Browsing by Subject "COORDINATION"

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  • Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri (2015)
    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.
  • Türk, Helen; Lippus, Pärtel; Simko, Juraj (2017)
    The three-way quantity system is a well-known phonological feature of Estonian. In a number of studies it has been shown that quantity is realized in a disyllabic foot by the stressed-to-unstressed syllable rhyme duration ratio and also by pitch movement as the secondary cue. The stressed syllable rhyme duration is achieved by combining the length of the vowel and the coda consonant, which enables minimal septets of CVCV-sequences based on segmental duration. In this study we analyze articulatory (EMA) recordings from four native Estonian speakers producing all possible quantity combinations of intervocalic bilabial stops in two vocalic contexts (/alpha-i/ vs. /i-alpha/). The analysis shows that kinematic characteristics (gesture duration, spatial extent, and peak velocity) are primarily affected by quantity on the segmental level: Phonologically longer segments are produced by longer and larger lip closing gestures and, in reverse, shorter and smaller lip opening movements. Tongue transition gesture is consistently lengthened and slowed down by increasing consonant quantity. In general, both kinematic characteristics and intergestural coordination are influenced by non-linear interactions between segmental quantity levels as well as vocalic context.
  • Das, Biswanath; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Sanchez-Eguia, Brenda N.; Zeglio, Erica; Demeshko, Serhiy; Dechert, Sebastian; Braunger, Steffen; Haukka, Matti; Repo, Timo; Castillo, Ivan; Nordlander, Ebbe (2019)
    The new di- and tetranuclear Fe(III) mu-oxido complexes [Fe-4(mu-O)(4) (PTEBIA)(4)]CF3SO3)(4)(CH3CN)(2)] (1a) , [Fe-2(mu-O)Cl-2(PTEBIA)(2)(CF3SO3)(2) (1b), and [Fe-2(mu-O)(HCOO)(2)(PTEBIA)(2)](ClO4)(2) (MeOH) (2) were prepared from the sulfur-containing ligand (2-((2,4-dimethylphenyl)thiO)-N,N-bis ((1-methyl-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl)ethanamine (PTEBIA). The tetrairon complex 1a features four mu-oxido bridges, while in dinuclear 1b, the sulfur moiety of the ligand occupies one of the six coordination sites of each Fe(III) ion with a long Fe-S distance of 2.814(6) angstrom . In 2, two Fe(III) centers are bridged by one oxido and two formate units, the latter likely formed by methanol oxidation. Complexes 1a and 1 b show broad sulfur-toiron charge transfer bands around 400-430 nm at room temperature, consistent with mononuclear structures featuring Fe-S interactions. In contrast, acetonitrile solutions of 2 display a sulfur-to-iron charge transfer band only at low temperature (228 K) upon addition of H2O2/CH3COOH, with an absorption maximum at 410 nm. Homogeneous oxidative catalytic activity was observed for 1a and 1b using H2O2 as oxidant, but with low product selectivity. High valent iron-oxo intermediates could not be detected by UV-vis spectroscopy or ESI mass spectrometry. Rather, evidence suggest preferential ligand oxidation, in line with the relatively low selectivity and catalytic activity observed in the reactions.
  • Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Cammer, Natasha Cox; Huisman, Tsipora M.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Hodgson, Louis (2018)
    Direct visualization and light control of several cellular processes is a challenge, owing to the spectral overlap of available genetically encoded probes. Here we report the most red-shifted monomeric near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent protein, miRFP720, and the fully NIR Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair miRFP670-miRFP720, which together enabled design of biosensors compatible with CFP-YFP imaging and blue-green optogenetic tools. We developed a NIR biosensor for Rac1 GTPase and demonstrated its use in multiplexed imaging and light control of Rho GTPase signaling pathways. Specifically, we combined the Rac1 biosensor with CFP-YFP FRET biosensors for RhoA and for Rac1-GDI binding, and concurrently used the LOV-TRAP tool for upstream Rac1 activation. We directly observed and quantified antagonism between RhoA and Rac1 dependent on the RhoA-downstream effector ROCK; showed that Rac1 activity and GDI binding closely depend on the spatiotemporal coordination between these two molecules; and simultaneously observed Rac1 activity during optogenetic manipulation of Rac1.
