Browsing by Subject "CORTISOL"

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  • Takala, Riikka S. K.; Kiviranta, Riku; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Vahlberg, Tero; Laukka, Dan; Kotkansalo, Anna; Rahi, Melissa; Sankinen, Matti; Posti, Jussi; Katila, Ari; Rinne, Jaakko (2017)
    Purpose: The aim was to assess anterior pituitary hormone levels during the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and analyze the possible association with the clinical condition and outcome. Material and methods: Forty patients with aSAH whose aneurysm was secured by endovascular coiling were enrolled. Basal secretions of cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured up to 14 days after the incident. Results: The main finding was that hypocortisolism was rare whereas testosterone deficiency was common in male patients. Furthermore, various other hormone deviations were frequent and there was wide interindividual variability. We found no association between delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), outcome of the patients or aneurysm location, and hormone abnormalities, while both Hunt & Hess and Fisher grade were associated with low PRL levels. Hunt & Hess 5 was associated with low PRL concentration when compared to grades 1 (OR = 4.81, 95% CI 1.15-20.14, p = 0.03), 3 (OR 7.73, 95% CI 1.33-45.01, p = 0.02), and 4 (OR = 6.86 95% CI 1.28-26.83, p = 0.02). Fisher grade 4 was associated with low PRL concentration when compared to grades 3 (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.06-10.73, p = 0.03) and 2 (OR 9.71, 95% CI 1.22-77.10, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Deviations from normal and huge interindividual differences are common in hormone levels during the acute phase of aSAH. Routine assessment of anterior pituitary function in the acute phase of aSAH is not warranted. During the follow-up in the outpatient clinic, hormone concentrations were not measured, which would have brought a more long-term perspective into our findings.
  • Czamara, Darina; Dieckmann, Linda; Roeh, Simone; Kraemer, Sarah; Rancourt, Rebecca C.; Sammallahti, Sara; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri; Henrich, Wolfgang; Plagemann, Andreas; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Braun, Thorsten; Entringer, Sonja (2021)
    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in fetal programming. Antenatal treatment with synthetic GCs (sGCs) in individuals in danger of preterm labor is common practice. Adverse short- and long-term effects of antenatal sGCs have been reported, but their effects on placental epigenetic characteristics have never been systematically studied in humans. Results We tested the association between exposure to the sGC betamethasone (BET) and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) in 52 exposed cases and 84 gestational-age-matched controls. We fine-mapped associated loci using targeted bisulfite sequencing. The association of placental DNAm with gene expression and co-expression analysis on implicated genes was performed in an independent cohort including 494 placentas. Exposure to BET was significantly associated with lower placenta DNAm at an enhancer of FKBP5. FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 51) is a co-chaperone that modulates glucocorticoid receptor activity. Lower DNAm at this enhancer site was associated with higher expression of FKBP5 and a co-expressed gene module. This module is enriched for genes associated with preeclampsia and involved in inflammation and immune response. Conclusions Our findings suggest that BET exposure during pregnancy associates with few but lasting changes in placental DNAm and may promote a gene expression profile associated with placental dysfunction and increased inflammation. This may represent a pathway mediating GC-associated negative long-term consequences and health outcomes in offspring.
  • Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Eckermann, Henrik A.; de Vos, Willem M.; de Weerth, Carolina (2020)
    Entry to center-based childcare (CC) at three months of life can be an important challenge for infants as it includes major stressors such as long maternal separations and frequently changing caregivers. Stress and the new environment may in turn alter the composition of the gut microbiota with possible implications for future health outcomes. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated whether CC, as compared to being cared for by the parents at home, alters the composition of the gut microbiota, while accounting for known covariates of the infant gut microbiota. Stool samples of infants who entered CC (n=49) and control infants (n=49) were obtained before and four weeks after CC entrance. Using Redundancy analysis, Random Forests and Bayesian linear models we found that infant gut microbiota was not affected in a uniform way by entry to CC. In line with the literature, breastfeeding, birth mode, age, and the presence of siblings were shown to significantly impact the microbial composition.
  • Tamminen, Tuire; Sahlin, Lena; Masironi-Malm, B.; Dahlbom, Merja; Katila, Terttu; Taponen, Juhani; Vapaavuori, Outi (2019)
    This study aimed to examine the etiology of canine dystocia by measuring the relative expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) mRNA and the concentration of serum progesterone, plasma PGF(2 alpha) metabolite (PGFM), and blood ionized calcium (iCa) near term and in dystocia. Altogether 58 bitches were included in this study, 41 of which underwent cesarean section (CS). The four CS groups were based on history: complete uterine inertia (CUI; n = 7), partial uterine inertia (PUI; n = 13), obstructive dystocia (OD; n = 10), and elective cesarean section (ECS; n = 11). An additional group of medically treated dystocia without CS (MD; n = 8) and a control group (C; n = 9) with normal parturition (without CS and medical treatment) were also formed. Blood samples were taken prior to CS or medical treatment. Progesterone concentrations were highest in the ECS and a significant difference (p <0.05) was observed between the ECS and the OD and between the ECS and the combined dystocia (CUI, PUI, OD, MD) groups (COMB). Highest concentrations of PGFM was observed in the C, the difference being significant (p <0.05) between the C and the ECS and between the C and the COMB group. The progesterone:PGFM ratio was significantly (p <0.05) higher in the ECS than in the C and the COMB group. No significant difference (p> 0.05) was observed in iCa concentrations between the groups. Relative OXTR mRNA expression was evaluated with real-time PCR from full-thickness uterine samples taken from the incision site during CS. The expression was highest in the ECS and the difference in expression was significant (p <0.05) between the ECS and the OD and between ECS and the combined dystocia (CUI, PUI, OD) groups (COMB2). The study supports previous reports of decreasing progesterone and increasing PGFM during prepartum luteolysis. Upregulation of OXTR occurs near term. In obstructive dystocia, a prolonged influence of oxytocin and uterine exhaustion may lead to downregulation of OXTR. Complete primary uterine inertia may have a different etiology as no clear decrease in OXTR was observed in CUI as in OD. It remains unclear if parturition ceases because of uterine inertia or if uterine inertia occurs because of ceased parturition and desensitization of receptors. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hasan, Shah Md. Kamrul; Orro, Toomas; Valros, Anna; Junnikkala, Sami; Peltoniemi, Olli; Oliviero, Claudio (2019)
    The present study investigated sow colostrum yield (CY), colostrum composition and factors affecting them, and their relation to piglet survivability, growth and mortality. The study included 230 sows with 3,210 live-born piglets from five Finnish and one Dutch sow herd. Sow farrowing was supervised, and piglets were individually weighed at birth (BWB) and 24 h after birth of first piglet in order to calculate piglet CI and sow CY. Colostrum nutritional composition, immunoglobulin (Ig), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) contents were assessed. Sow plasma SAA, Hp and progesterone around farrowing were also assessed. Selected ear-tagged piglets were weighed at 3 to 4 weeks of age to calculate individual average daily gain. Sow CY was positively correlated with plasma Hp (P = 0.029) and number of live-born piglets (P < 0.01). An additional minute of farrowing duration lowered the CY by 2.2 g (P = 0.01). Piglet CI was positively associated with piglet weight at birth (P < 0.001) and negatively associated with the number of live-born piglets in the litter and percentage of protein in the colostrum (P < 0.001). Both piglet CI and birth weight were positively associated with piglet average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.001). Piglet survival from birth to weaning depends on CI. We established that the risk of piglet death or of a piglet being treated with antibiotic before weaning increases with a decrease in sow back fat thickness at farrowing (P = 0.04). Similarly, we found that piglets from litters with low BWB and low CI had a higher risk of death before weaning (P < 0.001). Piglets born from sows with lower levels of colostrum IgA and SAA and high plasma progesterone at the end of farrowing had a higher risk of neonatal diarrhea (P = 0.04; P = 0.05; P = 0.04). Piglets born from sows having higher back fat thickness at weaning had a higher risk of developing weaning diarrhea (P = 0.02). In conclusion, longer farrowing duration can be detrimental and can negatively influence sow CY. Sow body condition and physiological status around farrowing can also affect CY, and thereby increase piglet mortality and use of antibiotics in neonatal piglets. Neonatal piglets can benefit from higher colostrum immunoglobulins, SAA, and decreased level of plasma progesterone in sows at the end of farrowing.
  • Hasan, S.; Saha, S.; Junnikkala, S.; Orro, T.; Peltoniemi, O.; Oliviero, C. (2019)
    Resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) mainly containing tall oil fatty acid with an active component of resin acid (RA) can improve the microbial population in the digestive system, change the microbial fermentation, and improve the feed conversion ratio. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of RAC on sow colostrum yield (CY), colostrum composition and gut microbiota. Tall oil fatty acid and RA are commonly termed RAC and CLA, pinolenic, abietic, dehydrobiotic acids are characteristic components of RAC. The experiment was conducted in three trials in three respective herds. Sows were fed with a control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g RAC/day per sow during the last week of gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing technique was used to assess sows' faecal microbiota populations at farrowing. Colostrum nutritional composition, acute phase proteins (APPs) and immunoglobulin (Ig) content were also assessed. Individual piglets were weighed at birth and 24 h after the birth of first piglets in order to calculate CY and later at 3 to 4 weeks to calculate average daily gain. The RAC-fed sows had significantly higher IgG levels (P0.05), but those fed RAC had higher levels of colostrum serum amyloid A. Colostrum yield was significantly higher in RAC-fed sows in herds 2 and 3 with heavier piglets between 3 and 4 weeks of age (P0.05). Resin acid-enriched composition supplementation significantly increased some beneficial and fermentative bacteria (Romboutsia and Clostridium sensu stricto) than the control diet (P
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Hovatta, Iiris; Paavonen, Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Pölkki, Pirjo; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina (2020)
    Telomeres play an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity.With each cell division, telomeres are shortened and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has therefore been considered a marker for biological age. LTL is associated with various lifetime stressors and health‑related outcomes. Transgenerationaleffects have been implicated in newborns, with maternal stress, depression,and anxiety predicting shorter telomere length at birth, possibly reflecting the intrauterine growth environment. Previous studies, with relatively small sample sizes, have reported an effect of maternal stress, BMI, and depression during pregnancy on the LTL of newborns. Here, we attempted to replicate previous findings on prenatal stress and newborn LTL in a sample of 1405 infants using aqPCR‑based method.In addition, previous research has been expanded by studying the relationship between maternal sleep quality and LTL. Maternal prenatal stress, anxiety, depression, BMI, and self‑reported sleep quality were evaluated with self‑reported questionnaires.Despite sufficient power to detect similar or even considerably smaller effects than those previously reported in the literature,we were unable to replicate the previous correlation between maternal stress, anxiety, depression,or sleep with LTL. We discuss several possible reasons for the discrepancies between our findings and those previously described.
  • Acosta, H.; Kantojärvi, K.; Hashempour, N.; Pelto, J.; Scheinin, N. M.; Lehtola, S. J.; Lewis, J. D.; Fonov, V. S.; Collins, D. L.; Evans, A.; Parkkola, R.; Lahdesmaki, T.; Saunavaara, J.; Karlsson, L.; Merisaari, H.; Paunio, T.; Karlsson, H.; Tuulari, J. J. (2020)
    Psychiatric disease susceptibility partly originates prenatally and is shaped by an interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors. A recent study has provided preliminary evidence that an offspring polygenic risk score for major depressive disorder (PRS-MDD), based on European ancestry, interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (GxE) on neonatal right amygdalar (US and Asian cohort) and hippocampal volumes (Asian cohort). However, to date, this GxE interplay has only been addressed by one study and is yet unknown for a European ancestry sample. We investigated in 105 Finnish mother-infant dyads (44 female, 11-54 days old) how offspring PRS-MDD interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, gestational weeks 14, 24, 34) on infant amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. We found a GxE effect on right amygdalar volumes, significant in the main analysis, but nonsignificant after multiple comparison correction and some of the control analyses, whose direction paralleled the US cohort findings. Additional exploratory analyses suggested a sex-specific GxE effect on right hippocampal volumes. Our study is the first to provide support, though statistically weak, for an interplay of offspring PRS-MDD and prenatal maternal depressive symptoms on infant limbic brain volumes in a cohort matched to the PRS-MDD discovery sample.
  • Tiira, Katriina (2019)
    What are the key factors of psychological resilience in dogs? Why do some individuals recover swiftly from neglect, abuse or several years of harsh kennel environments, while some seem to be permanently traumatized by much milder adverse experiences? Resilience is a concept seldom discussed in canine studies; however, many studies have identified risk factors (both environmental and genetic) for developing anxieties, aggression or other behavioral problems. These studies also indicate several factors that may act as protective agents against life adversities. In this paper, I will present some of the most commonly identified key factors of resilience in other species and discuss what has been found in dogs. This paper is an attempt to raise focus on the positive key factors in a dog's life that are important for dog welfare, a healthy psychological outcome and are also important building blocks of a happy and well-behaving pet.
