Browsing by Subject "CONTEXT"

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  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Brockhaus, Maria; Efrian, Muharrom; Juhola, Sirkku; Moira, Moeliono; Cynthia, Maharani; Bimo, Dwisatrio (2017)
    This paper contributes to an emerging body of literature on policy experimentation and governance transformation processes. We use the example of REDD+ as consisting of policy experiments in an emerging domestic policy domain to understand obstacles to transformations in forest and climate governance. We ask two interlinked questions: to what extent did the establishment of the REDD + Agency challenge 'business as usual' in Indonesia's forest and climate policy arena?; and what does this mean for a transformation away from policies and governance that enable deforestation and forest degradation? We draw on the transformation literature to better understand the role of REDD+ to achieve a transformative shift in climate governance. As an experiment of transformative climate governance, the study of REDD + provides important insights for other forest or climate programs. Our analysis shows that the REDD + Agency was successful in some extend in introducing an alternative governance mechanism and in shaking the governance structures but we also note that some of the key actors thought that greater ownership was achieved when the REDD+ Agency was dissolved and the mandate was returned to the ministries. We conclude that policy experimenting is a process, and while the creation of novel policies and their experimentation is important, also their assimilation may lead to new opportunities.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2020)
    Eco-anxiety and climate anxiety are widely discussed in contemporary media and are subjects of growing research interest. However, there is a lack of research about the definitions and variations of these phenomena. This article analyzes various views of eco-anxiety from a wide range of disciplines. Insights from various anxiety theories are used to discuss empirical studies about forms of eco-anxiety. The article points out that uncertainty, unpredictability, and uncontrollability seem to be important factors in eco-anxiety. Most forms of eco-anxiety appear to be non-clinical, but cases of “pathological” eco-anxiety are also discussed. Other relevant terms and phenomena are scrutinized, such as ecological grief, solastalgia, and ecological trauma. The relationship between studies on eco-anxiety and research about ecological emotions and affect is probed. Eco-anxiety is found to be closely connected to fear and worry, but several disciplines include discussion of its character as existential anxiety. Psychosocial and sociological perspectives point out that social dynamics shape forms of eco-anxiety in profound ways. While paralyzing forms of eco-anxiety emerge as a problem, it is noted that eco-anxiety manifests itself also as “practical anxiety”, which leads to gathering of new information and reassessment of behavior options. This variety of forms of eco-anxiety should be taken into account in healthcare and public discussion.
  • Nemcok, Miroslav; Wass, Hanna (2021)
    Popular consent is an essential element for success and stability of democracies. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that “electoral winners” (i.e. voters casting a ballot for government parties) are more satisfied with democracy than supporters of the opposition parties. However, little is known about the dynamics of satisfaction during the electoral cycle: Do winners become happier and losers even more discontent over time? We approach this question by utilizing an interview date in the European Social Survey (rounds 1–8) to position individuals within the different stages of electoral cycle. The results based on 199,207 responses from 199 surveys in 31 countries suggest that satisfaction with democracy stays relatively stable during the electoral cycle across various electoral systems if the political development is predictable. However, if actions of the parties are uncertain, namely the alternations of governments tend to be frequent, partial, and opened to all parties, and hence neither winners nor losers know how steady their status is with respect to the political development in the country, their satisfaction tend to fluctuate over time. Therefore, the conclusion reached is the more stable West European democracies have limited generalizability to the low-predictable systems in Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Hemmi, Kirsti; Krzywacki, Heidi; Liljeqvist, Yvonne (2019)
    In the current paper, we present an analysis of a case study in which we have followed Swedish primary teachers who voluntarily began using translated Finnish curriculum materials, i.e. a textbook and teacher guide, in order to reform their mathematics teaching. The multifaceted data, consisting of questionnaires, interviews, protocols from collegial meetings and classroom observations, were gathered during the period 2010-2014. The analysis of the interplay within this cross-cultural setting reveals the special characteristics and the challenges existing in practice. Both the experienced and inexperienced teachers offloaded a great deal of their agency to the materials in order to become familiar with the ideas they mediated. Yet, the lack of a clear rationale behind the organization of the materials, as well as the suggested activities connected to taken-for-granted features of the Finnish teaching tradition, made fruitful interaction problematic. The changes teachers made in their classroom practice were tightly connected to the support offered in the materials, without which the teachers abandoned their new classroom patterns. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a number of general aspects that we regard as important to consider when implementing curriculum materials developed within another cultural-educational context.