  • Gronow, Antti; Wagner, Paul; Yla-Anttila, Tuomas (2020)
    The conditions under which policy beliefs and influential actors shape collaborative behaviour in governance networks are not well understood. This article applies exponential random graph models to network data from Finland and Sweden to investigate how beliefs, reputational power and the role of public authorities' structure collaboration ties into the two countries' climate change governance networks. Results show that only in Finland's conflictual climate policy domain do actors collaborate with those with similar beliefs and with reputational power, while only in Sweden's consensual climate policy domain do public authorities play central impartial coordinating roles. These results indicate that conflict is present in a governance network when beliefs and reputational power determine collaboration and that it is absent when public authorities occupy central roles. They also suggest that relative success in climate policy action is likely to occur when public authorities take on network manager roles.
  • Boom, Devin H. A.; Ehlers, Andreas W.; Nieger, Martin; Devillard, Marc; Bouhadir, Ghenwa; Bourissou, Didier; Slootweg, J. Chris (2018)
    In this work, we explored the coordination properties of the geminal phosphinoborane tBu(2)PCH(2)BPh(2) (2) toward different gold(I) precursors. The reaction of 2 with an equimolar amount of the sulfur-based complex (Me2S) AuCl resulted in displacement of the SMe2 ligand and formation of linear phosphine gold(I) chloride 3. Using an excess of ligand 2, bisligated complex 4 was formed and showed dynamic behavior at room temperature. Changing the gold(I) metal precursor to the phosphorus-based complex, (Ph3P) AuCl impacted the coordination behavior of ligand 2. Namely, the reaction of ligand 2 with (Ph3P) AuCl led to the heterolytic cleavage of the gold-chloride bond, which is favored over PPh3 ligand displacement. To the best of our knowledge, 2 is the first example of a P/Bambiphilic ligand capable of cleaving the gold-chloride bond. The coordination chemistry of 2 was further analyzed by density functional theory calculations.
  • Wagner, Paul M.; Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Gronow, Antti; Ocelik, Petr; Schmidt, Luisa; Delicado, Ana (2021)
    Scientifically informed climate policymaking starts with the exchange of credible, salient, and legitimate scientific information between scientists and policymakers. It is therefore important to understand what explains the exchange of scientific information in national climate policymaking processes. This article applies exponential random graph models to network data from the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, and Portugal to investigate which types of organizations are favored sources of scientific information and whether actors obtain scientific information from those with similar beliefs as their own. Results show that scientific organizations are favored sources in all countries, while only in the Czech Republic do actors obtain scientific information from those with similar policy beliefs. These findings suggest that actors involved in climate policymaking mostly look to scientific organizations for information, but that in polarized contexts where there is a presence of influential denialists overcoming biased information exchange is a challenge.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiainen, Mikko (2018)
    Past studies have revealed connections in directional programming between hands. The present study investigated whether there could also be interaction in programming proximal and distal components of a prehensile hand action. In Experiment 1, the participants performed simultaneously either a push or pull response with the left hand and the grip closure or opening with the right hand. In Experiment 2, the push and pull responses of the left hand were performed together with the precision or power grip responses of the right hand. The participants showed preference, measured in reaction times, to couple the push response with the grip opening and the precision grip, whereas the pull response was associated with the grip closure and the power grip. The study shows for the first time a systematic interaction in proximal and distal prehensile components between two hands. We propose that these effects reflect inter- and intra-limb connections between the representations that prepare the arm extension for the outward reaching, the finger extension for the grip opening, and the motor processes that prepare the precision grip. Conversely, there appear to be connections between the representations that prepare the arm flexion for the inward directed hand movements, the flexion of the thumb and the fingers for the grip closure, and flexion of four fingers for the power grip.
