Browsing by Subject "CONSTRUCTION"

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Now showing items 1-20 of 42
  • Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Berghäll, Sami; Autio, Minna; Nurminen, Jonne; Toivonen, Ritva; Lähtinen, Katja; Vihemäki, Heini; Franzini, Florencia; Toppinen, Anne (2020)
    Consumer acceptance of new bio-based products plays a key role in the envisioned transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy. Multi-storey wooden buildings (MSWB) exemplify a modern, bio-based business opportunity for enacting low-carbon urban housing. However, there is limited knowledge about the differing perceptions consumers hold regarding wood as an urban building material. To fill this gap, this study explores Finnish students' perceptions of MSWB relative to their familiarity with wooden residential buildings, and then connects these perceptions to 'consumption styles.' Data were collected in the Helsinki metropolitan area via an online questionnaire (n = 531). The results indicate that the aesthetic appearance of MSWB are appreciated most by frugal and responsible consumers, whereas the comfort, environmental friendliness, and longevity of MSWB are important to consumers who identify themselves as 'thoughtful spenders.' The study suggests that both environmental and hedonic young consumers already familiar with the use of wood in housing contribute to a successful bioeconomy in the urban context.
  • Viholainen, Noora; Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Autio, Minna; Toppinen, Anne (2020)
    Having a home is a central part of the everyday consumer experience. In our study, we focus on Finnish homeowners who have recently bought an apartment in a multi-family timber-framed building. With its merits in sustainability, the number of timber buildings in less-traditional urban applications is increasing, yet, research on living in a wooden home is scarce. To fill this gap, the study analyses how homeowners perceive the wooden material before and after living in a wooden home for one year. Thus, besides the acquisition of a home, the study examines the consumers' appropriation processes and aims to gain insight into the cultural sense-making behind the appreciation of wooden homes. The results of this qualitative study indicate that traditions and memories related to wood affect consumers' appreciations, for example, regarding the cosiness of a wooden home. The consumers discussed the weaknesses assigned to wood, such as fire and moisture susceptibility, yet, they considered them to concern all construction materials, not only wood. After habitation for one year, the usability of the home becomes particularly relevant, including the ease with which shelves can be mounted onto the walls, enjoying the echoless soundscape, and living with clicking sounds and vibrating floors. The study suggests that the meanings of consumers' daily experiences concerning the usability of wooden buildings are under negotiation and cannot be reduced simply into positive or negative but carry elements of both.
  • Webb, Anne; Cottage, Amanda; Wood, Thomas; Khamassi, Khalil; Hobbs, Douglas; Gostkiewicz, Krystyna; White, Mark; Khazaei, Hamid; Ali, Mohamed; Street, Daniel; Duc, Gerard; Stoddard, Fred L.; Maalouf, Fouad; Ogbonnaya, Francis C.; Link, Wolfgang; Thomas, Jane; O'Sullivan, Donal M. (2016)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a globally important nitrogen-fixing legume, which is widely grown in a diverse range of environments. In this work, we mine and validate a set of 845 SNPs from the aligned transcriptomes of two contrasting inbred lines. Each V. faba SNP is assigned by BLAST analysis to a single Medicago orthologue. This set of syntenically anchored polymorphisms were then validated as individual KASP assays, classified according to their informativeness and performance on a panel of 37 inbred lines, and the best performing 757 markers used to genotype six mapping populations. The six resulting linkage maps were merged into a single consensus map on which 687 SNPs were placed on six linkage groups, each presumed to correspond to one of the six V. faba chromosomes. This sequence-based consensus map was used to explore synteny with the most closely related crop species, lentil and the most closely related fully sequenced genome, Medicago. Large tracts of uninterrupted colinearity were found between faba bean and Medicago, making it relatively straightforward to predict gene content and order in mapped genetic interval. As a demonstration of this, we mapped a flower colour gene to a 2-cM interval of Vf chromosome 2 which was highly colinear with Mt3. The obvious candidate gene from 78 gene models in the collinear Medicago chromosome segment was the previously characterized MtWD40-1 gene controlling anthocyanin production in Medicago and resequencing of the Vf orthologue showed a putative causative deletion of the entire 50 end of the gene.
