after excluding individuals that left no surviving offspring, some of which might have simply failed to spawn, consistent with transgenerational effects on offspring survival. The annual productivity of the mixed population (wild-bred plus captive-bred) was lower in years where captive-bred fish comprised a greater fraction of potential spawners. These results bolster previous empirical and theoretical findings that intentional stocking, or non-intentional escapees, threaten, rather than enhance, recipient natural populations.
  • Kunnari, Anton; Sundvall, Jukka R. I.; Laakasuo, Michael (2020)
    The process dissociation procedure (PDP) for moral cognition was created to separately measure two dispositions of moral judgment based on the dual-process theory of moral reasoning: deontological and utilitarian inclinations. In this paper we raise some concerns from a psychometrics perspective regarding the structure, reliability, and validity of the moral PDP as a measure of individual differences. Using two simulation studies as well as a real sample of N = 1,010, we investigate the psychometric properties of the moral PDP. We present novel evidence showing that (1) some correlations between PDP parameters are mathematical artifacts, and as such cannot be taken as evidence in support of a theory, (2) there are severe response inconsistencies within dilemma batteries, and (3) reliability estimates for these scores seem to be far below the accepted standards. We discuss some potential theoretical and content-related reasons for these statistical issues and their implications. We conclude that in their current form, PDP measures of utilitarian and deontological tendencies are sub-optimal for assessing individual differences.
  • Vainio, Annukka; Pulkka, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri (2020)
    This study explored individuals' engagement in the sustainable energy transition in Finland. Using the attitude-behaviour-context model (Guagnano et al., 1995) and Stern's (2000) typology of environmentally significant behaviours, this study tested the assumption that individuals' engagement in transition is a combination of socio-psychological and contextual (socio-economic) variables and that the active engagement requires individuals to have a future orientation, systemic and self-efficacy, subjective knowledge and a pro-environmental attitude. The survey (N = 1012), representative of the 17-75-yearold Finnish population, was analysed with exploratory factor analysis and linear regression. The socio-psychological variables explained a larger portion of variance than the socio-economic variables in all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. The consideration of future consequences, self-efficacy and knowledge were positively associated with all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. Systemic efficacy was positively associated with and the consideration of immediate consequences was negatively associated with private-sphere environmentalism. The results suggest that individuals' consideration of the immediate and distant future should be included in the socio-psychological models of sustainable behaviours. The results also suggest that policymakers need to focus on strengthening citizens' efficacy beliefs, future orientation and knowledge. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Helenius, Juha; Hagolani-Albov, Sophia; Koppelmäki, Kari (2020)
    Critics of modern food systems argue for the need to shift from a consolidated and concentrated, often monoculture based agro-industrial model toward diversified, post-fossil, and nutrient recycling food systems. The abundance of acute and obvious environmental problems in the agricultural sub-systems of the broader food system(s) have resulted in a focus on technological and natural scientific research into "solving" these point of production problems. Yet, there are many facets of food systems that are vital to sustainability which are not addressed even if the environmental problems were solved. In this article, we argue for agroecological symbiosis (AES) as a generic arrangement for re-configuring the primary production of food in agriculture, the processing of food, and development of a food community to work toward system-level sustainability. The guiding principle of this concept was the desire to base farming and food processing on renewable bioenergy, to close nutrient cycles, to break away from the consolidated food chain, to be more transparent and connected with consumers, and to revitalize the rural spaces where farms generally operate. Through a consistent and robust collaboration and co-creative process with transdisciplinary actors, ranging from food producers, and processers to policy actors, we designed a food system model based on networks of AES (NAES). The NAES would form place-based food networks, replacing the consolidated commodity chains. The NAES supports sustainable interactions from a biophysical and socio-cultural perspective. In this paper, we explain the AES concept, give an overview of the process of co-creating the pilot AES, and a proposal for the extension of the AES, as NAES, to create sustainable food systems. Overall, we conclude that the AES model holds potential for creating place-based food systems that further the sustainability agenda.
  • Koponen, Anne M.; Nissinen, Niina-Maria; Gissler, Mika; Sarkola, Taisto; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kahila, Hanna (2020)
    Purpose:The need for longitudinal studies on prenatal substance exposure (PSE) extending into adulthood is widely recognised. In particular, studies on the dual effect of exposure to substances and adverse childhood experiences are needed. This register-based matched cohort study investigates the effect of this dual exposure on the health and development of youth with PSE. The follow-up is from birth to young adulthood.Participants:The exposed youth were born in 1992?2001 to mothers with a significant substance misuse problem during pregnancy. The mothers were identified in primary care maternity clinics in the Helsinki metropolitan area and referred for intensified pregnancy follow-up in a tertiary care setting (HAL-clinics). Data from hospital medical records were collected for the mothers during the pregnancy follow-up and linked with register data from multiple national health and social welfare registers obtained for each mother?child dyad from birth until the end of 2015?2018. Similar register data were gathered for three matched mother?child dyads without any evidence of the mother?s substance misuse in national health and social welfare registers. The study consists of 615 exposed and 1787 unexposed youth aged 15?24 years.Findings to date:A majority of the exposed youth (64%) had been in out-of-home care at least once compared with 8% among the unexposed. Outpatient and inpatient hospital care due to mental or behavioural disorders were two to three times more common among the exposed than among the unexposed. The exposed had less often completed secondary school education and had more often needed social assistance.Future plans:The data comprise a wide range of information on infant health, youth?s mental and somatic health and development, out-of-home care history, and mother?s life situation at the delivery and later health. Risk and protective factors for different long-term developmental outcomes in adolescence or in young adulthood will be studied.