  • Toddie-Moore, Daniel J.; Montanari, Martti P.; Tran, Ngan Vi; Brik, Evgeniy M.; Antson, Hanna; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Shimmi, Osamu (2022)
    Developmental patterning is thought to be regulated by conserved signalling pathways. Initial patterns are often broad before refining to only those cells that commit to a particular fate. However, the mechanisms by which pattern refinement takes place remain to be addressed. Using the posterior crossvein (PCV) of the Drosophila pupal wing as a model, into which bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligand is extracellularly transported to instruct vein patterning, we investigate how pattern refinement is regulated. We found that BMP signalling induces apical enrichment of Myosin II in developing crossvein cells to regulate apical constriction. Live imaging of cellular behaviour indicates that changes in cell shape are dynamic and transient, only being maintained in those cells that retain vein fate competence after refinement. Disrupting cell shape changes throughout the PCV inhibits pattern refinement. In contrast, disrupting cell shape in only a subset of vein cells can result in a loss of BMP signalling. We propose that mechano-chemical feedback leads to competition for the developmental signal which plays a critical role in pattern refinement.
  • Zavgorodniaia, Albina; Shrestha, Raj; Leinonen, Juho; Hellas, Arto; Edwards, John (IEEE, 2021)
    Circadian rhythms are the cycles of our internal clock that play a key role in governing when we sleep and when we are active. A related concept is chronotype, which is a person's natural tendency toward activity at certain times of day and typically governs when the individual is most alert and productive. In this work we investigate chronotypes in the setting of an Introductory Computer Programming (CS1) course. Using keystroke data collected from students we investigate the existence of chronotypes through unsupervised learning. The chronotypes we find align with those of typical populations reported in the literature and our results support correlations of certain chronotypes to academic achievement. We also find a lack of support for the still-popular stereotype of a computer programmer as a night owl. The analyses are conducted on data from two universities, one in the US and one in Europe, that use different teaching methods. In comparison of the two contexts, we look into programming assignment design and administration that may promote better programming practices among students in terms of procrastination and effort.
  • Lopez-de-Luzuriaga, Jose M.; Monge, Miguel; Elena Olmos, M.; Rodriguez-Castillo, Maria; Soldevilla, Ines; Sundholm, Dage; Valiev, Rashid R. (2020)
    We report the synthesis of novel perhalophenyl three- coordinated gold( I) complexes using 1,2- bis-(diphenylphosphino)benzene (dppBz) as the chelating ligand and [AuR(tht)] (R = C6F5, C6Cl2F3, C6Cl5) as the perhalophenyl-gold(I) source, leading to [AuR(dppBz)] (R = C6F5 (1), C6Cl2F3 (2), C6Cl5 (3)) complexes. The solid-state structures of compounds 2 and 3 consist of discrete three-coordinated Au(I) complexes, which show a distorted trigonal planar geometry for the gold center with dissimilar Au-P distances. The distorted structural arrangement is closely related to its photophysical properties. The studied complexes display very intense emissions at room temperature (RT) and at 77 K in the solid state. Studies of the emissive properties of the complexes at different temperatures suggest that the emissions are phosphorescent at 77 K and exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) at RT. First-principle calculations of the photophysical processes yielded rate constants for intersystem crossing and reverse intersystem crossing that are in excellent agreement with experimental data.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Tiainen, Mikko; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2018)
    Research has shown connections between articulatory mouth actions and manual actions. This study investigates whether forward-backward hand movements could be associated with vowel production processes that programme tongue fronting/backing, lip rounding/spreading (Experiment 1), and/or consonant production processes that programme tongue tip and tongue dorsum actions (Experiment 2). The participants had to perform either forward or backward hand movement and simultaneously pronounce different vowels or consonants. The results revealed a response benefit, measured in vocal and manual reaction times, when the responses consisted of front vowels and forward hand movements. Conversely, back vowels were associated with backward hand movements. Articulation of rounded versus unrounded vowels or coronal versus dorsal consonants did not produce the effect. In contrast, when the manual responses of forward-backward hand movements were replaced by precision and power grip responses, the coronal consonants [t] and [r] were associated with the precision grip, whereas the dorsal consonant [k] was associated with the power grip. We propose that the movements of the tongue body, operating mainly for vowel production, share the directional action planning processes with the hand movements. Conversely, the tongue articulators related to tongue tip and dorsum movements, operating mainly for consonant production, share the action planning processes with the precision and power grip, respectively.