  • Soininvaara, Ilppo (2020)
    In this article, I analyze the politics of urbanization and competitiveness-led state spatial transformations through political narratives. By analyzing empirical material, I search for ways of reasoning and rationalities that disclose the dynamics of the depoliticization and politicization of different spatial transformations of urbanization. Based on extensive interviews, I argue that a general understanding of urbanization as an external, global inevitability and as a force prevails among political elites. This key rationality and other sedimented knowledge duly opens up new political debates on the proper political management of urbanization and national adaptation. The order of reasoning is clear: the political elites argue that the perceived inevitability, common good and state of crisis necessitate national spatial transformations in order to secure the competitiveness of the state. As a result, new spatial hierarchies are forming as an adaptive strategy.
  • Kivikoski, Mikko; Rastas, Pasi; Löytynoja, Ari; Merila, Juha (2021)
    We describe an integrative approach to improve contiguity and haploidy of a reference genome assembly and demonstrate its impact with practical examples. With two novel features of Lep-Anchor software and a combination of dense linkage maps, overlap detection and bridging long reads, we generated an improved assembly of the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) reference genome. We were able to remove a significant number of haplotypic contigs, detect more genetic variation and improve the contiguity of the genome, especially that of X chromosome. However, improved scaffolding cannot correct for mosaicism of erroneously assembled contigs, demonstrated by a de novo assembly of a 1.6-Mbp inversion. Qualitatively similar gains were obtained with the genome of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Since the utility of genome-wide sequencing data in biological research depends heavily on the quality of the reference genome, the improved and fully automated approach described here should be helpful in refining reference genome assemblies.
  • Pihajoki, Pauli; Mannerkoski, Matias; Johansson, Peter H. (2019)
    Interpolation of data represented in curvilinear coordinates and possibly having some non-trivial, typically Riemannian or semi-Riemannian geometry is a ubiquitous task in all of physics. In this work, we present a covariant generalization of the barycentric coordinates and the barycentric interpolation method for Riemannian and semi-Riemannian spaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that our new method preserves the linear accuracy property of barycentric interpolation in a coordinate-invariant sense. In addition, we show how the method can be used to interpolate constrained quantities so that the given constraint is automatically respected. We showcase the method with two astrophysics related examples situated in the curved Kerr space-time. The first problem is interpolating a locally constant vector field, in which case curvature effects are expected to be maximally important. The second example is a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a turbulent accretion flow around a black hole, wherein high intrinsic variability is expected to be at least as important as curvature effects.
  • Nowak, Jessika; Visnovsky, Sandra B.; Pitman, Andrew R.; Cruz, Cristina D.; Palmer, Jon; Fletcher, Graham C.; Flint, Steve (2021)
    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen that results in a high rate of mortality in sensitive and immunocompromised people. Contamination of food with L. monocytogenes is thought to occur during food processing, most often as a result of the pathogen producing a biofilm that persists in the environment and acting as the source for subsequent dispersal of cells onto food. A survey of seafoodprocessing plants in New Zealand identified the persistent strain 15G01, which has a high capacity to form biofilms. In this study, a transposon library of L. monocytogenes 15G01 was screened for mutants with altered biofilm formation, assessed by a crystal violet assay, to identify genes involved in biofilm formation. This screen identified 36 transposants that showed a significant change in biofilm formation compared to the wild type. The insertion sites were in 27 genes, 20 of which led to decreased biofilm formation and seven to an increase. Two insertions were in intergenic regions. Annotation of the genes suggested that they are involved in diverse cellular processes, including stress response, autolysis, transporter systems, and cell wall/membrane synthesis. Analysis of the biofilms produced by the transposants using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed notable differences in the structure of the biofilms compared to the wild type. In particular, inactivation of uvrB and mltD produced coccoid-shaped cells and elongated cells in long chains, respectively, and the mgtB mutant produced a unique biofilm with a sandwich structure which was reversed to the wild-type level upon magnesium addition. The mltD transposant was successfully complemented with the wild-type gene, whereas the phenotypes were not or only partially restored for the remaining mutants. IMPORTANCE The major source of contamination of food with Listeria monocytogenes is thought to be due to biofilm formation and/or persistence in food-processing plants. By establishing as a biofilm, L. monocytogenes cells become harder to eradicate due to their increased resistance to environmental threats. Understanding the genes involved in biofilm formation and their influence on biofilm structure will help identify new ways to eliminate harmful biofilms in food processing environments. To date, multiple genes have been identified as being involved in biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes; however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. This study identified four genes associated with biofilm formation by a persistent strain. Extensive microscopic analysis illustrated the effect of the disruption of mgtB, clsA, uvrB, and mltD and the influence of magnesium on the biofilm structure. The results strongly suggest an involvement in biofilm formation for the four genes and provide a basis for further studies to analyze gene regulation to assess the specific role of these biofilm-associated genes.
