Browsing by Subject "CONSUMPTION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 152
  • Vepsäläinen, Henna; Skaffari, Essi; Wojtkowska, Katarzyna; Barlińska, Julia; Kinnunen, Satu Marjaana; Makkonen, Riikka Kyllikki; Heikkilä, Maria; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Ray, Carola Marie-Lousie; Suhonen, Eira; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2022)
    Background: Early childhood education and care (ECEC) centers are ideal venues for food education. As smartphones and tablets are becoming increasingly popular in ECEC centers, technology can be used to deliver such pedagogical content. Evidence suggests that video games can affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among 9-to 12-year-old children, but studies among preschoolers are scarce. Objective: This paper describes the development of the Mole's Veggie Adventures app and its effectiveness in increasing FV acceptance among Finnish and Polish preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years. Methods: A multiprofessional team created an app to be used in ECEC centers in groups of 3 to 10 children. The app aimed to increase vegetable acceptance, and it was built using elements that support the development of self-regulation and social skills. Altogether, 7 Finnish and 4 Polish ECEC centers participated in the study. Before randomization, parents reported background factors and their children's willingness to taste different FVs. The ECEC professionals in the intervention arm were instructed to use the app at least once a week during the 3-to 4-week intervention period. The main outcomes in this unblinded, cluster-randomized study were FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance. The first was calculated as a sum variable describing the children's willingness to taste 25 different FVs, the second as FV acceptance divided by the number of FVs served. We used analysis of covariance to compare the FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Results: A total of 221 children were included in the analysis. At follow-up, the intervention group (115/221, 52%) had higher FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 7.22; 95% CI 1.41-13.03) than the control group (106/221, 48%). The intervention effect was parallel for relative FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 0.28; 95% CI 0.05-0.52). Conclusions: The Mole's Veggie Adventures app has the potential to increase FV acceptance among preschoolers and can be a valuable tool in supporting food education in ECEC centers. Furthermore, the app can be feasibly incorporated into preschool routines in countries with different educational environments. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05173311; https://tinyurl.com/4vfbh283 (JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2022;10(1):e30352) doi: 10.2196/30352
  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Jokkala, Jenna; Klåvus, Anton; Heinonen, Seppo; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; FINNPEC Core Invest Grp; Hanhineva, Kati; Laivuori, Hannele (2021)
    IntroductionMaternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation.Objectives and methodsWe applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy.ResultsProgression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls.ConclusionsOur study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se.
  • Rodiger, Manika; Moreno-Esteva, Enrique Garcia; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich (2019)
    It is of significant importance in food marketing to know which pieces of information available during shopping are most relevant to consumers. The visual search behaviour of consumers allows inference on the relevance of information based on what information is acquired and when. It is assumed that price is a major barrier to the purchase of organic food. However, little is known about consumers' actual acquisition of information on organic food prices. To examine the information acquisition behaviour of consumers buying organic and consumers buying conventional food, a shopping simulation study was run in which participants (n=189) were invited to choose between different unfamiliar organic and conventional product alternatives while wearing eye-tracking glasses. The data were divided into three visual attention phases: orientation phase, comparison phase, and evaluation phase.The information intake in the phases was investigated comparing organic and conventional consumers. Organic consumers acquired less information on conventional prices in the orientation and evaluation phases. It is concluded that for organic consumers, price information is less relevant to making a purchase decision compared to consumers of conventional food.
  • Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Putkinen, Anuliina; Santalahti, Minna; Fritze, Hannu; Pihlatie, Mari (2017)
    The contribution of boreal forest plants to the methane (CH4) cycle is still uncertain. We studied the above and belowground CH4 fluxes of common boreal plants, and assessed the possible contribution of CH4 producing and oxidizing microbes (methanogens and methanotrophs, respectively) to the fluxes. We measured the CH4 fluxes and the amounts of methanogens and methanotrophs in the above- and belowground parts of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Pinus sylvestris seedlings and in non-planted soil in a microcosm experiment. The shoots of C. vulgaris and P. sylvestris showed on average emissions of CH4, while the shoots of the Vaccinium species indicated small CH4 uptake. All the root-soil-compartments consumed CH4, however, the non-rooted soils showed on average small CH4 emission. We found methanotrophs from all the rooted and non-rooted soils. Methanogens were not detected in the plant or soil materials. The presence of plant roots seem to increase the amount of methanotrophs and thus CH4 uptake in the soil. The CH4 emissions from the shoots of C. vulgaris and P. sylvestris demonstrate that the plants have an important contribution to the CH4 exchange dynamics in the plant-soil systems.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni I.; Kärkkäinen, Olli K.; Lehtonen, Marko A.S.; Auriola, Seppo O.K.; Hanhineva, Kati J.; Heinonen, Seppo T. (2018)
    Background: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester. Study design: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40). Results: We observed statistically significantly differences among the study groups in serum levels of glutamate, glutamine, and serotonin (p-values Conclusion: The present study shows that alcohol and drug use were associated with increased glutamate, and decreased glutamine levels, and alcohol use is associated with decreased serotonin levels. This study serves as a proof-of-concept that the metabolite profile of human first trimester serum samples could be used to detect alcohol exposure during pregnancy. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David; Gunter, Marc J.; Agudo, Antonio; Boeing, Heiner; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Warnakula, Samantha; Saieva, Calogero; Spijkerman, Annemieke; Sluijs, Ivonne; Tjonneland, Anne; Kyro, Cecilie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kuehn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Panico, Salvatore; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Engstrom, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Overvad, Kim; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Quiros, J. Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Peppa, Eleni; Iribas, Conchi Moreno; Gavrila, Diana; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Matullo, Giuseppe; Arriola, Larraitz; Freisling, Heinz; Lassale, Camille; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Sharp, Stephen J.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Langenberg, Claudia; Saracci, Rodolfo; Sweeting, Michael; Brennan, Paul; Butterworth, Adam S.; Riboli, Elio (2018)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition cohort (EPIC-CVD) from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS 32 549 participants without baseline CVD, comprised of incident CVD cases and a subcohort for comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Non-fatal and fatal CHD and stroke (including ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke). RESULTS There were 9307 non-fatal CHD events, 1699 fatal CHD, 5855 non-fatal stroke, and 733 fatal stroke. Baseline alcohol intake was inversely associated with non-fatal CHD, with a hazard ratio of 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.96) per 12 g/day higher intake. There was a J shaped association between baseline alcohol intake and risk of fatal CHD. The hazard ratios were 0.83 (0.70 to 0.98), 0.65 (0.53 to 0.81), and 0.82 (0.65 to 1.03) for categories 5.0-14.9 g/day, 15.0-29.9 g/day, and 30.0-59.9 g/day of total alcohol intake, respectively, compared with 0.1-4.9 g/ day. In contrast, hazard ratios for non-fatal and fatal stroke risk were 1.04 (1.02 to 1.07), and 1.05 (0.98 to 1.13) per 12 g/day increase in baseline alcohol intake, respectively, including broadly similar findings for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Associations with cardiovascular outcomes were broadly similar with average lifetime alcohol consumption as for baseline alcohol intake, and across the eight countries studied. There was no strong evidence for interactions of alcohol consumption with smoking status on the risk of CVD events. CONCLUSIONS Alcohol intake was inversely associated with non-fatal CHD risk but positively associated with the risk of different stroke subtypes. This highlights the opposing associations of alcohol intake with different CVD types and strengthens the evidence for policies to reduce alcohol consumption.
  • Lainiola, Mira; Linden, Anni-Maija (2017)
    Neuroinflammation may play an important role in the development of alcohol addiction. Recent pre-clinical reports suggest that enhanced innate immune system signaling increases consumption of alcohol. Our aim was to study whether consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness reaction increase long-term alcohol intake. Adult male C57BL/6j mice, housed in individually ventilated cages, were injected with LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.) and allowed to recover from an acute sickness reaction for 1 week before analysis of their alcohol intake in two different drinking models. Effects of LPS challenge were tested in a continuous two-bottle free choice test with increasing concentrations of alcohol and in a drinking in the dark (DID) binge model. In addition, the effect of repeatedly administered LPS during abstinence periods between binge drinking was analyzed in the DID model. In addition, the DID model was used to study the effects of the microglia inhibitor minocycline (50 mg/kg/day, 4 days) and purinergic P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (75 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on alcohol intake. In contrast to previous findings, pretreatment with a 1-mg/kg dose of LPS did not significantly increase ethanol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. As a novel finding, we report that increasing the LPS dose to 1.5 mg/kg reduced consumption of 18 and 21% (v/v) ethanol. In the DID model, pretreatment with LPS (0.2-1.5 mg/kg) did not significantly alter 15% or 20% ethanol consumption. Neither did repeated LPS injections affect binge alcohol drinking. Minocycline reduced alcohol, but also water, intake regardless of LPS pretreatment. No data on effects of P2X7 antagonists on alcohol consumption have been previously published; therefore, we report here that subchronic Brilliant Blue G had no effect on alcohol intake in the DID model. As a conclusion, further studies are needed to validate this LPS model of the interaction between immune system activation and alcohol consumption. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dickerman, Barbra A.; Markt, Sarah Coseo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2016)
    Purpose Alcohol intake may be associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife alcohol intake and drinking patterns with future prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Methods Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,372 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Alcohol consumption was assessed by questionnaires administered at two time points over follow-up. Over the study period, 601 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between weekly alcohol intake and binge drinking patterns with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were performed to control for potential confounding by shared genetic and early environmental factors. Results Compared to light drinkers ( Conclusion Heavy regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking patterns may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, while abstinence may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light alcohol consumption.
  • GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators (2018)
    Background Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older. Methods Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health. Findings Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week. Interpretation Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Background. Personality has been associated with alcohol use, but less is known about how alcohol use may influence long-term personality trait change. Methods. The present study examines associations between alcohol use and change in the five major personality traits across two measurement occasions (mean follow-up of 5.6 years). A total of 39 722 participants (54% women) were pooled from six cohort studies for an individual-participant meta-analysis. Alcohol use was measured as (1) average alcohol consumption, (2) frequency of binge drinking, (3) symptoms of alcohol use disorder, and (4) a global indicator of risky alcohol use. Changes in the five major personality traits (extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were used as outcomes. Results. Risky alcohol use was associated with increasing extraversion [0.25 T-scores over the mean follow-up of 5.6 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.44] and decreasing emotional stability (-0.28; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.08), agreeableness (-0.67; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.36), and conscientiousness (-0.58; 95% CI -0.79 to -0.38). Except the association between alcohol use and extraversion, these associations were consistent across cohort studies and across different measures of alcohol use. Conclusions. These findings suggest that alcohol use is associated with personality trait changes in adulthood.
  • Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Koskinen, Aki; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Virtanen, Marianna; Härkänen, Tommi; Lallukka, Tea (2018)
    Background: Previous studies have not distinguished between different alcohol-use histories, which could have contributed to the current inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between alcohol use and subsequent sickness absence. We thus examined alcohol use and subsequent diagnosis-specific sickness absence in groups with different levels of alcohol use, as well as in lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and people with clinical alcohol use disorders. Methods: The data of the population-based Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901) of 3666 Finns aged 30-55 were linked with national registers on medically certified sickness absences lasting for > 10 working days (long-term) for all causes (2000 -2010) and for mental or musculoskeletal disorders (2004-2010), as well as with registers on pensions and death (2000-2010). Alcohol use was assessed by questionnaire. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated at baseline in a clinical examination, and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Cox regression analyses were conducted with censoring for death and retirement from work. Results: During an average 10-year follow-up, 56.0% of the participants had at least one long-term sickness absence period. Compared with light drinkers, those having an alcohol use disorder had increased risk of all-cause sickness absence (HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.54) and sickness absence due to mental disorders (HR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.39 - 3.35), when somatic and mental disorders as well as demographic, lifestyle-related and occupational factors at baseline were accounted for. Lifelong abstainers did not differ from light drinkers. Also high-volume drinking (HR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.25) and former drinking (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15 - 2.15) were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders. Alcohol use was not predictive of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to distinguish between former drinking and lifelong abstinence, as only former drinking was associated with sickness absence. Alcohol use disorder and high-volume drinking were strongly predictive of sickness absence due to mental disorders. Identifying people with excessive alcohol use e.g. in occupational health care, and mapping and supporting their mental health may help in preventing sickness absences.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki (2018)
    Objective: We investigated alcohol use and smoking at time of burn and their relationships with severity of burn and presence of mental disorders. Methods: Consecutive acute burn patients (N = 107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the structured clinical interview for mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and after 6 months. Information regarding being under the influence of alcohol and having smoking-related activity at burn as well as about hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and heavy smoking before the burn was recorded. Results: Around half (52%) of the acute burn patients were under the influence of alcohol and 19% had been both drinking and smoking at the time of the burn. Patients under the influence at the time of burn had significantly higher prevalence of lifetime mental disorders compared to those patients who were not under the influence of alcohol (73.2% vs. 45.1%, p = 0.003), especially alcohol dependence (55.4% vs. 13.7%, p <0.001) and anxiety disorders (28.6% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.015). Patients who had both alcohol use and smoking at burn had even more often at least one mental disorder (95.0% vs. 51.7%, p <0.001), in specific alcohol dependence (90.0% vs. 23.0%, p <0.001), or psychotic disorder (25.0% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.016). The main characteristics of the burns themselves did not differ significantly between these groups. Conclusion: Half of the burn patients were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the burn in this study. In almost all patients where alcohol and smoking contributed to the burn a diagnosable alcohol use disorder was present. Interventions for those with alcohol use disorders and the associated risk behaviors are important for the prevention of burns. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Salonen, Hilma (2021)
