Browsing by Subject "CONSUMERS"

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  • Heinola, Katriina; Kauppinen, Tiina; Niemi, Jarkko K.; Wallenius, Essi; Raussi, Satu (2021)
    Simple Summary Welfare requirements from an animal point of view are the same regardless of the country. However, differing requirements of animal welfare schemes make it hard for consumers to make informed choices. Therefore, an open and coherent labeling scheme that provides information on farm animal welfare will be beneficial from the consumer perspective. We reviewed 12 pig welfare schemes. We aimed to identify consistencies and differences in welfare requirements between these schemes. The studied welfare requirements were heterogeneous in the potential each scheme had to advance pig welfare. Certain requirements barely exceeded the minimum standards for the protection of pigs in European Union (EU) legislation, but the more demanding tiers of multitier schemes had the potential to enhance animal welfare. The most ambitious tiers could improve animal welfare substantially and, in terms of resources available to the animal, they often were convergent with organic animal farming standards. Because of variation of welfare requirements between the labels, it was challenging to compare existing labeling schemes. Adopting a harmonized labeling terminology and standard, increased use of animal-based measures, and open communication will make labeling more reliable and transparent, which will contribute to the availability of standardized animal-friendly products and will be equitable from an animal welfare perspective. Animal welfare labeling schemes have been developed to respond to consumers' expectations regarding farm animal welfare. They are designed to certify that labeled products comply with certain animal welfare standards. In this study, 12 pig welfare labeling schemes were reviewed, and their criteria related to pig welfare were compared. Information regarding farrowing criteria, space allowance, outdoor access, mutilations, and provision of enrichments and bedding material were gathered from the labels' internet pages and documentation. The results indicated a substantial variation between the labels in terms of the level of animal welfare they ensure. While certain schemes barely exceeded the minimum standards for the protection of pigs in the European Union, more demanding tiers of the multitier schemes had the potential to improve animal welfare substantially. The most ambitious tiers of multistage schemes were often comparable to organic standards providing outdoor facilities and additional space. The heterogeneity of the labels' standards complicates the comparison of labels.
  • Kaskela, Jenni; Vainio, Annukka; Ollila, Sari; Lundén, Janne (2019)
    Disclosure systems for official food safety inspection results have been introduced in many countries including Finland in order to increase compliance of food business operators (FBOs). Although the disclosure systems are intended to affect FBOs, few studies have been published on FBOs' experiences of these systems. To investigate FBOs' opinions of disclosed food safety inspections in Finland, a questionnaire was distributed in 2016. The questionnaire study also aimed to recognize factors affecting compliance and disagreements about gradings with a special focus on FBOs' risk perception. In total 1277 responses from FBOs in retail (n = 523), service (n = 507) and industry (n = 247) sectors revealed that the majority of FBOs perceived the disclosure to promote correction of non-compliance. However, many FBOs disagreed with the grading of inspection findings. Most common topics of disagreements were maintenance of premises, record-keeping of own-check plan and adequacy and suitability of premises for operations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of occurrence of disagreements with grading was higher among those retail and service FBOs with a lower risk perception. Similarly, the occurrence of non-compliance was associated with FBOs' risk perception in all sectors. Thus, FBOs need proper guidance on food safety risks. These results can be used to improve the efficacy of disclosed food safety inspections.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Salo, Marja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Furman, Eeva (2020)
    Purpose The critical role of diet in climate change mitigation has raised behavioural approaches to the top of the agenda. In this paper, the authors take a critical look at these behavioural approaches and call for a more dynamic, practice-oriented understanding of long-term changes in sustainable food consumption and supply. Design/methodology/approach This approach is based on the experiences from a long-term experiment promoting sustainable eating in a workplace lunch restaurant using a series of informational and nudging techniques. In the experiment, the authors found that focussing solely on eating behaviours did not help to capture the multi-level change processes mobilised. The authors therefore propose a more dynamic, practice-oriented methodology for examining long-term changes in sustainable eating. The emprical data of the experiment are based on qualitative and quantitative data, consisting of customer survey, customer and kitchen personnel focus group discussions and monitoring data on the use of food items in the restaurant and their climate impacts. Findings The results draw attention to a series of practical challenges restaurants face when promoting sustainable eating. Directing analytical attention to tinkering helped to reveal the tensions brought about by labelling and nudging in menu planning and recipe development. The results show how tinkering required attentiveness to customers' wishes in both cases. Nudging offered more freedom for the restaurant to develop menus and recipes. In the case scrutinised, however, nudging customers towards tastier and more satiating vegetarian dishes included the use of dairy. This partly watered down the climate benefits gained from reduced meat consumption. Originality/value Rather than looking separately at changes in consumer behaviour and in the supply of food, the authors show how we need analytical concepts that enable the evaluation of their mutual evolution. Tinkering can assist us in this endeavour. Its adaptive, adjustive character, however, calls for caution. The development of praxis in food services and catering requires critical companions from the transdisciplinary research community. Research can provide systematic knowledge on the impacts of labels and nudges on kitchen praxis. However, research itself also needs to tinker and learn from experiments. This necessitates long-term speculative research strategies.