  • Mäntynen, Sari; Laanto, Elina; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Poranen, Minna M.; Diaz-Munoz, Samuel L. (2021)
    The canonical lytic-lysogenic binary has been challenged in recent years, as more evidence has emerged on alternative bacteriophage infection strategies. These infection modes are little studied, and yet they appear to be more abundant and ubiquitous in nature than previously recognized, and can play a significant role in the ecology and evolution of their bacterial hosts. In this review, we discuss the extent, causes and consequences of alternative phage lifestyles, and clarify conceptual and terminological confusion to facilitate research progress. We propose distinct definitions for the terms 'pseudolysogeny' and 'productive or non-productive chronic infection', and distinguish them from the carrier state life cycle, which describes a population-level phenomenon. Our review also finds that phages may change their infection modes in response to environmental conditions or the physiological state of the host cell. We outline known molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative phage-host interactions, including specific genetic pathways and their considerable biotechnological potential. Moreover, we discuss potential implications of the alternative phage lifestyles for microbial biology and ecosystem functioning, as well as applied topics such as phage therapy.
  • Jonsson, Ragnar; Rinaldi, Francesca; Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Hurmekoski, Elias; Cazzaniga, Noemi; Robert, Nicolas; Camia, Andrea (2021)
    This study adds to the scientific literature dealing with the climate change mitigation implications of wood substitution. Its main scientific contribution rests with the modelling approach. By fully integrating forest resource and wood-product markets modelling in quantitative scenario analysis, we account for international trade in wood products as well as impacts on EU forests and forest-based sector employment of an increased EU uptake of wood-based construction and/or biochemicals and biofuels. Our results confirm the crucial role of the sawmilling industry in the forest-based bioeconomy. Thus, boosting wood-based construction in the EU would be most effective in increasing EU production and employment—in logging and solid wood-products manufacturing, but also in sectors using sawmilling byproducts as feedstock. Vertical integration in wood-based biorefineries should thus be advantageous. The positive EU climate-change mitigation effects of increased carbon storage in harvested wood products (HWP) and material substitution from increased wood construction are more than offset by reduced net forests carbon sinks by 2030, due to increased EU harvests. Further, increased EU imports, resulting in lower consumption of sawnwood outside the EU, would reduce extra-EU long-life HWP carbon storage and substitution of GHG-intensive materials, highlighting the need for concerted international climate change mitigation
  • Kolsi, Laura E.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Moreira, Vânia M. (2018)
    Bi(OTf)(3)center dot xH(2)O is a powerful catalyst for the dehydration of tertiary alcohols into alkenes in apolar solvents. The reaction proceeds smoothly and selectively, with amounts as low as 0.01 mol % catalyst, in yields up to 93%. Moreover, in polar solvents, Bi(OTf)(3)center dot xOH(2)O (0.1-1 mol %) selectively catalyzes the dimerization of the alcohols instead, forming new C-C bonds, in yields up to 96%. This mild, efficient, economic, and eco-friendly method is applicable across different chemical classes and amenable to several functional groups.