    In the middle of accelerating climate change and global energy transition from fossil fuels towards low-carbon alternatives, Russia has set a course for mitigating the negative effects of these phenomena while seeking to profit from the supposed positive prospects of warming climate conditions: for example, the expected opening of the Northern Sea Route for commercial traffic or producing renewable energy technologies for export. To reach these goals, Russia wields a policy tool known as "mega projects", centralized development interventions, which should bypass structural problems like the high cost of fuel deliveries that have plagued the Arctic socioeconomic development for decades. How do new mega projects aim to find quick solutions for complex problems, and why are outdated energy systems so resistant to change? The article analyzes two recent energy projects in the Republic of Sakha: building a wind park in Tiksi and establishing a company to manage fossil fuel deliveries, from the viewpoint of a pragmatist understanding of habits and their interconnected relationship with institutions. Main research questions examine what parts of the established ways of fossil fuel usage are most resistant to change in this context and what we may expect of renewable energy development in the area. Although challenges caused by the accelerating climate change are unpredictable, Russia answers to them by using the same toolkit as with other national mega projects, involving centralized decision-making and one-size-fits-all solutions. Therefore, any actors wishing to further new energy solutions in the region must do so by supplementing and supporting the dominant ones.
  • Leroy, Frédéric; Abraini, Fabien; Beal, Ty; Domínguez-Salas, Paula; Gregorini, Pablo; Manzano, Pablo; Rowntree, Jason; van Vliet, Stephan (2022)
    Animal source foods are evolutionarily appropriate foods for humans. It is therefore remarkable that they are now presented by some as unhealthy, unsustainable, and unethical, particularly in the urban West. The benefits of consuming them are nonetheless substantial, as they offer a wide spectrum of nutrients that are needed for cell and tissue development, function, and survival. They play a role in proper physical and cognitive development of infants, children, and adolescents, and help promote maintenance of physical function with ageing. While high-red meat consumption in the West is associated with several forms of chronic disease, these associations remain uncertain in other cultural contexts or when consumption is part of wholesome diets. Besides health concerns, there is also widespread anxiety about the environmental impacts of animal source foods. Although several production methods are detrimental (intensive cropping for feed, overgrazing, deforestation, water pollution, etc.) and require substantial mitigation, damaging impacts are not intrinsic to animal husbandry. When well-managed, livestock farming contributes to ecosystem management and soil health, while delivering high-quality foodstuffs through the upcycling of resources that are otherwise non-suitable for food production, making use of marginal land and inedible materials (forage, by-products, etc.), integrating livestock and crop farming where possible has the potential to benefit plant food production through enhanced nutrient recycling, while minimising external input needs such as fertilisers and pesticides. Moreover, the impacts on land use, water wastage, and greenhouse gas emissions are highly contextual, and their estimation is often erroneous due to a reductionist use of metrics. Similarly, whether animal husbandry is ethical or not depends on practical specificities, not on the fact that animals are involved. Such discussions also need to factor in that animal husbandry plays an important role in culture, societal well-being, food security, and the provision of livelihoods. We seize this opportunity to argue for less preconceived assumptions about alleged effects of animal source foods on the health of the planet and the humans and animals involved, for less top-down planning based on isolated metrics or (Western) technocratic perspectives, and for more holistic and circumstantial approaches to the food system.
  • ISCOLE Res Grp; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Kivelä, Jemina; Räsänen, Sari; Roito, Sanna; Saloheimo, Taru; Valta, Leena (2019)
    BackgroundExisting research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites.MethodsThis multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9-11years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2days/week [rare], 3 to 5days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200h) and afternoon (1200h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time.ResultsParticipants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated witha higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found.ConclusionsIn this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance.Trial registrationThe International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is registered at(Identifier NCT01722500).