  • Lahtinen, Hanna-Mari; Laitila, Aarno; Korkman, Julia; Ellonen, Noora (2018)
    Most previous studies on disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) have either been retrospective or focused on children who already have disclosed. The present study aimed to explore the overall CSA disclosure rate and factors associated with disclosing to adults in a large population-based sample. A representative sample of 11,364 sixth and ninth graders participated in the Finnish Child Victim Survey conceming experiences of violence, including CSA. CSA was defined as having sexual experiences with a person at least five years older at the time of the experience. Within this sample, the CSA prevalence was 2.4%. Children reporting CSA experiences also answered questions regarding disclosure, the disclosure recipient, and potential reasons for not disclosing. The results indicate that most of the children (80%) had disclosed to someone, usually a friend (48%). However, only 26% had disclosed to adults, and even fewer had reported their experiences to authorities (12%). The most common reason for non-disclosing was that the experience was not considered serious enough for reporting (41%), and half of the children having CSA experiences did not self-label their experiences as sexual abuse. Relatively few children reported lacking the courage to disclose (14%). Logistic regression analyses showed that the perpetrator's age, the age of the victim at the time of abuse, and having no experiences of emotional abuse by the mother were associated with disclosing to an adult. The results contribute to understanding the factors underlying children's disclosure patterns in a population-based sample and highlight the need for age-appropriate safety education for children and adolescents.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Nygren, Anja; Käkönen, Mira; Kallio, Maarit; Monge Monge, Adrian; Kanninen, Markku (2016)
    We systematically reviewed current climate change literature in order to examine how multiple processes that affect human vulnerability have been studied. Of the 125 reviewed articles, 79 % were published after 2009. There are numerous concepts that point out to stressors other than climate change that were used in reviewed studies. These different concepts were used interchangeably, and they illustrate processes that act on different scales. Most widely used concepts included non-climatic (40 % of the articles), multiple stressors (38 %) and other factors (37 %). About 75 % of the studies either acknowledged or carefully analyzed the social and environmental context in which vulnerability is experienced. One-third of the studies recognized climate change-related stressors as the most important, one-third argued that stressors other than climate are more important, and the rest of the studies did not analyze the relative importance of the different processes. Interactions between different stressors were mentioned in 76 % and analyzed explicitly in 28 % of the articles. Our review shows that there are studies that analyze the social context of vulnerability within climate change-related literature and this literature is rapidly expanding. Reviewed studies point out that there are multiple interacting stressors, whose interlinkages need to be carefully analyzed and targeted by policies, which integrate adaptation to climate change and other stressors. In conclusion, we suggest that future studies should include analytical frameworks that reflect dissimilarities between different types of stressors, methodological triangulation to identify key stressors and analysis of interactions between multiple stressors across different scales.
