Browsing by Subject "CORTEX EXCITABILITY"

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  • Aikio, R.; Laaksonen, K.; Sairanen, A; Parkkonen, E.; Abou Elseoud, A.; Kujala, J.; Forss, N. (2021)
    In healthy subjects, motor cortex activity and electromyographic (EMG) signals from contracting contralateral muscle show coherence in the beta (15-30 Hz) range. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is considered a sign of functional coupling between muscle and brain. Based on prior studies, CMC is altered in stroke, but functional significance of this finding has remained unclear. Here, we examined CMC in acute stroke patients and correlated the results with clinical outcome measures and corticospinal tract (CST) integrity estimated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). During isometric contraction of the extensor carpi radialis muscle, EMG and magneto encephalographic oscillatory signals were recorded from 29 patients with paresis of the upper extremity due to ischemic stroke and 22 control subjects. CMC amplitudes and peak frequencies at 13-30 Hz were compared between the two groups. In the patients, the peak frequency in both the affected and the unaffected hemisphere was significantly (p < 0.01) lower and the strength of CMC was significantly (p < 0.05) weaker in the affected hemisphere compared to the control subjects. The strength of CMC in the patients correlated with the level of tactile sensitivity and clinical test results of hand function. In contrast, no correlation between measures of CST integrity and CMC was found. The results confirm the earlier findings that CMC is altered in acute stroke and demonstrate that CMC is bidirectional and not solely a measure of integrity of the efferent corticospinal tract.
  • Parkkonen, Eeva; Laaksonen, Kristina; Parkkonen, Lauri; Forss, Nina (2018)
    Sensorimotor integration is closely linked to changes in motor-cortical excitability, observable in the modulation of the 20 Hz rhythm. After somatosensory stimulation, the rhythm transiently increases as a rebound that reflects motor-cortex inhibition. Stroke-induced alterations in afferent input likely affect motor-cortex excitability and motor recovery. To study the role of somatosensory afferents in motor-cortex excitability after stroke, we employed magnetoencephalographic recordings (MEG) at 1-7 days, one month, and 12 months in 23 patients with stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 22 healthy controls. The modulation of the 20 Hz motor-cortical rhythm was evaluated to two different somatosensory stimuli, tactile stimulation, and passive movement of the index fingers. The rebound strengths to both stimuli were diminished in the acute phase compared to the controls and increased significantly during the first month after stroke. However, only the rebound amplitudes to tactile stimuli fully recovered within the follow-up period. The rebound strengths in the affected hemisphere to both stimuli correlated strongly with the clinical scores across the follow-up. The results show that changes in the 20 Hz rebound to both stimuli behave similarly and occur predominantly during the first month. The 20 Hz rebound is a potential marker for predicting motor recovery after stroke.