  • FinnDiane Study Grp (2018)
    Background and aims: Increased arterial stiffness contributes to diabetic vascular complications. We identified dietary factors related to arterial stiffness in individuals with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and results: Altogether, 612 participants (40% men, mean +/- standard deviation age 45 +/- 13 years) completed a validated diet questionnaire and underwent measurements of arterial stiffness. Of these, 470 additionally completed a food record. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns from the diet questionnaires, and nutrient intakes were calculated from food record entries. Arterial stiffness was measured by applanation tonometry. Of the seven dietary factors formed, the factor scores of "Full-fat cheese and eggs" and "Sweet" patterns were negatively associated with measures of arterial stiffness. In the multivariable macronutrient substitution models, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with higher aortic mean arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. When carbohydrates were consumed in place of proteins, higher aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index were recorded. Replacing energy from alcohol with proteins, was associated with lower aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index. Relative distributions of dietary fatty acids were neutral with respect to the measures of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: The macronutrient distribution of the diet is likely to affect the resilience of the arteries. Our observations suggest that reducing energy intake from carbohydrates and alcohol may be beneficial. These observations, especially those dealing with dietary patterns, need to be confirmed in a longitudinal study. (C) 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David; Pentti, Jaana; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Ervasti, Jenni; Goldberg, Marcel; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskinen, Aki; Lallukka, Tea; Lindbohm, Joni V.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Shipley, Martin J.; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Sorensen, Jeppe K.; Stenholm, Sari; Suominen, Sakari; Vaananen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika (2022)
    Background Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of several chronic diseases. In this multicohort study, we estimated the number of life-years without major chronic diseases according to different characteristics of alcohol use. Methods In primary analysis, we pooled individual-level data from up to 129,942 adults across 12 cohort studies with baseline data collection on alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and history between 1986 and 2005 (the IPD-Work Consortium). Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorised according to UK guidelines - non-drinking (never or former drinkers); moderate consumption (1-14 units); heavy consumption (>14 units per week). We further subdivided moderate and heavy drinkers by binge drinking pattern (alcohol-induced loss of consciousness). In addition, we assessed problem drinking using linked data on hospitalisations due to alcohol abuse or poisoning. Follow-up for chronic diseases for all participants included incident type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and respiratory disease (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) as ascertained via linkage to national morbidity and mortality registries, repeated medical examinations, and/or self-report. We estimated years lived without any of these diseases between 40 and 75 years of age according to sex and characteristics of alcohol use. We repeated the main analyses using data from 427,621 participants in the UK Biobank cohort study. Findings During 1.73 million person-years at risk, 22,676 participants in IPD-Work cohorts developed at least one chronic condition. From age 40 to 75 years, never-drinkers [men: 29.3 (95%CI 27.9-30.8) years, women 29.8 (29.2 - 30.4) years)] and moderate drinkers with no binge drinking habit [men 28.7 (28.4-29.0) years, women 29.6 (29.4-29.7) years] had the longest disease-free life span. A much shorter disease-free life span was apparent in participants who experienced alcohol poisoning [men 23.4 (20.9-26.0) years, women 24.0 (21.4-26.5) years] and those with self-reported heavy overall consumption and binge drinking [men: 26.0 (25.3-26.8), women 27.5 (26.4 - 28.5) years]. The pattern of results for alcohol poisoning and self-reported alcohol consumption was similar in UK Biobank. In IPD-Work and UK Biobank, differences in disease-free years between self-reported moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers were 1.5 years or less. Interpretation Individuals with alcohol poisonings or heavy self-reported overall consumption combined with a binge drinking habit have a marked 3- to 6-year loss in healthy longevity. Differences in disease-free life between categories of self-reported weekly alcohol consumption were smaller. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Perrier, F.; Viallon, V.; Ambatipudi, S.; Ghantous, A.; Cuenin, C.; Hernandez-Vargas, H.; Chajes, V.; Baglietto, L.; Matejcic, M.; Moreno-Macias, H.; Kühn, T.; Boeing, H.; Karakatsani, A.; Kotanidou, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Sieri, S.; Panico, S.; Fasanelli, F.; Dolle, M.; Onland-Moret, C.; Sluijs, I.; Weiderpass, E.; Quiros, J. R.; Agudo, A.; Huerta, J. M.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Tong, T. Y. N.; Tsilidis, K.; Riboli, E.; Gunter, M. J.; Herceg, Z.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I. (2019)
