Browsing by Subject "CONSUMPTION"

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  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Jokkala, Jenna; Klåvus, Anton; Heinonen, Seppo; Auriola, Seppo; Lehtonen, Marko; FINNPEC Core Invest Grp; Hanhineva, Kati; Laivuori, Hannele (2021)
    IntroductionMaternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation.Objectives and methodsWe applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy.ResultsProgression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls.ConclusionsOur study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se.
  • Rodiger, Manika; Moreno-Esteva, Enrique Garcia; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich (2019)
    It is of significant importance in food marketing to know which pieces of information available during shopping are most relevant to consumers. The visual search behaviour of consumers allows inference on the relevance of information based on what information is acquired and when. It is assumed that price is a major barrier to the purchase of organic food. However, little is known about consumers' actual acquisition of information on organic food prices. To examine the information acquisition behaviour of consumers buying organic and consumers buying conventional food, a shopping simulation study was run in which participants (n=189) were invited to choose between different unfamiliar organic and conventional product alternatives while wearing eye-tracking glasses. The data were divided into three visual attention phases: orientation phase, comparison phase, and evaluation phase.The information intake in the phases was investigated comparing organic and conventional consumers. Organic consumers acquired less information on conventional prices in the orientation and evaluation phases. It is concluded that for organic consumers, price information is less relevant to making a purchase decision compared to consumers of conventional food.
  • Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Putkinen, Anuliina; Santalahti, Minna; Fritze, Hannu; Pihlatie, Mari (2017)
    The contribution of boreal forest plants to the methane (CH4) cycle is still uncertain. We studied the above and belowground CH4 fluxes of common boreal plants, and assessed the possible contribution of CH4 producing and oxidizing microbes (methanogens and methanotrophs, respectively) to the fluxes. We measured the CH4 fluxes and the amounts of methanogens and methanotrophs in the above- and belowground parts of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Pinus sylvestris seedlings and in non-planted soil in a microcosm experiment. The shoots of C. vulgaris and P. sylvestris showed on average emissions of CH4, while the shoots of the Vaccinium species indicated small CH4 uptake. All the root-soil-compartments consumed CH4, however, the non-rooted soils showed on average small CH4 emission. We found methanotrophs from all the rooted and non-rooted soils. Methanogens were not detected in the plant or soil materials. The presence of plant roots seem to increase the amount of methanotrophs and thus CH4 uptake in the soil. The CH4 emissions from the shoots of C. vulgaris and P. sylvestris demonstrate that the plants have an important contribution to the CH4 exchange dynamics in the plant-soil systems.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni I.; Kärkkäinen, Olli K.; Lehtonen, Marko A.S.; Auriola, Seppo O.K.; Hanhineva, Kati J.; Heinonen, Seppo T. (2018)
    Background: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester. Study design: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40). Results: We observed statistically significantly differences among the study groups in serum levels of glutamate, glutamine, and serotonin (p-values Conclusion: The present study shows that alcohol and drug use were associated with increased glutamate, and decreased glutamine levels, and alcohol use is associated with decreased serotonin levels. This study serves as a proof-of-concept that the metabolite profile of human first trimester serum samples could be used to detect alcohol exposure during pregnancy. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ricci, Cristian; Wood, Angela; Muller, David; Gunter, Marc J.; Agudo, Antonio; Boeing, Heiner; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Warnakula, Samantha; Saieva, Calogero; Spijkerman, Annemieke; Sluijs, Ivonne; Tjonneland, Anne; Kyro, Cecilie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kuehn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Panico, Salvatore; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Engstrom, Gunnar; Melander, Olle; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Overvad, Kim; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Quiros, J. Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Peppa, Eleni; Iribas, Conchi Moreno; Gavrila, Diana; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Jansson, Jan-Hakan; Matullo, Giuseppe; Arriola, Larraitz; Freisling, Heinz; Lassale, Camille; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Sharp, Stephen J.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Langenberg, Claudia; Saracci, Rodolfo; Sweeting, Michael; Brennan, Paul; Butterworth, Adam S.; Riboli, Elio (2018)
    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between alcohol consumption (at baseline and over lifetime) and non-fatal and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. DESIGN Multicentre case-cohort study. SETTING A study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) determinants within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition cohort (EPIC-CVD) from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS 32 549 participants without baseline CVD, comprised of incident CVD cases and a subcohort for comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Non-fatal and fatal CHD and stroke (including ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke). RESULTS There were 9307 non-fatal CHD events, 1699 fatal CHD, 5855 non-fatal stroke, and 733 fatal stroke. Baseline alcohol intake was inversely associated with non-fatal CHD, with a hazard ratio of 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.96) per 12 g/day higher intake. There was a J shaped association between baseline alcohol intake and risk of fatal CHD. The hazard ratios were 0.83 (0.70 to 0.98), 0.65 (0.53 to 0.81), and 0.82 (0.65 to 1.03) for categories 5.0-14.9 g/day, 15.0-29.9 g/day, and 30.0-59.9 g/day of total alcohol intake, respectively, compared with 0.1-4.9 g/ day. In contrast, hazard ratios for non-fatal and fatal stroke risk were 1.04 (1.02 to 1.07), and 1.05 (0.98 to 1.13) per 12 g/day increase in baseline alcohol intake, respectively, including broadly similar findings for ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Associations with cardiovascular outcomes were broadly similar with average lifetime alcohol consumption as for baseline alcohol intake, and across the eight countries studied. There was no strong evidence for interactions of alcohol consumption with smoking status on the risk of CVD events. CONCLUSIONS Alcohol intake was inversely associated with non-fatal CHD risk but positively associated with the risk of different stroke subtypes. This highlights the opposing associations of alcohol intake with different CVD types and strengthens the evidence for policies to reduce alcohol consumption.
