Browsing by Subject "COPPER"

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  • Lagerspets, Emi; Valbonetti, Evelyn; Eronen, Aleksi; Repo, Timo (2021)
    We report here novel Cu(I) thiophene carbaldimine catalysts for the selective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes and various diols to lactones or lactols. In the presence of the in situ generated Cu(I) species, a persistent radical (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine-N-oxyl (TEMPO)) and N-methylimidazole (NMI) as an auxiliary ligand, the reaction proceeds under aerobic conditions and at ambient temperature. Especially the catalytic system of 1-(thiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)methanimine (ligand L2) with copper(I)-iodide showed high reactivity for all kind of alcohols (benzylic, allylic and aliphatic). In the case of benzyl alcohol even 2.5 mol% of copper loading gave quantitative yield. Beside high activity under aerobic conditions, the catalysts ability to oxidize 1,5-pentadiol to the corresponding lactol (86% in 4 h) and Nphenyldiethanolamine to the corresponding morpholine derivate lactol (86% in 24 h) is particularly noteworthy.
  • Toijala, H.; Eimre, K.; Kyritsakis, A.; Zadin, Vahur; Djurabekova, F. (2019)
    In this work we combine density functional theory and quantum transport calculations to study the influence of atomic-scale defects on the work function and field emission characteristics of metal surfaces. We develop a general methodology for the calculation of the field emitted current density from nanofeatured surfaces, which is then used to study specific defects on a Cu(111) surface. Our results show that the inclusion of a defect can significantly locally enhance the field emitted current density. However, this increase is attributed solely to the decrease of the work function due to the defect, with the effective field enhancement being minute. Finally, the Fowler-Nordheim equation is found to be valid when the modified value for the work function is used, with only an approximately constant factor separating the computed currents from those predicted by the Fowler-Nordheim equation.
  • Iivonen, Tomi; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Popov, Georgi; Nieminen, Heta-Elisa; Kaipio, Mikko; Kemell, Marianna; Mattinen, Miika; Meinander, Kristoffer; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2019)
    Herein, we report an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for Cu2O thin films using copper(II) acetate [Cu(OAc)(2)] and water vapor as precursors. This precursor combination enables the deposition of phase-pure, polycrystalline, and impurity-free Cu2O thin films at temperatures of 180-220 degrees C. The deposition of Cu(I) oxide films from a Cu(II) precursor without the use of a reducing agent is explained by the thermally induced reduction of Cu(OAc)(2) to the volatile copper(I) acetate, CuOAc. In addition to the optimization of ALD process parameters and characterization of film properties, we studied the Cu2O films in the fabrication of photoconductor devices. Our proof-of-concept devices show that approx- imately 20 nm thick Cu2O films can be used for photodetection in the visible wavelength range and that the thin film photoconductors exhibit improved device characteristics in comparison to bulk Cu2O crystals.
  • Zhou, Zhipeng; Kyritsakis, Andreas; Wang, Zhenxing; Li, Yi; Geng, Yingsan; Djurabekova, Flyura (2019)
    Sufficiently high voltage applied between two metal electrodes, even in ultra high vacuum conditions, results in an inevitable discharge that lights up the entire gap, opening a conductive channel through the vacuum and parasitically consuming large amounts of energy. Despite many efforts to understand the processes that lead to this phenomenon, known as vacuum arc, there is still no consensus regarding the role of each electrode in the evolution of such a momentous process as lightning. Employing a high-speed camera, we capture the entire lightning process step-by-step with a nanosecond resolution and find which of the two electrodes holds the main responsibility for igniting the arc. The light that gradually expands from the positively charged electrode (anode), often is assumed to play the main role in the formation of a vacuum arc. However, both the nanosecond-resolution images of vacuum arc evolution and the corresponding theoretical calculations agree that the conductive channel between the electrodes is built in the form of cathodic plasma long before any significant activity develops in the anode. We show evidently that the anode illumination is weaker and plays a minor role in igniting and maintaining the conductive channel.
  • Veske, Mihkel; Kyritsakis, Andreas; Djurabekova, Flyura; Sjobak, Kyrre Ness; Aabloo, Alvo; Zadin, Vahur (2020)
    We propose a method to directly couple molecular dynamics, the finite element method, and particle-in-cell techniques to simulate metal surface response to high electric fields. We use this method to simulate the evolution of a field-emitting tip under thermal runaway by fully including the three-dimensional space-charge effects. We also present a comparison of the runaway process between two tip geometries of different widths. The results show with high statistical significance that in the case of sufficiently narrow field emitters, the thermal runaway occurs in cycles where intensive neutral evaporation alternates with cooling periods. The comparison with previous works shows that the evaporation rate in the regime of intensive evaporation is sufficient to ignite a plasma arc above the simulated field emitters.
  • Talvio, Karo; Kanninen, Katja M.; White, Anthony R.; Koistinaho, Jari; Castren, Maija L. (2021)
  • Cassidy, Cathal; Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Sowwan, Mukhles (2013)
  • Kohl, Lukas; Meng, Meng; de Vera, Joan; Bergquist, Bridget; Cooke, Colin A.; Hustings, Sarah; Jackson, Brian; Chow, Chung-Wai; Chan, Arthur W. H. (2019)
    Wildfires are increasing in prevalence and intensity and emit large quantities of persistent organic and inorganic pollutants. Recent fires have caused elevated concerns that residual pollutants in indoor environments pose a long‐term health hazard to residents, however, to date no studies have investigated how long fire‐derived pollutants are retained in indoor environments. We quantified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic trace elements in ground ashes from the 2016 wildland‐urban interface fires in Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) and in house dust from 64 homes. We document residual arsenic pollution from local building fires, but found no evidence that forest fire ash remained in households 14 months after the fire. Overall, house dust pollutant concentrations were equal or lower than in other locations unaffected by wildfires. Given the current and future concerns over wildfire impacts, this study provides importance evidence on the degree of their long‐term effects on the residential environment.