  • Rummukainen, Olli; Radun, Jenni; Virtanen, Toni; Pulkki, Ville (2014)
  • Toppinen, Anne; Miilumäki, Noora; Vihemäki, Heini; Toivonen, Ritva; Lähtinen, Katja (2019)
    Increasing societal interest towards sustainable and low-carbon materials contributes to demand for wood-based materials and modern solutions for urban construction. Wooden multi-storey construction (WMC), however, is a relatively new phenomenon in the construction business, and collaborative business models in projects that adopt such novel building techniques are yet to develop. Shared logic is a key concept shaping the development of well-functioning business ecosystems, even though actor priorities may vary between the WMC business ecosystem members. This study examines the applicability of business ecosystem concept based on actor perception involved in three Finnish WMC projects. The results suggest that elements from the business ecosystem thinking can be identified in all the cases. Moreover, network collaboration created benefits to the ecosystem, such as reference value and new insights from research and development. For some companies, engagement in the business ecosystem created financial and employment benefits, while some interviewees perceived these projects also to create immaterial value, such as awareness on sustainability issues in their business, marketing gains, or in the form of mutual learning effects.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Lein, Haakon; Bird, Deanne; Setten, Gunhild (2020)
    Community resilience is often assessed in disaster risk management (DRM) research and it has been argued that it should be strengthened for more robust DRM. However, the term community is seldom precisely defined and it can be understood in many ways. We argue that it is crucial to explore the concept of community within the context of DRM in more detail. We identify three dominating views of conceptualizing community (place-based community, interaction-based community, community of practice and interest), and discuss the relevance of these conceptualizations. We base this discussion on quantitative and qualitative empirical and policy document data regarding flood and storm risk management in Finland, wildfire risk management in Norway and volcanic risk management Iceland. According to our results, all three conceptualizations of community are visible but in differing situations. Our results emphasize the strong role of public sector in DRM in the studied countries. In disaster preparedness and response, a professionalized community of practice and interest appear to be the most prominent within all three countries. The interaction-based community of informal social networks is of less relevance, although its role is more visible in disaster response and recovery. The place-based (local) community is visible in some of the policy documents, but otherwise its role is rather limited. Finally, we argue that the measured resilience of a community depends on how the community is conceptualized and operationalized, and that the measures to strengthen resilience of a particular community should be different depending on what the focal community is.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Kauppinen, Vera; Juhola, Sirkku; Setten, Gunhild; Lein, Haakon (2020)
    Despite a notable increase in the literature on community resilience, the notion of 'community' remains underproblematised. This is evident within flood risk management (FRM) literature, in which the understanding and roles of communities may be acknowledged but seldom discussed in any detail. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how community networks are configured by different actors, whose roles and responsibilities span spatial scales within the context of FRM. Accordingly, the authors analyse findings from semi-structured interviews, policy documents, and household surveys from two flood prone areas in Finnish Lapland. The analysis reveals that the ways in which authorities, civil society, and informal actors take on multiple roles are intertwined and form different types of networks. By implication, the configuration of community is fuzzy, elusive and situated, and not confined to a fixed spatiality. The authors discuss the implications of the complex nature of community for FRM specifically, and for community resilience more broadly. They conclude that an analysis of different actors across scales contributes to an understanding of the configuration of community, including community resilience, and how the meaning of community takes shape according to the differing aims of FRM in combination with differing geographical settings.
  • Lahtinen, Katja; Hayrinen, Liina; Roos, Anders; Toppinen, Anne; Cabezas, Francisco X. Aguilar; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Hujala, Teppo; Nyrud, Anders Q.; Hoen, Hans Fredrik (2021)
    So far, consumer housing values have not been addressed as factors affecting the market diffusion potential of multi-storey wood building (MSWB). To fill the void, this study addresses different types of consumer housing values in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (i.e., Nordic region), and whether they affect the likelihood of prejudices against building with wood in the housing markets. The data collected in 2018 from 2191 consumers in the Nordic region were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and logistic binary regression analysis. According to the results, consumers' perceptions on ecological sustainability, material usage and urban lifestyle were similar in all countries, while country-specific differences were detected for perceptions on aesthetics and natural milieus. In all countries, appreciating urban lifestyle and living in attractive neighborhoods with good reputation increased the likelihood of prejudices against wood building, while appreciation of aesthetics and natural milieus decreased the likelihood of prejudices. In strengthening the demand for MSWB and sustainable urbanization through actions in businesses (e.g., branding) and via public policy support (e.g., land zoning), few messages derive from the results. In all, abreast with the already existing knowledge on the supply side factors (e.g., wood building innovations), more customized information is needed on the consumer-driven issues affecting the demand potential of MSWB in the housing markets. This would enable, e.g., both enhancing the supply of wooden homes for consumers appreciating urban lifestyle and neighborhoods and fortifying positive image of wood among consumers especially appreciating good architecture and pleasant environmental milieus.