  • Radun, Igor; Nilsonne, Gustav; Radun, Jenni; Helgesson, Gert; Kecklund, Göran (2019)
    The use of company employees as experimental participants when testing products, technology or paradigms developed by the same company raises questions about bias in results and research ethics. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of studies authored by car company researchers with car company employees as participants, to assess the risk of bias in such studies, to investigate journal editors' opinions in the field of traffic safety regarding these procedures, and to offer a general discussion about ethical and methodological implications. Three types of data were collected. We (i) examined guidelines and recommendations for authors in eleven selected peer-reviewed journals in the area of traffic safety; (ii) surveyed editors of these journals; and (iii) reviewed articles authored by researchers from a selected group of car manufacturers and published in these journals during 2011-2015. Guidelines and recommendations for authors in the included journals did not mention whether and under what circumstances company employees can be research participants, nor did publishers' general guidelines. However, three out of the four editors who responded to our survey believed that this issue of private company researchers using participants from the same company deserves to be explicitly addressed in their journal's guide for authors. The total number of regular articles and conference papers during 2011-2015 in the eleven journals reviewed was 6763; 95 (1.4%) listed at least one car manufacturer in the authors' affiliations; and out of these, nine included company employees as participants. In summary, company employees are seldom (0.13%) used as research participants in traffic safety research. Nevertheless, the use of company employees as research participants raises questions about bias in results as well as about incursions into the participants' autonomy. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lensu, Sanna; Waselius, Tomi; Penttonen, Markku; Nokia, Miriam S. (2019)
    Hippocampal dentate spikes (DSs) are short-duration, large-amplitude fluctuations in hilar local field potentials and take place while resting and sleeping. During DSs, dentate gyms granule cells increase firing while CA1 pyramidal cells decrease firing. Recent findings suggest DSs play a significant role in memory consolidation after training on a hippocampus-dependent, nonspatial associative learning task. Here, we aimed to find out whether DSs are important in other types of hippocampus-dependent learning tasks as well. To this end, we trained adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in a spatial reference memory task, a fixed interval task, and a pattern separation task. During a rest period immediately after each training session, we either let neural activity to take place as usual, timed electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampal commissure (vHC) to immediately follow DSs, or applied the vHC stimulation during a random neural state. We found no effect of vHC stimulation on performance in the spatial reference memory task or in the fixed interval task. Surprisingly, vHC stimulation, especially contingent on DSs, improved performance in the pattern separation task. In conclusion, the behavioral relevance of hippocampal processing and DSs seems to depend on the task at hand. It could be that in an intact brain, offline memory consolidation by default involves associating neural representations of temporally separate but related events. In some cases this might be beneficial for adaptive behavior in the future (associative learning), while in other cases it might not (pattern separation). NEW & NOTEWORTHY The behavioral relevance of dentate spikes seems to depend on the learning task at hand. We suggest that dentate spikes are related to associating neural representations of temporally separate but related events within the dentate gyrus. In some cases this might be beneficial for adaptive behavior in the future (associative learning), while in other cases it might not (pattern separation).
  • Tikkanen, Lotta; Haverinen, Kaisa; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina (2022)
    Differences in teacher burnout between schools are likely to occur due to differences in the quantity and quality of interaction within the schools. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses of burnout symptoms were performed on three-wave longitudinal data collected from 2,619 teachers in 75 schools in Finland. The results showed that differences in teacher burnout between schools were pronounced in cynicism, followed by emotional exhaustion. Organizational factors were not strong predictors of differences in teacher burnout. Proactive co-regulation strategies were related to lower levels of teachers' cynicism about the professional community, implying that they might be useful in preventing the teachers' cynicism at the school level.
  • Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2017)
    This study explored the perceptions of ethical issues in supervision among doctoral students and supervisors. The nature of ethical issues identified by doctoral students (n = 28) and their supervisors (n = 14) is explored and the degree of fit and misfit between their perceptions in two cases representing the natural and behavioural sciences is analysed. Supervisors and students identified different ethical issues, which suggest that there are aspects in the supervisory relationship about which there is no shared understanding. There were also differences between the ethical issues emphasised in the natural sciences from those emphasised in the behavioural sciences, suggesting differences between the domains.
  • Serim, Baris; Jacucci, Giulio (ACM, 2019)
    The term implicit interaction is often used to denote interactions that differ from traditional purposeful and attention demanding ways of interacting with computers. However, there is a lack of agreement about the term's precise meaning. This paper develops implicit interaction further as an analytic concept and identifies the methodological challenges related to HCI's particular design orientation. We first review meanings of implicit as unintentional, attentional background, unawareness, unconsciousness and implicature, and compare them in regards to the entity they qualify, the design motivation they emphasize and their constructive validity for what makes good interaction. We then demonstrate how the methodological challenges can be addressed with greater precision by using an updated, intentionality-based definition that specifies an input-effect relationship as the entity of implicit. We conclude by identifying a number of new considerations for design and evaluation, and by reflecting on the concepts of user and system agency in HCI.