  • Bonabi, Ashkan; Tähkä, Sari; Ollikainen, Elisa; Jokinen, Ville; Sikanen, Tiina (2019)
    Organically modified ceramic polymers (ORMOCERs) have attracted substantial interest in biomicrofluidic applications owing to their inherent biocompatibility and high optical transparency even in the near-ultraviolet (UV) range. However, the processes for metallization of ORMOCERs as well as for sealing of metallized surfaces have not been fully developed. In this study, we developed metallization processes for a commercial ORMOCER formulation, Ormocomp, covering several commonly used metals, including aluminum, silver, gold, and platinum. The obtained metallizations were systematically characterized with respect to adhesion (with and without adhesion layers), resistivity, and stability during use (in electrochemical assays). In addition to metal adhesion, the possibility for Ormocomp bonding over each metal as well as sufficient step coverage to guarantee conductivity over topographical features (e.g., over microchannel edges) was addressed with a view to the implementation of not only planar, but also three-dimensional on-chip sensing elements. The feasibility of the developed metallization for implementation of microfluidic electrochemical assays was demonstrated by fabricating an electrophoresis separation chip, compatible with a commercial bipotentiostat, and incorporating integrated working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes for amperometric detection of an electrochemically active pharmaceutical, acetaminophen.
  • Ye, Yang; He, Jian; Qiao, Yue; Qi, Yuchen; Zhang, Hongbo; Santos, Hélder A.; Zhong, Danni; Li, Wanlin; Hua, Shiyuan; Wang, Wei; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Ke Yao, Ke Yao; Zhou, Min (2020)
    Rationale: Endophthalmitis, which is one of the severest complications of cataract surgeries, can seriously threaten vision and even lead to irreversible blindness owing to its complicated microenvironment, including both local bacterial infection and severe inflammation. It is urgent to develop a comprehensive treatment for both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: Herein, we developed AuAgCu2O-bromfenac sodium nanoparticles (AuAgCu2O-BS NPs), which was designed to combine anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects for integrated therapy of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The AuAgCu2O-BS NPs could eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterial strain relied on their photodynamic effects and the release of metal ions (Ag+ and Cu+) by the hollow AuAgCu2O nanostructures mediated mild photothermal effects. The anti-inflammatory drug, bromfenac sodium, released from the nanoparticles were able to significantly reduce the local inflammation of the endophthalmitis and promote tissue rehabilitation. In vivo bacterial elimination and anti-inflammation were confirmed by a postcataract endophthalmitis rabbit model. Results: Excellent antibacterial ability of AuAgCu2O-BS NPs was verified both in vitro and in vivo. Ophthalmological clinical observation and pathologic histology analysis showed prominent treatment of inflammatory reaction. Importantly, the mild temperature photothermal effect not only promoted the release of metal ions and bromfenac sodium but also avoided the thermal damage of the surrounding tissues, which was more suitable for the practical application of ophthalmology due to the complex structure of the eyeball. Moreover, superior biocompatibility was approved by the preliminary toxicity investigations, including low cytotoxicity, negligible damage to major organs, and stable intraocular pressure. Conclusions: Our studies of nanosystem provide a promising synergic therapeutic strategy for postcataract endophthalmitis treatment with favorable prognosis and promise in clinical translations.
  • Lagerspets, Emi; Lagerblom, Kalle; Heliövaara, Eeva; Hiltunen, Otto-Matti; Moslova, Karina; Nieger, Martin; Repo, Timo (2019)
    We report here new copper(I)-Schiff base complexes for the selective oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes under ambient conditions (with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), N-methylimidazole (NMI), ambient air, acetonitril and RT). Particularly, the copper(I) complex bearing N-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(furan-2-yl)methanimine (L2) showed high activity in the series and gave near- quantitative yields in the oxidations of benzyl alcohol (99% yield in 1 h) and 1-octanol (96% yield in 24 h). Based on the X-ray structure determination, the complex has a square pyramidal coordination accomplished by two L2 ligands and bromide as a counter anion. The oxidation reactions were monitored with UV vis and in situ ATR-IR spectroscopy to study the changes in the catalytic structure and to elucidate the catalytic properties and the mechanistic details. Accordingly, detachment of one of the L2 ligands from the complexes is related to the oxidation activity.
  • Kyritsakis, A.; Veske, M.; Eimre, K.; Zadin, V.; Djurabekova, F. (2018)
    When an electron emitting tip is subjected to very high electric fields, plasma forms even under ultra high vacuum conditions. This phenomenon, known as vacuum arc, causes catastrophic surface modifications and constitutes a major limiting factor not only for modern electron sources, but also for many large-scale applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although vacuum arcs have been studied thoroughly, the physical mechanisms that lead from intense electron emission to plasma ignition are still unclear. In this article, we give insights to the atomic scale processes taking place in metal nanotips under intense field emission conditions. We use multi-scale atomistic simulations that concurrently include field-induced forces, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that when a sufficiently high electric field is applied to the tip, the emission-generated heat partially melts it and the field-induced force elongates and sharpens it. This initiates a positive feedback thermal runaway process, which eventually causes evaporation of large fractions of the tip. The reported mechanism can explain the origin of neutral atoms necessary to initiate plasma, a missing key process required to explain the ignition of a vacuum arc. Our simulations provide a quantitative description of in the conditions leading to runaway, which shall be valuable for both field emission applications and vacuum arc studies.