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Himberg, Tommi; Niinisalo, Maija; Kahri, Mikko; Peräkylä, Anssi; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    We studied behavioral matching during joint decision making. Drawing on motion-capture and voice data from 12 dyads, we analyzed body-sway and pitch-register matching during sequential transitions and continuations, with and without mutual visibility. Body sway was matched most strongly during sequential transitions in the conditions of mutual visibility. Pitch-register matching was higher during sequential transitions than continuations only when the participants could not see each other. These results suggest that both body sway and pitch register are used to manage sequential transitions, while mutual visibility influences the relative weights of these two resources. The conversational data are in Finnish with English translation.
  • Wiechmann, Sascha; Freese, Tyll; Drafz, Martin H. H.; Hübner, Eike G.; Namyslo, Jan C.; Nieger, Martin; Schmidt, Andreas (2014)
  • Siirala, Eriikka; Suhonen, Henry; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina (2019)
    AimTo describe the nurse manager's role in perioperative settings. BackgroundThe nurse manager's role is complex and its content unclear. Research in this area is scarce. We need to better understand what this role is to support the nurse manager's work and decision-making with information systems. EvaluationAn integrative literature review was conducted in May 2018. Databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed and Web of Science were used together with a manual search. The review followed a framework especially designed for integrative reviews. Quality of the literature was analysed with an assessment tool. Nine studies published between 2001 and 2016 were included in the final review. Key issueThe findings from the review indicate that the nurse manager's role requires education and experience, and manifests in skills and tasks. A bachelor's degree with perioperative specialisation is the minimum educational requirement for a nurse manager. ConclusionResearch lacks a clear description of the nurse manager's role in perioperative settings. However, the role evolves by education. More education provides advanced skills and, thereby, more demanding tasks. Information technology could provide useful support for task management. Implications for Nursing ManagementThese findings can be used to better answer the current and future demands of the nurse manager's work.
  • Tuhkanen, Samuel; Pekkanen, Jami; Wilkie, Richard M.; Lappi, Otto (2021)
    Skillful behavior requires the anticipation of future action requirements. This is particularly true during high-speed locomotor steering where solely detecting and correcting current error is insufficient to produce smooth and accurate trajectories. Anticipating future steering requirements could be supported using "model-free" prospective signals from the scene ahead or might rely instead on model-based predictive control solutions. The present study generated conditions whereby the future steering trajectory was specified using a breadcrumb trail of waypoints, placed at regular intervals on the ground to create a predictable course (a repeated series of identical "S-bends"). The steering trajectories and gaze behavior relative to each waypoint were recorded for each participant (N = 16). To investigate the extent to which drivers predicted the location of future waypoints, "gaps" were included (20% of waypoints) whereby the next waypoint in the sequence did not appear. Gap location was varied relative to the S-bend inflection point to manipulate the chances that the next waypoint indicated a change in direction of the bend. Gaze patterns did indeed change according to gap location, suggesting that participants were sensitive to the underlying structure of the course and were predicting the future waypoint locations. The results demonstrate that gaze and steering both rely upon anticipation of the future path consistent with some form of internal model.
  • Zhang, Jiaxi; Pidlypnyi, Nazar; Nieger, Martin; Namyslo, Jan C.; Schmidt, Andreas (2014)