    BackgroundThere is increasing evidence that folate, an important component of one-carbon metabolism, modulates the epigenome. Alcohol, which can disrupt folate absorption, is also known to affect the epigenome. We investigated the association of dietary folate and alcohol intake on leukocyte DNA methylation levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Leukocyte genome-wide DNA methylation profiles on approximately 450,000 CpG sites were acquired with Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip measured among 450 women control participants of a case-control study on breast cancer nested within the EPIC cohort. After data preprocessing using surrogate variable analysis to reduce systematic variation, associations of DNA methylation with dietary folate and alcohol intake, assessed with dietary questionnaires, were investigated using CpG site-specific linear models. Specific regions of the methylome were explored using differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis and fused lasso (FL) regressions. The DMR analysis combined results from the feature-specific analysis for a specific chromosome and using distances between features as weights whereas FL regression combined two penalties to encourage sparsity of single features and the difference between two consecutive features.ResultsAfter correction for multiple testing, intake of dietary folate was not associated with methylation level at any DNA methylation site, while weak associations were observed between alcohol intake and methylation level at CpG sites cg03199996 and cg07382687, with q(val)=0.029 and q(val)=0.048, respectively. Interestingly, the DMR analysis revealed a total of 24 and 90 regions associated with dietary folate and alcohol, respectively. For alcohol intake, 6 of the 15 most significant DMRs were identified through FL.ConclusionsAlcohol intake was associated with methylation levels at two CpG sites. Evidence from DMR and FL analyses indicated that dietary folate and alcohol intake may be associated with genomic regions with tumor suppressor activity such as the GSDMD and HOXA5 genes. These results were in line with the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the association between folate and alcohol, although further studies are warranted to clarify the importance of these mechanisms in cancer.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Kouvonen, Anne; Mauramo, Elina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Lallukka, Tea (2022)
    Background Disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances are associated with certain unhealthy food habits such as inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables. This study examined whether multiple socioeconomic measures are consistently associated with a variety of food habits. Methods We examined associations of 2 childhood and 6 adult socioeconomic measures with 8 recommended food habits among 19-39-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The data were collected in 2017 via online and mailed surveys. Our sample consisted of 4621 employees (80% women). The analyses included adjusted binary logistic regression models. Results More advantaged socioeconomic circumstances were positively associated with the recommended consumption of vegetables, fruit or berries, dark bread, skimmed milk products, fish, and cooking oil, but not consistently with red or processed meat and fat spread. All socioeconomic measures were positively associated with having several (6-8) recommended food habits after gender and age adjustments. The strongest associations were found for participant's education, occupational class, and current financial difficulties. These associations remained after adjustments of childhood and adult socioeconomic measures, although especially participant's education attenuated the associations for occupational class. Conclusions The consistent associations between multiple childhood and adult socioeconomic measures and food habits found among employees highlight the need for improving food habits among people with disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances in particular. Financial barriers together with social aspects of adhering to healthy diets should be considered in future dietary interventions and policy actions.
  • Ylilauri, Maija P. T.; Hantunen, Sari; Lonnroos, Eija; Salonen, Jukka T.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K. (2022)
    Purpose To investigate if dairy, meat, and fish intakes associate with dementia and cognitive performance. Methods We included 2497 dementia-free men from Eastern Finland, aged 42-60 years in 1984-1989 at the baseline examinations. Data on cognitive tests [Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), trail making test (TMT), verbal fluency test (VFL), selective reminding test (SRT), and Russell's adaptation of the visual reproduction test (VRT)] at the 4-year re-examinations were available for 482 men and on the ApoE phenotype for 1259 men. Data on dementia events were obtained by linkage to national health registers. Diet was assessed with baseline 4-day food records. Cox regression and analysis of covariance were used for analyses. Results During a mean 22-year follow-up, 337 men had a dementia diagnosis. Among the foods, only cheese intake associated with dementia risk (hazard ratio in the highest vs. the lowest quartile = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.99, P-trend = 0.05). In the cognitive tests, higher non-fermented dairy and milk intakes associated with worse verbal fluency (VFT). Higher processed red meat intake associated with worse verbal (SRT) and visual memory (VRT), whereas higher unprocessed red meat intake associated with better general cognitive functioning (MMSE) and processing speed and executive functioning (TMT). Higher fish intake associated with better verbal memory (SRT). Among APOE-epsilon 4 carriers, especially non-fermented dairy intake associated with higher risk of dementia outcomes, and higher fish intake indicated better cognitive performance. Conclusion Although higher intake of some food groups associated with cognitive performance, we found little evidence for associations with dementia risk.