  • Lainiola, Mira; Linden, Anni-Maija (2017)
    Neuroinflammation may play an important role in the development of alcohol addiction. Recent pre-clinical reports suggest that enhanced innate immune system signaling increases consumption of alcohol. Our aim was to study whether consequences of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness reaction increase long-term alcohol intake. Adult male C57BL/6j mice, housed in individually ventilated cages, were injected with LPS intraperitoneally (i.p.) and allowed to recover from an acute sickness reaction for 1 week before analysis of their alcohol intake in two different drinking models. Effects of LPS challenge were tested in a continuous two-bottle free choice test with increasing concentrations of alcohol and in a drinking in the dark (DID) binge model. In addition, the effect of repeatedly administered LPS during abstinence periods between binge drinking was analyzed in the DID model. In addition, the DID model was used to study the effects of the microglia inhibitor minocycline (50 mg/kg/day, 4 days) and purinergic P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (75 mg/kg/day, 7 days) on alcohol intake. In contrast to previous findings, pretreatment with a 1-mg/kg dose of LPS did not significantly increase ethanol consumption in the continuous two-bottle choice test. As a novel finding, we report that increasing the LPS dose to 1.5 mg/kg reduced consumption of 18 and 21% (v/v) ethanol. In the DID model, pretreatment with LPS (0.2-1.5 mg/kg) did not significantly alter 15% or 20% ethanol consumption. Neither did repeated LPS injections affect binge alcohol drinking. Minocycline reduced alcohol, but also water, intake regardless of LPS pretreatment. No data on effects of P2X7 antagonists on alcohol consumption have been previously published; therefore, we report here that subchronic Brilliant Blue G had no effect on alcohol intake in the DID model. As a conclusion, further studies are needed to validate this LPS model of the interaction between immune system activation and alcohol consumption. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Dickerman, Barbra A.; Markt, Sarah Coseo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2016)
    Purpose Alcohol intake may be associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife alcohol intake and drinking patterns with future prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins. Methods Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,372 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Alcohol consumption was assessed by questionnaires administered at two time points over follow-up. Over the study period, 601 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between weekly alcohol intake and binge drinking patterns with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were performed to control for potential confounding by shared genetic and early environmental factors. Results Compared to light drinkers ( Conclusion Heavy regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking patterns may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, while abstinence may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light alcohol consumption.
  • GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators (2018)
    Background Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older. Methods Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health. Findings Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week. Interpretation Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Background. Personality has been associated with alcohol use, but less is known about how alcohol use may influence long-term personality trait change. Methods. The present study examines associations between alcohol use and change in the five major personality traits across two measurement occasions (mean follow-up of 5.6 years). A total of 39 722 participants (54% women) were pooled from six cohort studies for an individual-participant meta-analysis. Alcohol use was measured as (1) average alcohol consumption, (2) frequency of binge drinking, (3) symptoms of alcohol use disorder, and (4) a global indicator of risky alcohol use. Changes in the five major personality traits (extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were used as outcomes. Results. Risky alcohol use was associated with increasing extraversion [0.25 T-scores over the mean follow-up of 5.6 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.44] and decreasing emotional stability (-0.28; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.08), agreeableness (-0.67; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.36), and conscientiousness (-0.58; 95% CI -0.79 to -0.38). Except the association between alcohol use and extraversion, these associations were consistent across cohort studies and across different measures of alcohol use. Conclusions. These findings suggest that alcohol use is associated with personality trait changes in adulthood.
  • Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Koskinen, Aki; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Virtanen, Marianna; Härkänen, Tommi; Lallukka, Tea (2018)
    Background: Previous studies have not distinguished between different alcohol-use histories, which could have contributed to the current inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between alcohol use and subsequent sickness absence. We thus examined alcohol use and subsequent diagnosis-specific sickness absence in groups with different levels of alcohol use, as well as in lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and people with clinical alcohol use disorders. Methods: The data of the population-based Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901) of 3666 Finns aged 30-55 were linked with national registers on medically certified sickness absences lasting for > 10 working days (long-term) for all causes (2000 -2010) and for mental or musculoskeletal disorders (2004-2010), as well as with registers on pensions and death (2000-2010). Alcohol use was assessed by questionnaire. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated at baseline in a clinical examination, and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Cox regression analyses were conducted with censoring for death and retirement from work. Results: During an average 10-year follow-up, 56.0% of the participants had at least one long-term sickness absence period. Compared with light drinkers, those having an alcohol use disorder had increased risk of all-cause sickness absence (HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.54) and sickness absence due to mental disorders (HR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.39 - 3.35), when somatic and mental disorders as well as demographic, lifestyle-related and occupational factors at baseline were accounted for. Lifelong abstainers did not differ from light drinkers. Also high-volume drinking (HR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.25) and former drinking (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15 - 2.15) were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders. Alcohol use was not predictive of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to distinguish between former drinking and lifelong abstinence, as only former drinking was associated with sickness absence. Alcohol use disorder and high-volume drinking were strongly predictive of sickness absence due to mental disorders. Identifying people with excessive alcohol use e.g. in occupational health care, and mapping and supporting their mental health may help in preventing sickness absences.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki (2018)
    Objective: We investigated alcohol use and smoking at time of burn and their relationships with severity of burn and presence of mental disorders. Methods: Consecutive acute burn patients (N = 107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the structured clinical interview for mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and after 6 months. Information regarding being under the influence of alcohol and having smoking-related activity at burn as well as about hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and heavy smoking before the burn was recorded. Results: Around half (52%) of the acute burn patients were under the influence of alcohol and 19% had been both drinking and smoking at the time of the burn. Patients under the influence at the time of burn had significantly higher prevalence of lifetime mental disorders compared to those patients who were not under the influence of alcohol (73.2% vs. 45.1%, p = 0.003), especially alcohol dependence (55.4% vs. 13.7%, p <0.001) and anxiety disorders (28.6% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.015). Patients who had both alcohol use and smoking at burn had even more often at least one mental disorder (95.0% vs. 51.7%, p <0.001), in specific alcohol dependence (90.0% vs. 23.0%, p <0.001), or psychotic disorder (25.0% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.016). The main characteristics of the burns themselves did not differ significantly between these groups. Conclusion: Half of the burn patients were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the burn in this study. In almost all patients where alcohol and smoking contributed to the burn a diagnosable alcohol use disorder was present. Interventions for those with alcohol use disorders and the associated risk behaviors are important for the prevention of burns. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • ISCOLE Res Grp; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Kivelä, Jemina; Räsänen, Sari; Roito, Sanna; Saloheimo, Taru; Valta, Leena (2019)
    BackgroundExisting research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites.MethodsThis multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9-11years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2days/week [rare], 3 to 5days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200h) and afternoon (1200h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time.ResultsParticipants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated witha higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found.ConclusionsIn this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance.Trial registrationThe International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is registered at(Identifier NCT01722500).