  • Heino, Jani; Grönroos, Mira (2017)
    It was recently suggested that beta diversity can be partitioned into contributions of single sites to overall beta diversity (LCBD) or into contributions of individual species to overall beta diversity (SCBD). We explored the relationships of LCBD and SCBD to site and species characteristics, respectively, in stream insect assemblages. We found that LCBD was mostly explained by variation in species richness, with a negative relationship being detected. SCBD was strongly related to various species characteristics, such as occupancy, abundance, niche position and niche breadth, but was only weakly related to biological traits of species. In particular, occupancy and its quadratic terms showed a very strong unimodal relationship with SCBD, suggesting that intermediate species in terms of site occupancy contribute most to beta diversity. Our findings of unravelling the contributions of sites or species to overall beta diversity are of high importance to community ecology, conservation and bioassessment using stream insect assemblages, and may bear some overall generalities to be found in other organism groups.
  • Karlsson, Linda C.; Antfolk, Jan; Putkonen, Hanna; Amon, Sabine; da Silva Guerreiro, Joao; de Vogel, Vivienne; Flynn, Sandra; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta (2021)
    Familicides have received relatively little attention and are mostly discussed in studies with broader aims. Here, we reviewed 67 studies from 18 countries on familicides, in which an offender killed or attempted to kill their current or former spouse/intimate partner and one or more of their biological or stepchildren. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. Eight studies investigated familicide specifically, while the remaining reported on familicide cases as a subsample. We retrieved data on offenders' gender, age, and background as well as on victims and their relationship to the offender. We also retrieved data on contextual factors and offense characteristics (i.e., modus operandi, offense location, premeditation, and whether or not the offender had committed suicide). We also coded methodological aspects of the studies. Familicides were almost exclusively committed by men and about half of the familicide cases led to the suicide of the offender. Mental health problems, relationship problems, and financial difficulties were prevalent. Because few studies reported population base rates of the investigated characteristics, it is difficult to draw conclusions about specific risk factors. Future research should further investigate typologies of familicide and examine risk factors for different types of familicides.
  • Moilanen, Atte; Kotiaho, Janne S. (2018)
    Many development projects, whether they are about construction of factories, mines, roads, railways, new suburbs, shopping malls, or even individual houses, have negative environmental consequences. Biodiversity offsetting is about compensating that damage, typically via habitat restoration, land management, or by establishment of new protected areas. Offsets are the fourth step of the so-called mitigation hierarchy, in which ecological damage is first avoided, minimized second, and third restored locally. Whatever residual damage remains is then offset. Offsetting has been increasingly adopted all around the world, but simultaneously serious concerns are expressed about the validity of the approach. Failure of offsetting can follow from either inappropriate definition of the size and kind of offset, or, from failure in implementation. Here we address planning of offsets, and identify fundamental operational design decisions that define the intended outcome of an offsetting project, and organize these decisions around objectives, offset actions, and the three fundamental ecological axes of ecological reality: space, time and biodiversity. We also describe how the offset ratio of a project (size of offset areas compared to impact area) can be constructed based on several partial multipliers that arise from factors such as degree of compensation required relative to no net loss, partial and delayed nature of restoration or avoided loss gains, time discounting, additionality, leakage, uncertainty, and factors associated with biodiversity measurement and offset implementation. Several of these factors are partially subjective and thus negotiable. The overall purpose of this effort is to allow systematic, well informed and transparent discussion about these critical decisions in any offset project.
  • Hoppu, Ulla; Puputti, Sari; Mattila, Saila; Puurtinen, Marjaana; Sandell, Mari (2020)
    The food experience is multisensory and multisensory external stimuli may affect food choice and emotions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multisensory eating environment on food choice, intake and the emotional states of the subjects in a salad lunch buffet setting. A total of 30 female subjects consumed a salad lunch twice in the multisensory laboratory. The two test conditions (control and multisensory condition with environmental stimuli) were randomized and the visits were scheduled one week apart. Subjects selected and ate a meal from a salad buffet including 14 food items and the intake of each item was weighed. They answered an online questionnaire about the meal and their emotional states (20 different emotion terms) after the lunch. There was no significant difference in the food consumption between the control and multisensory conditions. The subjects were very satisfied with their lunch for both study visits but the pleasantness of the eating environment was rated higher under the multisensory condition. In emotional terms, the subjects selected the term "happy" significantly more frequently under the multisensory condition compared with the control. In conclusion, the multisensory eating environment in this study was not related to food intake but may be associated with positive emotions. The effect of the eating environment on food choice and experience deserves further study with a larger study population in a real lunch restaurant setting.