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Miettinen, Jenni; Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Tuppura, Anni; Autio, Minna; Lähtinen, Katja; Pätäri, Satu; Pekkanen, Tiia-Lotta; Luhas, Jukka; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi; Ollikainen, Markku; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    It is uncertain how the traditional forest sector can respond to the changing political environment, evolving markets, and global environmental problems. This study focuses on the development of forest-based bioeconomy (BE) in Finland from the perspective of three forest-based value networks (wooden multistory construction, fiber-based packaging, and biorefining) and thus breaks the tendency of siloed discussions. The study of expert opinions applies a collaborative interdisciplinary research method that combines group discussions and follow-up survey data. The results indicate that transformational regulation, proper incentives, and ways of increasing interaction at the business-consumer interface are required to support the creation of new practices and the destruction of old practices in the industry renewal. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Sannino, Annalisa; Engeström, Yrjö; Jokinen, Esa (2021)
    Digital lifelong learning and more specifically digital peer learning (DPL) can play a major role to foster transformative agency in professions and occupations which are critically positioned for responding to acute societal needs. Yet so far, no published studies seem to have focused on this. This article aims at filling this gap with the help of a study in which online workshops and web forums were created for supporting homelessness practitioners in Finland to share and discuss scattered practical innovations and to generate advanced solutions to problems in their work. By these means, the study also generated data to see if transformative agency takes place among these professionals by means of DPL, how this happens, and with what results for the critical field of homelessness work. This study opens up a new agenda for research and development in lifelong learning in a digital era.
  • Saunaluoma, Sanna; Pärssinen, Martti; Schaan, Denise (2018)
    Amazonian earthworks, which are an important testimony to ancient anthropogenic landscape modifications, have a significant variety of structures and sizes, and are found in different geographical and ecological locations that indicate separate time periods, distinct cultural affiliations, and diverse purposes. We introduce data from diverse archaeological earthwork sites, geoglyphs, mound sites, and walled enclosures situated in the interfluves of the Purus River in the Brazilian state of Acre and propose a type definition for these sites. The abundant anthropogenic landscape features and their associated material culture indicate considerable human-induced environmental alterations and diverse earthworking traditions that are characteristic of the region of eastern Acre from at least ca. 2000 b.p. onwards.
  • Kröger, Björn; Penny, Amelia (2020)
    During the late Cambrian–Early Ordovician interval the predominant non-microbial reef builders were sponges or sponge-like metazoans. The lithological and faunal composition of Cambro-Ordovician sponge-dominated reefs have previously been analyzed and reviewed. Here we take the relationship between reef aggregation pattern at reef to seascape scale into account, and look for changes during the Early–Middle Ordovician interval, in which metazoans became dominant reef builders. In a comparison of sponge-rich reefs from eight sites of the Laurentia paleocontinent three different seascape level reef growth patterns can be distinguished: (1) mosaic mode of reef growth, where reefs form a complex spatial mosaic dependent on hard substrate; (2) episodic mode, where patch reefs grew exclusively in distinct unconformity bounded horizons within non-reefal lithological units that have a much larger thickness; and (3) belt-and-bank mode, where reefs and reef complexes grew vertically and laterally as dispersed patches largely independent from truncation surfaces. The distinct modes of growth likely represent specific reef forming paleocommunities, because they differ in content and abundance of skeletal metazoan framebuilders, bioturbation intensity of non-skeletal reef sediment matrix, and in association of reef growth with underlying hard substrate. We suggest, based on a review of Laurentian reef occurrences, that the mosaic mode dominated in Early Ordovician strata and that the dominance shifted toward the belt and bank mode from Middle Ordovician strata onward.
  • Lähdesmäki, Merja Riitta; Siltaoja, Marjo; Luomala, Harri; Puska, Petteri; Kurki, Sami Petri (2019)
    Pioneers of organic farming often faced social challenges as their innovative ideas on agriculture not only encountered opposition in the conventional farming community, but led to stigmatization of organic farmers as social deviants. In this study, we examine what kind of stigma management strategies pioneer organic farmers engage with in order to cultivate an alternative positive image of themselves. Our research is based on the interviews with 14 pioneer organic farmers. Based on a qualitative analysis of the interviews, we provide a model of those strategies that the creation from a stigmatized to valued identity requires. Our study increases the understanding of the institutionalization process of organic farming by demonstrating how pioneer farmers overcame the negative attributes associated with their farmer identities while actively building a agricultural category which was different from that of conventional farming.