Browsing by Subject "CORTICAL-NEURONS"

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  • Nurminen, Lauri; Kilpeläinen, Markku; Vanni, Simo (2013)
    A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.
  • Kalebic, Nereo; Namba, Takashi (2021)
    Cell polarity is fundamentally important for understanding brain development. Here, we hypothesize that the inheritance and flexibility of cell polarity during neocortex development could be implicated in neocortical evolutionary expansion. Molecular and morphological features of cell polarity may be inherited from one type of progenitor cell to the other and finally transmitted to neurons. Furthermore, key cell types, such as basal progenitors and neurons, exhibit a highly flexible polarity. We suggest that both inheritance and flexibility of cell polarity are implicated in the amplification of basal progenitors and tangential dispersion of neurons, which are key features of the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex.
  • Kaminen-Ahola, Nina; Ahola, Arttu; Maga, Murat; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Fahey, Paul; Cox, Timothy C.; Whitelaw, Emma; Chong, Suyinn (2010)
  • David-Pereira, A.; Puga, S.; Goncalves, S.; Amorim, D.; Silva, C.; Pertovaara, A.; Almeida, A.; Pinto-Ribeiro, F. (2016)
    The involvement of the prefrontal cortex in pain processing has been recently addressed. We studied the role of the infralimbic cortex (IL) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in descending modulation of nociception in control and monoarthritic (ARTH) conditions. Nociception was assessed using heat-induced paw withdrawal while drugs were microinjected in the IL of rats. Local anesthesia of the IL or the adjacent prelimbic cortex (PL) facilitated nociception, indicating that IL and PL are tonically promoting spinal antinociception. Phasic activation with glutamate (GLU) revealed opposing roles of the PL and IL; GLU in the PL had a fast antinociceptive action, while in the IL it had a slow onset pronociceptive action. IL administration of a local anesthetic or GLU produced identical results in ARTH and control animals. An mGluR5 agonist in the IL induced a pronociceptive effect in both groups, while mGluR5 antagonists had no effect in controls but induced antinociception in ARTH rats. Activation of the IL mGluR1 (through co-administration of mGluR1/5 agonist and mGluR5 antagonist) did not alter nociception in controls but induced antinociception in ARTH animals. IL administration of an mGluR1 antagonist failed to alter nociception in either experimental group. Finally, mGluR5 but not mGluR1 antagonists blocked the pronociceptive action of GLU in both groups. The results indicate that IL contributes to descending modulation of nociception. mGluR5 in the IL enhance nociception in healthy control and monoarthritic animals, an effect that is tonic in ARTH. Moreover, activation of IL mGluR1s attenuates nociception following the development of monoarthritis. (C) 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.