  • Haapaniemi, Janni; Venäläinen, Salla; Malin, Anne; Palojoki, Päivi (2019)
    Background: The latest curriculum reforms in Finland have shifted the aims of education towards learning how to learn, and the secondary education sector is already required to teach integrative skills. This study seeks to understand how these curricular demands can be fulfilled in the context of the subject of home economics in secondary education through an integrative approach to learning. This approach integrates knowledge from different school subjects to help students gain a broader perspective, thereby helping develop integrative thinkers with interdisciplinary skills. The study adopts the sociocultural learning approach, focusing on the tools used in learning – material tools, psychological tools and other humans as tools. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to answer the following research question: What kind of tools and pedagogical arrangements support an approach to learning in home economics lessons that integrates other school subjects? Methods: The data were collected from three Finnish comprehensive schools in the form of audio and video recordings of five different home economics lessons that followed the principles of integrative learning. The collected data set underwent a qualitative content analysis. Results: The results describe the variations in home economics lessons in terms of their implementation, supportive tools and pedagogical arrangements used in the learning tasks. Analysis indicated that all three kinds of tools – material, psychological and other humans – were used to support the integrative approach to learning. The pedagogical arrangements supporting the integrative approach to learning were identified as differing in terms of who led the integration; whether the integration was based on knowledge, skills, experiences, methods or materials; whether the pupils from different subjects were mixed in a meaningful way; and whether the objectives and themes of the lesson were of an integrative nature. Conclusion: The study suggests that differences in the integrative implementations of the lessons can complement each other; however, this is the case only if the integrative nature of the lessons is clarified to the pupils.
  • Tan, Teck Ming; Makkonen, Hannu; Kaur, Puneet; Salo, Jari (2022)
    Past research has extensively studied the antecedents and consequences of consumers' green consumption values, as well as the psychological mechanisms that underlie an ethical consumer. Yet a frustrating paradox remains, indicated by the consumers' intention-behavior gap for their sustainable behavior. To address this gap, the present study focuses on the consumption values that lead to using a sharing economy platform. Our study draws on the theory of consumption values and altruistic-egoistic values, as well as spillover effect psychology, to examine associations between context-specific values, green consumption values, and sustainable resale behavior. By collaborating with a Nordic second-hand peer-to-peer platform brand, our findings-obtained from large-scale field data (n = 3256)-challenge the conventional wisdom by demonstrating that economic and practical values for using the second-hand peer-to-peer platform negatively affect green consumption values and subsequently weaken the consumers' preparedness to engage in sustainable resale behavior. In contrast, recreational, generative, societal benefit, and protestor values positively influence green consumption values and increase the consumers' willingness to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Further, such relationships are moderated by gender: stronger effects were identified among female consumers. These findings have important implications for theory and practice.
  • Hynninen, Niina (2018)
    This paper reports on a case study on collaborative research writing in computer science, with particular focus on the researchers' use of digital writing and social media tools. The research paper is still a prominent genre in the field, but technological advances such as the development of real-time collaborative writing tools and social media have created new opportunities for collaboration as well as the sharing of research results. This paper takes a closer look at how digital tools, particularly collaborative writing tools and Twitter, are utilised in the process of producing a research paper for publication, and how the authors and their colleagues view the role of such tools in the text production process. The data include a text history of a research paper, as well as research interviews with the main authors and their colleagues. The data have been approached from a local practices perspective, considering the paper as part of the writing practices of the multicultural research group where the authors worked. The interviews provide further perspectives on the researchers' use of digital tools. The findings shed light on collaborative research writing practices, particularly how collaborative writing tools, which enable new practices such as synchronous writing, may not be utilised by the researchers in the ways intended by the developers. The findings also highlight the significance of social media tools, particularly Twitter, in post publication activities, with important implications for researcher education. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Bernardi, Nicolo F.; Codrons, Erwan; di Leo, Rita; Vandoni, Matteo; Cavallaro, Filippo; Vita, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Luciano (2017)
    In light of theories postulating a role formusic in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naive) simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprisingmusic excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining similar to 80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds.