Browsing by Subject "CONSOLIDATION"

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  • Kommeri, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K. (2017)
    Cloud computing is an essential part of today's computing world. Continuously increasing amount of computation with varying resource requirements is placed in large data centers. The variation among computing tasks, both in their resource requirements and time of processing, makes it possible to optimize the usage of physical hardware by applying cloud technologies. In this work, we develop a prototype system for load-based management of virtual machines in an OpenStack computing cluster. Our prototype is based on an idea of 'packing' idle virtual machines into special park servers optimized for this purpose. We evaluate the method by running real high-energy physics analysis software in an OpenStack test cluster and by simulating the same principle using the Cloudsim simulator software. The results show a clear improvement, 9-48 %, in the total energy efficiency when using our method together with resource overbooking and heterogeneous hardware.
  • Ye, Chaoxiong; Xu, Qianru; Liu, Xinyang; Astikainen, Piia; Zhu, Yongjie; Hu, Zhonghua; Liu, Qiang (2021)
    Previous studies have associated visual working memory (VWM) capacity with the use of internal attention. Retrocues, which direct internal attention to a particular object or feature dimension, can improve VWM performance (i.e., retrocue benefit, RCB). However, so far, no study has investigated the relationship between VWM capacity and the magnitudes of RCBs obtained from object-based and dimension-based retrocues. The present study explored individual differences in the magnitudes of object- and dimension-based RCBs and their relationships with VWM capacity. Participants completed a VWM capacity measurement, an object-based cue task, and a dimension-based cue task. We confirmed that both object- and dimension-based retrocues could improve VWM performance. We also found a significant positive correlation between the magnitudes of object- and dimension-based RCB indexes, suggesting a partly overlapping mechanism between the use of object- and dimensionbased retrocues. However, our results provided no evidence for a correlation between VWM capacity and the magnitudes of the object- or dimension-based RCBs. Although inadequate attention control is usually assumed to be associated with VWM capacity, the results suggest that the internal attention mechanism for using retrocues in VWM retention is independent of VWM capacity.
  • Mäkelä, Tiina E.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Nieminen, Pirkko; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli (2018)
    Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (>= 3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (
  • Leminen, Miika; Leminen, Alina; Smolander, Sini; Arkkila, Eva; Shtyrov, Yury; Laasonen, Marja; Kujala, Teija (2020)
    Formation of neural mechanisms for morphosyntactic processing in young children is still poorly understood. Here, we addressed neural processing and rapid online acquisition of familiar and unfamiliar combinations of morphemes. Three different types of morphologically complex words - derived, inflected, and novel (pseudostem + real suffix) - were presented in a passive listening setting to 16 typically developing 3-4-year old children (as part of a longitudinal Helsinki SLI follow-up study). The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERP), an established index of long-term linguistic memory traces in the brain, was analysed separately for the initial and final periods of the exposure to these items. We found MMN response enhancement for the inflected words towards the end of the recording session, whereas no response change was observed for the derived or novel complex forms. This enhancement indicates rapid build-up of a new memory trace for the combination of real morphemes, suggesting a capacity for online formation of whole-form lexicalized representations as one of the morphological mechanisms in the developing brain. Furthermore, this enhancement increased with age, suggesting the development of automatic morphological processing circuits in the age range of 3-4 years.
  • Kohtala, Samuel; Rantamäki, Tomi (2021)
    Increased glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex have been associated with the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. Activation of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) receptor TrkB is considered a key molecular event for antidepressant-induced functional and structural synaptic plasticity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to underlie ketamine's effects on TrkB, but much remains unclear. Notably, preliminary studies suggest that besides ketamine, nitrous oxide (N2O) can rapidly alleviate depressive symptoms. We have shown nitrous oxide to evoke TrkB signalling preferentially after the acute pharmacological effects have dissipated (ie after receptor disengagement), when slow delta frequency electroencephalogram (EEG) activity is up-regulated. Our findings also demonstrate that various anaesthetics and sedatives activate TrkB signalling, further highlighting the complex mechanisms underlying TrkB activation. We hypothesize that rapid-acting antidepressants share the ability to regulate TrkB signalling during homeostatically evoked slow-wave activity and that this mechanism is important for sustained antidepressant effects. Our observations urge the examination of rapid and sustained antidepressant effects beyond conventional receptor pharmacology by focusing on brain physiology and temporally distributed signalling patterns spanning both wake and sleep. Potential implications of this approach for the improvement of current therapies and discovery of novel antidepressants are discussed.
  • Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Gradisar, Michael; Kuula, Liisa; Short, Michelle; Merikanto, Ilona; Tark, Riin; Raikkonen, Katri; Lahti, Jari (2019)
    Introduction: Fragmented REM sleep may impede overnight resolution of distress and increase depressive symptoms. Furthermore, both fragmented REM and depressive symptoms may share a common genetic factor. We explored the associations between REM sleep fragmentation, depressive symptoms, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for depression among adolescents. Methods: About 161 adolescents (mean age 16.9 +/- 0.1 years) from a birth cohort underwent a sleep EEG and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II the same day. We calculated PRSes for depressive symptoms with PRSice 1.25 software using weights from a recent genome-wide association study for dimensions of depressive symptoms (negative emotion, lack of positive emotion and somatic complaints). REM fragmentation in relation to entire REM duration was manually calculated from all REM epochs. REM latency and density were derived using SomnoMedics DOMINO software. Results: PRSes for somatic complaints and lack of positive emotions were associated with higher REM fragmentation percent. A higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with increased percent of REM fragmentation and higher REM density, independently of the genetic risks. Belonging to the highest decile in depressive symptoms was associated with a 2.9- and 7.6-fold risk of belonging to the highest tertile in REM fragmentation and density. In addition, higher PRS for somatic complaints had an independent, additive effect on increased REM fragmentation. Limitation: A single night's sleep EEG was measured, thus the night-to-night stability of the REM fragmentation-depressive symptom link is unclear. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and genetic risk score for somatic complaints are independently associated with more fragmented REM sleep. This offers new insights on the quality of sleep and its relation to adolescents' mood.
  • Halonen, Risto; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2021)
    A wealth of studies supports the role of sleep in memory performance. Experimentally controlled studies indicate that prolonged wake after memory encoding is detrimental for memory outcome whereas sleep protects from wake-time interference and promotes memory consolidation. We examined how the natural distribution of wake and sleep between encoding and retrieval associated with overnight picture recognition accuracy among 161 adolescents following their typical sleep schedule with an in-home polysomnography. The memorized pictures varied in their level of arousal (calm to exciting) and valence (negative to positive). Suspecting genotypic influence on the sensitivity for sleep/wake dynamics, we also assessed if these associations were affected by known gene polymorphisms involved in neural plasticity and sleep homeostasis: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met and Catechol‐O‐methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met. In the whole sample, overnight recognition accuracy was associated with the levels of arousal and valence of the pictures, but not with sleep percentage (i.e. the percentage of time spent asleep between memory encoding and retrieval). While the allelic status of BDNF or COMT did not have any main effect on recognition accuracy, a significant moderation by BDNF Val66Met was found (p = .004): the subgroup homozygous for valine allele showed positive association between sleep percentage and recognition accuracy. This was underlain by detrimental influence of wake, rather than by any memory benefit of sleep. Our results complement the mounting evidence that the relation between sleep and memory performance is moderated by BDNF Val66Met. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific mechanisms.