Browsing by Subject "CONTINENTAL-CRUST"

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  • Kozlovskaya, E.; Elo, S.; Hjelt, S.-E.; Yliniemi, J.; Pirttijärvi, M.; SVEKALAPKO Seismic Tomography Work (2004)
  • Purkamo, Lotta; Bomberg, Malin; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Salavirta, Heikki; Nyyssonen, Mari; Nuppunen-Puputti, Maija; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Itavaara, Merja (2016)
    The bacterial and archaeal community composition and the possible carbon assimilation processes and energy sources of microbial communities in oligotrophic, deep, crystalline bedrock fractures is yet to be resolved. In this study, intrinsic microbial communities from groundwater of six fracture zones from 180 to 2300aEuro-m depths in Outokumpu bedrock were characterized using high-throughput amplicon sequencing and metagenomic prediction. Comamonadaceae-, Anaerobrancaceae- and Pseudomonadaceae-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) form the core community in deep crystalline bedrock fractures in Outokumpu. Archaeal communities were mainly composed of Methanobacteriaceae-affiliating OTUs. The predicted bacterial metagenomes showed that pathways involved in fatty acid and amino sugar metabolism were common. In addition, relative abundance of genes coding the enzymes of autotrophic carbon fixation pathways in predicted metagenomes was low. This indicates that heterotrophic carbon assimilation is more important for microbial communities of the fracture zones. Network analysis based on co-occurrence of OTUs revealed possible "keystone" genera of the microbial communities belonging to Burkholderiales and Clostridiales. Bacterial communities in fractures resemble those found in oligotrophic, hydrogen-enriched environments. Serpentinization reactions of ophiolitic rocks in Outokumpu assemblage may provide a source of energy and organic carbon compounds for the microbial communities in the fractures. Sulfate reducers and methanogens form a minority of the total microbial communities, but OTUs forming these minor groups are similar to those found in other deep Precambrian terrestrial bedrock environments.
  • Joshi, Kumar Batuk; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Halla, Jaana; Ahmad, Talat; Rai, Vinai K. (2022)
    The Bundelkhand craton in central India consists mainly of abundant high-K granitoids formed at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary and several enclosed rafts of TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorites) up to 3.5 Ga. Therefore, the Bundelkhand craton is a key locality for studies on Archaean crustal growth and the emergence of multisource granitoid batholiths that stabilised a supercontinent at 2.5 Ga. Based on their geochemical characteristics, the high-K granitoids are divided into low silica-high Mg (sanukitoids and hybrids) and high silica-low Mg (anatectic) groups. We aim to provide new insights into the role of juvenile versus crustal sources in the evolution of the TTG, sanukitoid, hybrid, and anatectic granitoids of the Bundelkhand craton by comparing their key geochemical signatures with new Nd isotope evidence on crustal contributions and residence times. The ages and geochemical signatures as well as epsilon Nd(t) values and Nd model ages of TTGs point towards partial melting of a juvenile or short-lived mafic crust at different depths. Paleoarchaean TTGs show short crustal residence times and contributions from the newly formed crust, whereas Neoarchaean TTGs have long crustal residence times and contributions from the Paleoarchaean crust. This may reflect the transition from melting in a primitive oceanic plateau (3.4-3.2 Ga) in plume settings, resulting in a Paleoarchaean protocontinent, to 2.7 Ga subduction and island arc accretion along the protocontinent. The 2.5 Ga high-K granitoids formed at convergent subduction settings by partial melting of the mantle wedge and preexisting crust. Sanukitoids and hybrid granitoids originated in the mantle, the latter showing stronger crustal contributions, whereas abundant anatectic granitoids were products of pure crustal melting. Our Nd data and geochemical signatures support a change from early mafic sources to strong crust-mantle interactions towards the A-P boundary, probably reflecting the onset of supercontinent cycles.
  • Halla, Jaana (2020)
    The Earth's early basaltic crust converted episodically into felsic TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) crust by unknown tectonic processes. To contribute to the debate on the possible tectonic settings of TTGs, this article illustrates and explains migmatite structures of Meso- to Neoarchean TTG-amphibolite terrains in Arctic Fennoscandia. The Lake Inari and Rommaeno complexes in northern Finland and West Troms Complex in northern Norway consist of folded and banded TTG gneisses with abundant amphibolite enclaves. The terrains show migmatite structures generated byin situand in-source melting of amphibolites and repeated metatexite-diatexite transitions that form infinite and boundless interconnected networks over vast areas. The aim of this article is to show that the TTGs of these terrains represent coalescedin situand in-source neosomes of amphibolite protoliths and are not similar to granitoidssensu strictogenerated by modern-style plate tectonics. The structures of the TTG-amphibolite associations of Arctic Fennoscandia suggest intracrustal differentiation by syn-anatectic partial melting of amphibolites in deep parts of a thick mafic crust.
  • Kara, Jaakko; Väisänen, Markku; Heinonen, Jussi S.; Lahaye, Yann; O'Brien, Hugh; Huhma, Hannu (2020)
    Arclogites, i.e., lower crustal gamet-pyroxenite cumulates, are suggested to play an important role in controlling magma differentiation in modem continental arcs. Until now, arclogite-related magmatism has only been described from the Phanerozoic Era. The Svecofennian orogen in the central Fennoscandian Shield hosts a rare association of 1.86 Ga igneous rocks geochemically distinct from the surrounding and much more abundant 1.90-1.87 Ga subduction-related talc-alkaline magmatism. The 1.86 Ga magmatic rocks are divided into three groups: 1) high-Nb gabbros (HNB) which are enriched in Fe2O3T, TiO2, P2O5, F. LILE, and HFSE (especially Nb: 18.9-44 ppm), show positive initial epsilon(Nd) value, and near-chondritic but variable initial zircon epsilon(Hf) values; 2) high-Mg gabbros (HMG) which are characterised by high MgO, CaO, Cr and Ni contents, slight enrichment in LILE, positive epsilon(Hf), and positive but variable zircon epsilon(Hf) values; 3) adakite-like rocks showing high Al2O3 and Na2O contents, slight enrichment in LILE, relative depletion in some HFSE, positive CNd value, and chondritic to negative zircon epsilon(Nd) values. The three groups yield zircon U-Pb ages of similar to 1.86 Ga and exhibit undeformed textures in contrast to the surrounding supracrustal rocks metamorphosed at similar to 1.88 Ga. The ages and compositions are dearly different from the adjacent 1.90-1.87 Ga arc-related igneous rocks suggesting a distinct origin. Despite similar ages and close spatial relationship, separate sources are required for each of the different 1.86 Ga rock groups. Trace element modelling of partial melting suggests that arclogites, with compositions similar to pyroxenite xenoliths found in the kimberlite pipes of eastern Finland, are the source for the HNB rocks. In contrast, subduction-modified mantle peridotite is the source for the HMG rocks, and a mafic lower crustal source is suggested for the adakite-like rocks. The following geodynamic model is suggested: (rutile-bearing) arclogite formation at 1.90-1.87 Ga followed by arclogite delamination and partial melting during extension of the thickened Svecofennian crust at 1.86 Ga. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.