  • Finndiane Study Grp (2018)
    Background and aims: Increased arterial stiffness contributes to diabetic vascular complications. We identified dietary factors related to arterial stiffness in individuals with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and results: Altogether, 612 participants (40% men, mean +/- standard deviation age 45 +/- 13 years) completed a validated diet questionnaire and underwent measurements of arterial stiffness. Of these, 470 additionally completed a food record. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns from the diet questionnaires, and nutrient intakes were calculated from food record entries. Arterial stiffness was measured by applanation tonometry. Of the seven dietary factors formed, the factor scores of "Full-fat cheese and eggs" and "Sweet" patterns were negatively associated with measures of arterial stiffness. In the multivariable macronutrient substitution models, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with higher aortic mean arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. When carbohydrates were consumed in place of proteins, higher aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index were recorded. Replacing energy from alcohol with proteins, was associated with lower aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index. Relative distributions of dietary fatty acids were neutral with respect to the measures of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: The macronutrient distribution of the diet is likely to affect the resilience of the arteries. Our observations suggest that reducing energy intake from carbohydrates and alcohol may be beneficial. These observations, especially those dealing with dietary patterns, need to be confirmed in a longitudinal study. (C) 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Perrier, F.; Viallon, V.; Ambatipudi, S.; Ghantous, A.; Cuenin, C.; Hernandez-Vargas, H.; Chajes, V.; Baglietto, L.; Matejcic, M.; Moreno-Macias, H.; Kühn, T.; Boeing, H.; Karakatsani, A.; Kotanidou, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Sieri, S.; Panico, S.; Fasanelli, F.; Dolle, M.; Onland-Moret, C.; Sluijs, I.; Weiderpass, E.; Quiros, J. R.; Agudo, A.; Huerta, J. M.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Tong, T. Y. N.; Tsilidis, K.; Riboli, E.; Gunter, M. J.; Herceg, Z.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I. (2019)
    BackgroundThere is increasing evidence that folate, an important component of one-carbon metabolism, modulates the epigenome. Alcohol, which can disrupt folate absorption, is also known to affect the epigenome. We investigated the association of dietary folate and alcohol intake on leukocyte DNA methylation levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Leukocyte genome-wide DNA methylation profiles on approximately 450,000 CpG sites were acquired with Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip measured among 450 women control participants of a case-control study on breast cancer nested within the EPIC cohort. After data preprocessing using surrogate variable analysis to reduce systematic variation, associations of DNA methylation with dietary folate and alcohol intake, assessed with dietary questionnaires, were investigated using CpG site-specific linear models. Specific regions of the methylome were explored using differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis and fused lasso (FL) regressions. The DMR analysis combined results from the feature-specific analysis for a specific chromosome and using distances between features as weights whereas FL regression combined two penalties to encourage sparsity of single features and the difference between two consecutive features.ResultsAfter correction for multiple testing, intake of dietary folate was not associated with methylation level at any DNA methylation site, while weak associations were observed between alcohol intake and methylation level at CpG sites cg03199996 and cg07382687, with q(val)=0.029 and q(val)=0.048, respectively. Interestingly, the DMR analysis revealed a total of 24 and 90 regions associated with dietary folate and alcohol, respectively. For alcohol intake, 6 of the 15 most significant DMRs were identified through FL.ConclusionsAlcohol intake was associated with methylation levels at two CpG sites. Evidence from DMR and FL analyses indicated that dietary folate and alcohol intake may be associated with genomic regions with tumor suppressor activity such as the GSDMD and HOXA5 genes. These results were in line with the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the association between folate and alcohol, although further studies are warranted to clarify the importance of these mechanisms in cancer.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Peltola, Taru; Salo, Marja; Furman, Eeva (2019)
    The critical role of everyday practices in climate change mitigation has placed experimental approaches at the top of the environmental policy agenda. In this paper we discuss the value of behavioural approaches, practice theories, pragmatic tinkering and speculative thinking with respect to experimentation. Whereas the first two have been much discussed within sustainability science and transition research, the notions of pragmatic tinkering and speculative thinking radically broaden the scope of experimental research and its contribution to sustainable everyday practices. Pragmatism brings to the fore the need to coordinate multiple practices and understandings of good eating, as these may clash in practice. Through this lens, the value of experimental research lies in revealing frictions that need to be resolved, or tinkered, in practice. Speculative experimentation, in turn, refers to the power of experiments to challenge the experimental setting itself and force thinking about new possibilities and avenues. We investigate the value of all four approaches in relation to our experiments with sustainable eating in the Finnish and Nordic context. Our elaboration justifies the need to broaden the conception of experimental research in order to capture the multiplicity of sustainable eating. Hence, we call for attentive, speculative experimental research aimed not only at testing solutions for sustainable everyday practice, but also at reflecting on the practice of experimentation itself.
  • Tandon, Anushree; Dhir, Amandeep; Kaur, Puneet; Kushwah, Shiksha; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Consumers' rising interest in organic food has drawn the attention of the academic community. The literature on the topic is growing, but it mostly focuses either on the acceptance of or resistance toward organic food. However, marketing scholars argue that the development of more in-depth insights into consumers' reasoning processes, and especially the roles of values and context-specific reasons are needed. The present study bridges this gap by utilizing the novel behavioral reasoning theory (BRT) framework. Cross-sectional data from 307 consumers and non-consumers from India were collected to investigate associations among attitudes, reasoning, value, and purchase intentions. This research studies the moderating role of food safety concerns and buying involvement. Additionally, the mediating role of reasons and attitudes is examined. The results suggest that value was positively associated with reasons (for and against), whereas attitude and reasons (for) resulted in favorable purchase intentions. Reasons (for and against) fully mediate the association between value and attitude. Furthermore, attitude partially mediates the association of reasons and purchase intentions. The moderation effect was not found for food safety concerns, but a limited effect among studied associations was observed for buying involvement. The findings raise significant implications for marketers and policymakers.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Prod Nutr (2018)
    Following an application from Unilever NV, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Ireland, the EFSA Panelon Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to black tea and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food proposed by the applicant as the subject of the health claim is black tea beverages, either freshly prepared or reconstituted from water extract powders of black tea, characterised by the content of flavanols (expressed as catechins plus theaflavins) of at least 30mg per 200mL serving. The Panelconsiders that black tea characterised by the content of flavanols (expressed as catechins plus theaflavins) is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is improvement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation'. The Panelconsiders that maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a beneficial physiological effect. Of the five human intervention studies provided on the chronic effect of black tea consumption on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, two investigated the effect after regular consumption of black tea for a sufficiently long time period (i.e. at least 4weeks). These two studies did not allow an effect of black tea on endothelium-dependent vasodilation to be established. The Panelconcludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of black tea and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. (c) 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Kontto, Jukka; Perhoniemi, Riku; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2018)
    Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Methods: Using data from the 2015 Finnish Gambling survey on adult gamblers (n = 3555), multiple log-linear regression was used to examine the effects of demographics, gambling participation, and engaging in different game types on weekly gambling expenditure (WGE) and relative gambling expenditure (RGE). Background: Excessive expenditure and financial harms are core features of problem gambling. There are various forms of gambling and their nature varies. The aim was to measure gambling expenditure by game type while controlling for demographics and other gambling participation factors. A further aim was to find out how each game type was associated with gambling expenditure when the number of game types played is adjusted for. Conclusions: It seems that overall gambling frequency is the strongest indicator of high gambling expenditure. Our results showed that different game types had different effect sizes on gambling expenditure. Weekly gambling on horse races and non-monopoly games had the greatest increasing effect on expenditure. However, different game types also varied based on their popularity. The extent of potential harms caused by high expenditure therefore also varies on the population level. Based on our results, future prevention and harm minimization efforts should be tailored to different game types for greater effectiveness.
  • Hietanen, Joel; Sihvonen, Antti (2021)
    There is a rich tradition of inquiry in consumer research into how collective consumption manifests in various forms and contexts. While this literature has shown how group cohesion prescribes ethical and moral positions, our study explores how ethicality can arise from consumers and their relations in a more emergent fashion. To do so, we present a Levinasian perspective on consumer ethics through a focus on Restaurant Day, a global food carnival that is organized by consumers themselves. Our ethnographic findings highlight a non-individualistic way of approaching ethical subjectivity that translates into acts of catering to the needs of other people and the subversion of extant legislation by foregrounding personal responsibility. These findings show that while consumer gatherings provide participants a license to temporarily subvert existing roles, they also allow the possibility of ethical autonomy when the mundane rules of city life are renegotiated. These sensibilities also create ‘ethical surplus’, which is an affective excess of togetherness. In the Levinasian register, Restaurant Day thus acts as an inarticulable ‘remainder’—a trace of the possibility of being able to live otherwise alongside one another in city contexts.
  • Heikkinen, Noora; Kärkkäinen, Olli; Laukkanen, Eila; Kekkonen, Virve; Kaarre, Outi; Kivimäki, Petri; Könönen, Mervi; Velagapudi, Vidya; Nandania, Jatin; Lehto, Soili M.; Niskanen, Eini; Vanninen, Ritva; Tolmunen, Tommi (2019)
    Our aim was to analyze metabolite profile changes in serum associated with moderate-to-heavy consumption of alcohol in young adults and to evaluate whether these changes are connected to reduced brain gray matter volumes. These study population consisted of young adults with a 10-year history of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption (n = 35) and light-drinking controls (n = 27). We used the targeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method to measure concentrations of metabolites in serum, and 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain gray matter volumes. Alterations in amino acid and energy metabolism were observed in the moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults when compared to the controls. After correction for multiple testing, the group of moderate-to-heavy drinking young adults had increased serum concentrations of 1-methylhistamine (p = 0.001, d = 0.82) when compared to the controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 1-methylhistamine (r = 0.48, p = 0.004) and creatine (r = 0.52, p = 0.001) were negatively correlated with the brain gray matter volumes in the females. Overall, our results show association between moderate-to-heavy use of alcohol and altered metabolite profile in young adults as well as suggesting that some of these changes could be associated with the reduced brain gray matter volume. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.