  • Sandholm, Niina; Haukka, Jani K.; Toppila, Iiro; Valo, Erkka; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Urinary albumin excretion is an early sign of diabetic kidney disease, affecting every third individual with diabetes. Despite substantial estimated heritability, only variants in the GLRA3 gene have been genome-wide significantly associated (p-value <5 x 10(-8)) with diabetic albuminuria, in Finnish individuals with type 1 diabetes; However, replication attempt in non-Finnish Europeans with type 1 diabetes showed nominally significant association in the opposite direction, suggesting a population-specific effect, but simultaneously leaving the finding controversial. In this study, the association between the common rs10011025 variant in the GLRA3 locus, and albuminuria, was confirmed in 1259 independent Finnish individuals with type 1 diabetes (p = 0.0013), and meta-analysis of all Finnish individuals yielded a genome-wide significant association. The association was particularly pronounced in subjects not reaching the treatment target for blood glucose levels (HbA(1c) > 7%; N = 2560, p = 1.7 x 10(-9)). Even though further studies are needed to pinpoint the causal variants, dissecting the association at the GLRA3 locus may uncover novel molecular mechanisms for diabetic albuminuria irrespective of population background.
  • Söderlund, Peter; von Schoultz, Åsa; Papageorgiou, Achillefs (2021)
    Many studies show that the order of candidates’ names on the ballot has an effect on voting. Less informed and indifferent voters may simplify the voting process by using the ballot position of candidates as a voting cue. By studying six parliamentary elections in Finland, this study first demonstrates that the relationship between ballot position and preference votes follows a reversed J-shaped curve. Candidates listed early on the ballot win the most preference votes, while candidates listed near the end have an advantage over those listed in the middle. Furthermore, the ballot position effect grows stronger with the complexity of the electoral environment. The ballot position effect increases as the number of candidates on the party list increases, the candidates-to-seats ratio increases and the number of incumbents on the list decreases.
  • Marshall, Harry H.; Griffiths, David J.; Mwanguhya, Francis; Businge, Robert; Griffiths, Amber G. F.; Kyabulima, Solomon; Mwesige, Kenneth; Sanderson, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Faye J.; Vitikainen, Emma I. K.; Cant, Michael A. (2018)
    Studying ecological and evolutionary processes in the natural world often requires research projects to follow multiple individuals in the wild over many years. These projects have provided significant advances but may also be hampered by needing to accurately and efficiently collect and store multiple streams of the data from multiple individuals concurrently. The increase in the availability and sophistication of portable computers (smartphones and tablets) and the applications that run on them has the potential to address many of these data collection and storage issues. In this paper we describe the challenges faced by one such long-term, individual-based research project: the Banded Mongoose Research Project in Uganda. We describe a system we have developed called Mongoose 2000 that utilises the potential of apps and portable computers to meet these challenges. We discuss the benefits and limitations of employing such a system in a long-term research project. The app and source code for the Mongoose 2000 system are freely available and we detail how it might be used to aid data collection and storage in other long-term individual-based projects.
  • Ortiz, Fernanda; Gelpi, Rosana; Helanterä, Ilkka; Melilli, Edoardo; Honkanen, Eero; Bestard, Oriol; Grinyo, Josep M.; Cruzado, Josep M. (2016)
    Introduction The pros and cons for implementing protocol biopsies (PB) after kidney transplantation are still a matter of debate. We aimed to address the frequency of pathological findings in PB, to analyze their impact on long-term graft survival (GS) and to analyze the risk factors predicting an abnormal histology. Methods We analyzed 946 kidney PB obtained at a median time of 6.5 (+/- 2.9) months after transplantation. Statistics included comparison between groups, Kaplan-Meier and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results and Discussion PB diagnosis were: 53.4% normal; 46% IFTA; 12.3% borderline and 4.9% had subclinical acute rejection (SCAR). Inflammation had the strongest negative impact on GS. Therefore we split the cases into: "normal without inflammation", "normal with inflammation", "IFTA without inflammation", "IFTA with inflammation" and "rejection" (including SCAR and borderline). 15-year GS in PB diagnosed normal with inflammation was significantly decreased in a similar fashion as in rejection cases. Among normal biopsies, inflammation increased significantly the risk of 15-y graft loss (P = 0.01). Variables that predicted an abnormal biopsy were proteinuria, previous AR and DR-mismatch. Conclusion We conclude that inflammation in normal PB is associated with a significantly lower 15-y GS, comparable to rejection or IFTA with inflammation.