Browsing by Subject "CORONAL MASS EJECTION"

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  • Cairns, Iver H.; Kozarev, Kamen A.; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Agueda, Neus; Battarbee, Markus; Carley, Eoin P.; Dresing, Nina; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Lario, David; Pomoell, Jens; Salas-Matamoros, Carolina; Veronig, Astrid M.; Li, Bo; McCauley, Patrick (2020)
    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are an important product of solar activity. They are connected to solar active regions and flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), EUV waves, shocks, Type II and III radio emissions, and X-ray bursts. These phenomena are major probes of the partition of energy in solar eruptions, as well as for the organization, dynamics, and relaxation of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields. Many of these phenomena cause terrestrial space weather, posing multiple hazards for humans and their technology from space to the ground. Since particular flares, shocks, CMEs, and EUV waves produce SEP events but others do not, since propagation effects from the low corona to 1 AU appear important for some events but not others, and since Type II and III radio emissions and X-ray bursts are sometimes produced by energetic particles leaving these acceleration sites, it is necessary to study the whole system with a multi-frequency and multi-instrument perspective that combines both in-situ and remote observations with detailed modeling of phenomena. This article demonstrates this comprehensive approach and shows its necessity by analyzing a trio of unusual and striking solar eruptions, radio and X-ray bursts, and SEP events that occurred on 4 November 2015. These events show both strong similarities and differences from standard events and each other, despite having very similar interplanetary conditions and only two flare sites and CME genesis regions. They are therefore major targets for further in-depth observational studies, and for testing both existing and new theories and models. We present the complete suite of relevant observations, complement them with initial modeling results for the SEPs and interplanetary magnetic connectivity, and develop a plausible scenario for the eruptions. Perhaps controversially, the SEPs appear to be reasonably modelled and evidence points to significant non-Parker magnetic fields. Based on the very limited modeling available, we identify the aspects that are and are not understood, and we discuss ideas that may lead to improved understanding of the SEP, radio, and space-weather events.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Lynch, B. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nancay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists of a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.
  • Pal, Sanchita; Kilpua, Emilia; Good, Simon; Pomoell, Jens; Price, Daniel (2021)
    Context. Magnetic clouds (MCs) are transient structures containing large-scale magnetic flux ropes from solar eruptions. The twist of magnetic field lines around the rope axis reveals information about flux rope formation processes and geoeffectivity. During propagation MC flux ropes may erode via reconnection with the ambient solar wind. Any erosion reduces the magnetic flux and helicity of the ropes, and changes their cross-sectional twist profiles. Aims. This study relates twist profiles in MC flux ropes observed at 1 AU to the amount of erosion undergone by the MCs in interplanetary space. Methods. The twist profiles of two clearly identified MC flux ropes associated with the clear appearance of post eruption arcades in the solar corona are analyzed. To infer the amount of erosion, the magnetic flux content of the ropes in the solar atmosphere is estimated, and compared to estimates at 1 AU. Results. The first MC shows a monotonically decreasing twist from the axis to the periphery, while the second displays high twist at the axis, rising twist near the edges, and lower twist in between. The first MC displays a larger reduction in magnetic flux between the Sun and 1 AU, suggesting more erosion than that seen in the second MC. Conclusions. In the second cloud the rising twist at the rope edges may have been due to an envelope of overlying coronal field lines with relatively high twist, formed by reconnection beneath the erupting flux rope in the low corona. This high-twist envelope remained almost intact from the Sun to 1 AU due to the low erosion levels. In contrast, the high-twist envelope of the first cloud may have been entirely peeled away via erosion by the time it reaches 1 AU.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Carley, E. P.; Monstein, C. (2019)
    Context. The Sun is an active star and the source of the largest explosions in the solar system, such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Flares and CMEs are powerful particle accelerators that can generate radio emission through various emission mechanisms. Aims. CMEs are often accompanied by Type IV radio bursts that are observed as continuum emission in dynamic spectra at decimetric and metric wavelengths, but their emission mechanism can vary from event to event. Here, we aim to determine the emission mechanism of a complex Type IV burst that accompanied the flare and CME on 22 September 2011. Methods. We used radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the e-Callisto network, ARTEMIS, Ondrejov, and Phoenix3 spectrometers combined with extreme-ultraviolet observations from NASA's Solar Dynamic Observatory to analyse the Type IV radio burst and determine its emission mechanism. Results. We show that the emission mechanism of the Type IV radio burst changes over time. We identified two components in the Type IV radio burst: an earlier stationary Type IV showing gyro-synchrotron behaviour, and a later moving Type IV burst covering the same frequency band. This second component has a coherent emission mechanism. Fundamental plasma emission and the electron-cyclotron maser emission are further investigated as possible emission mechanisms for the generation of the moving Type IV burst. Conclusions. Type IV bursts are therefore complex radio bursts, where multiple emission mechanisms can contribute to the generation of the wide-band continuum observed in dynamic spectra. Imaging spectroscopy over a wide frequency band is necessary to determine the emission mechanisms of Type IV bursts that are observed in dynamic spectra.