  • Sauvala, Mikaela; Woivalin, Emma; Kivistö, Rauni; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Laaksonen, Sauli; Stephan, Roger; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (2021)
    Game birds may carry zoonotic bacteria in their intestines and transmit them to hunters through bird handling or through the handling and consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the prevalence of foodborne bacteria was screened from game bird faeces and mallard breast meat using PCR. The sampling occurred in southern Finland from August to December during the hunting season. Isolates were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were used to assess the microbial contamination of mallard meat. In total, 100 woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), 101 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), 110 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and 30 teals (Anas crecca) were screened during the hunting season. Additionally, 100 mallard breast meat samples were collected. Campylobacter and Listeria were commonly detected in the faeces and Listeria on mallard meat. L. monocytogenes of sequence types associated with human listeriosis were frequently found in game bird faeces and on mallard meat. Good hygiene during game bird handling, storing the game bird meat frozen, and proper heat treatment are important measures to minimize the health risk for hunters and consumers.
  • Holopainen, Jani; Toppinen, Anne; Perttula, Sini (2015)
    The aim of this explorative study is to find out how the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) has affected the forest and chain of custody (CoC) certification strategies and practices among the Finnish wood industry companies. We are especially interested to find out whether more integrated strategies and collaborative networks have emerged for enhanced communications throughout the industry value chains. This qualitative interview study included both EUTR ex ante and ex post analysis, based on three rounds of managerial and expert interviews during 2011-2015. The results indicate that the EUTR appears to have enforced the supplier-client relations in the Finnish wood industry value chain. The sector still lacks integrated communication strategies with better understanding of customer and stakeholder values, which could contribute to more cohesive communication and marketing efforts reflecting the values of the whole industry. The certification practices are fairly spontaneously implemented following the traditional industry culture, which is not supportive of innovations and gaining competitive advantages in the broader material markets. Furthermore, the existence of two parallel forest certificates (Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)) seems to hamper the effective communication and building of an image of sustainable wood products among customers and end consumers, groups that are also exposed to more general environmental communication, e.g., in the building material markets.
  • Annala, Salla; Ruggiero, Salvatore; Kangas, Hanna Liisa; Honkapuro, Samuli; Ohrling, Tiina (2022)
    The transition toward more renewable-based energy systems increases the need for new flexible resources, such as demand response (DR). Previous literature has found various barriers for DR utilization, but much of this research has focused on the initiation of DR operations or barriers in national markets and not on factors that hinder market upscaling and firm internationalization. We address this gap by analyzing interviews with 22 DR companies active in Finland, one of the early mover countries for automated DR. While most of previous research has focused on electricity DR, our interviewees also include district heating DR companies. By using the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework, we study how the advanced regulatory and market framework and the technology rollout in Finland have affected the DR service development and the internationalization of Finnish companies. Based on our results, the DR market formation in Finland has largely relied on the Finnish transmission system operator's early decision to allow independent aggregation and the early large-scale rollout of smart meters. The advanced home market has enabled firms to develop new solutions and prove their concept. Yet, the highly structured nature of energy markets complicates the access to both advanced and less advanced foreign markets.
  • Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Niva, Mari; Vartiainen, Outi; Väisänen, Pertti (2019)
    Background: Consumption of foods of insect origin is encouraged, since insect consumption is seen as one of the responses to the environmental impact of meat production. This study examines the attitude (A), subjective norm (SN), perceived behavioral control (PC), and food neophobia (FN) toward the consumption of foods of insect origin, as well as the conditions for eating insect-based foods among vegans, vegetarians, and omnivores. Methods: The data was obtained by using an online survey and convenience sampling (n = 567, of whom omnivores represented 74%, vegans 5%, and non-vegan vegetarians 22%). Results: The three dietary groups exhibited significantly different intention (I) to eat foods of insect origin. Vegans held the most rigid negative attitude (A), and their subjective norm (SN) to eat insects was weaker compared to that of omnivores (p <0.001) and non-vegan vegetarians (p <0.001). Vegans' perceived behavioral control (PC) over their eating of insects was stronger compared to that of omnivores (p <0.001) and non-vegan vegetarians p <0.001), and they were more neophobic than omnivores (p <0.001) and non-vegan vegetarians (p <0.001). Non-vegan vegetarians held the most positive attitude toward eating insects, and both non-vegan vegetarians and omnivores thought that insect consumption is wise and offers a solution to the world's nutrition problems. In contrast, vegans regarded insect consumption as immoral and irresponsible. Conclusions: Vegans' weak intention, negative attitude, and low willingness to eat insects in the future exhibit their different dietarian identity compared to that of omnivores and non-vegan vegetarians.
  • Reinikainen, Hanna; Tan, Teck Ming; Luoma-aho, Vilma; Salo, Jari (2021)
    This study considers how the relationships between social media influencers, brands and individuals are intertwined on social media and analyses the spill-over effects of feelings of betrayal. An experimental design with two transgression scenarios (influencer vs. brand) was created, and 250 individuals were recruited to participate in the study. The results show that a perceived betrayal by a brand can negatively affect the perceived coolness of the social media influencer that has endorsed the brand, as well as the parasocial relationships that followers have with the influencer. Accordingly, a perceived betrayal by a social media influencer can negatively affect attitudes, trust and purchase intentions toward a brand that the influencer has endorsed. The current research helps in understanding brand and influencer transgressions and highlights the fact that both influencers and brands should have a sense of collaboration responsibility. It also introduces the concept of influencer coolness, understood here as a desirable success factor for social media influencers, which partly explains their desirability and influence, and a feature that can be endangered through both influencer and brand betrayals.
  • Talwar, Shalini; Kaur, Puneet; Kumar, Sushant; Salo, Jari; Dhir, Amandeep (2022)
    Food waste is a serious problem that impacts the environment and sustainability by increasing greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Food waste also represents a social challenge because it raises serious concerns about food security. While acknowledging that households waste a great deal of food because they lack a proper routine for reusing leftovers and purchase more food than required, few studies have extensively examined the drivers of leftover reuse and over-ordering. We address this gap using the stimulus-organism-response paradigm. Moral norms and anticipated pride are conceptualised as stimuli that impact the organismic state of intentions against food waste and response in the form of leftover reuse routines and over-purchasing of food. Data collected from 443 individuals residing in the United States confirm the positive association of norms and pride with intentions. Statistical analyses also reveal a positive association between intentions and leftover reuse routines and a negative association between intentions and over-purchasing of food. The results further demonstrate the mediation effect of intentions on the association of moral norms and anticipated pride with both response variables; in addition, we find that household income exerts a positive moderation effect on the association of norms and pride with intentions and a negative moderation effect on the association of anticipated pride with over-purchasing of food. Researchers, organisations and policymakers can draw upon these findings to motivate future research, propose effective strategies and enact favourable policies to promote sustainability and reduce food-related waste at the household level.
  • Charitsis, Vassilis; Fyrberg Yngfalk, Anna; Skålén, Per (2019)
    While previous critical marketing research on co-creation has focused on how consumers' cognitive and social abilities are governed, this article focuses on how firms' marketing strategies attempt to govern every aspect of consumers' lives. By drawing on a biopolitical framework and a study of Nike+, a marketing system for runners which Nike has developed around its self-tracking devices, three biopolitical marketing dimensions were identified: the gamification of the running experience, the transformation of running into a competitive activity and the conversion of running into a social activity. In identifying these marketing dimensions, the study demonstrates how self-tracking affordances are deployed in the development of a biopolitical marketing environment that tames, captures and appropriates value from different aspects of consumers' lives, including - and combining - their social behaviours, cognitive capacities and bodily conducts. This article contributes to critical studies of value co-creation by focusing on the tamed self-tracking body as a resource for value creation, but also by demonstrating that consumers engage, through cognitive labour, in the production of the biopolitical environment that leads to their exploitation.