  • Veit, Christina; Janczak, Andrew M.; Ranheim, Birgit; Vas, Judit; Valros, Anna; Sandercock, Dale A.; Piepponen, Petteri; Dulgheriu, Daniela; Nordgreen, Janicke (2021)
    Poor health is a risk factor for damaging behaviors, but the mechanisms behind this link are unknown. Injection of pigs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be used to model aspects of poor health. Recent studies have shown that LPS-injected pigs perform more tail- and ear-directed behavior compared to saline-injected pigs and suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in these behaviors. The aims of this study were to test the effect of LPS on the social behavior of pigs and the neurotransmitters and modulators in their brains and to test the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the effects of LPS. Fifty-two female pigs (11-12 weeks) were allocated to four treatments comprising two injections: saline-saline (SS), saline-LPS (SL), ketoprofen-saline (KS), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). Activity was scan-sampled every 5 min for 6 h after the last injection in the pen. Social behavior was observed continuously in 10 x 15-min bouts between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. 1 day before (baseline) and 1 and 2 days after the injection. Saliva was analyzed for cortisol and plasma for tryptophan and kynurenine. The frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and brain stem were sampled 72 h after the injection and analyzed for cytokines and monoamines. LPS activated the HPA axis and decreased the activity within 6 h after the injection. Ketoprofen lowered the effect of LPS on cortisol release and attenuated the behavioral signs of sickness in challenged pigs. SL pigs manipulated the ears of their pen mates significantly longer than SS pigs 2 days after the injection. LPS had no observed effect on IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. At 72 h after the injection, plasma tryptophan was depleted in SL pigs, and tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations in the frontal cortex and brain stem of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Serotonin concentrations in the hypothalamus and noradrenaline concentrations in the hippocampus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in KL pigs. In conclusion, LPS influenced the different neurotransmitters and modulators in the brain that are hypothesized to play an important role in the regulation of mood and behavior.
  • Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Laitinen, Jaana; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kujala, Urho M.; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2020)
    Background Psychological processes can be manifested in physiological health. We investigated whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), targeted on psychological flexibility (PF), influences inflammation and stress biomarkers among working-age adults with psychological distress and overweight/obesity. Method Participants were randomized into three parallel groups: (1) ACT-based face-to-face (n = 65; six group sessions led by a psychologist), (2) ACT-based mobile (n = 73; one group session and mobile app), and (3) control (n = 66; only the measurements). Systemic inflammation and stress markers were analyzed at baseline, at 10 weeks after the baseline (post-intervention), and at 36 weeks after the baseline (follow-up). General PF and weight-related PF were measured with questionnaires (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire for Weight-Related Difficulties). Results A group x time interaction (p = .012) was detected in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level but not in other inflammation and stress biomarkers. hsCRP decreased significantly in the face-to-face group from week 0 to week 36, and at week 36, hsCRP was lower among the participants in the face-to-face group than in the mobile group (p = .035, post hoc test). Age and sex were stronger predictors of biomarker levels at follow-up than the post-intervention PF. Conclusion The results suggest that ACT delivered in group sessions may exert beneficial effects on low-grade systemic inflammation. More research is needed on how to best apply psychological interventions for the health of both mind and body among people with overweight/obesity and psychological distress.
  • Suarez, Anna; Lahti, Jari; Czamara, Darina; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Andersson, Sture; Strandberg, Timo E.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Kajantie, Eero; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Räikkönen, Katri (2018)
    Background: Molecular aging biomarkers, such as epigenetic age predictors, predict risk factors of premature aging, and morbidity/mortality more accurately than chronological age in middle-aged and elderly populations. Yet, it remains elusive if such biomarkers are associated with aging-related outcomes earlier in life when individuals begin to diverge in aging trajectories. We tested if the Horvath epigenetic age predictor is associated with pubertal, neuroendocrine, psychiatric, and cognitive aging-related outcomes in a sample of 239 adolescents, 11.0-13.2 years-old. Results: Each year increase in epigenetic age acceleration (AA) was associated with 0.06 SD units higher weight-for-age, 0.08 SD units taller height-for-age, -0.09 SD units less missed from the expected adult height, 13 and 16% higher odds, respectively, for each stage increase in breast/genitals development on the Tanner Staging Questionnaire and pubertal stage on the Pubertal Development Scale, 4.2% higher salivary cortisol upon awakening, and 18 to 34% higher odds for internalizing and thought problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (p values <0.045). AA was not significantly associated with cognition. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that already in adolescence, AA is associated with physiological age acceleration, which may index risk of earlier aging. AA may identify individuals for preventive interventions decades before aging-related diseases become manifest.