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  • Montanari, Francesco; Räsänen, Syksy (2017)
    If the FRW metric is a good approximation on large scales, then the distance and the expansion rate, as well different notions of distance, satisfy certain consistency conditions. We fit the JLA SNIa distance data to determine the expected amplitude of the violation of these conditions if accelerated expansion is due to backreaction. Adding cosmic clock and BAO expansion rate data, we also model-independently determine the current observational limits on such violation. We find that the predicted maximum backreaction amplitude vertical bar k(H)vertical bar less than or similar to 1 (95% C.I.) is of the same order as the current observational constraints vertical bar k(H)vertical bar less than or similar to 1, the precise numbers depending on the adopted fitting method (polynomials or splines) and stellar population evolution model. We also find that constraints on the value of Ho determined from expansion rate data are sensitive to the stellar evolution model. We forecast constraints from projected LSST+Euclid-like SNIa plus Euclid galaxy differential age data. We find improvement by factor of 6 for the backreaction case and 3 for the model-independent case, probing an interesting region of possible signatures.
  • Mirkazemi, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Pereira, M. J.; Tanaka, M.; Lerchster, M.; Brimioulle, F.; Egami, E.; Kettula, K.; Erfanianfar, G.; McCracken, H. J.; Mellier, Y.; Kneib, J. P.; Rykoff, E.; Seitz, S.; Erben, T.; Taylor, J. E. (2015)
  • Montanari, Francesco; Räsänen, Syksy (2017)
    We evaluate the effect of structure formation on the average expansion rate with a statistical treatment where density peaks and troughs are modelled as homogeneous ellipsoids. This extends earlier work that used spherical regions. We find that the shear and the presence of filamentary and planar structures have only a small impact on the results. The expansion rate times the age of the universe Ht increases from 2/3 to 0.83 at late times, in order of magnitude agreement with observations, although the change is slower and takes longer than in the real universe. We discuss shortcomings that have to be addressed for this and similar statistical models in the literature to develop into realistic quantitative treatment of backreaction.
  • CORE Collaboration; Melin, J. -B.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Väliviita, J. (2018)
    We examine the cosmological constraints that can be achieved with a galaxy cluster survey with the future CORE space mission. Using realistic simulations of the millimeter sky, produced with the latest version of the Planck Sky Model, we characterize the CORE cluster catalogues as a function of the main mission performance parameters. We pay particular attention to telescope size, key to improved angular resolution, and discuss the comparison and the complementarity of CORE with ambitious future ground-based CMB experiments that could be deployed in the next decade. A possible CORE mission concept with a 150 cm diameter primary mirror can detect of the order of 50,000 clusters through the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE). The total yield increases (decreases) by 25% when increasing (decreasing) the mirror diameter by 30 cm. The 150 cm telescope configuration will detect the most massive clusters (> 10(14) M-circle dot) at redshift z > 1.5 over the whole sky, although the exact number above this redshift is tied to the uncertain evolution of the cluster SZE flux-mass relation; assuming self-similar evolution, CORE will detect similar to 500 clusters at redshift z > 1.5. This changes to 800 (200) when increasing (decreasing) the mirror size by 30 cm. CORE will be able to measure individual cluster halo masses through lensing of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies with a 1-sigma sensitivity of 4 x 10(14)M(circle dot), for a 120 cm aperture telescope, and 10(14)M(circle dot) for a 180 cm one. From the ground, we estimate that, for example, a survey with about 150,000 detectors at the focus of 350 cm telescopes observing 65% of the sky would be shallower than CORE and detect about 11,000 clusters, while a survey with the same number of detectors observing 25% of sky with a 10 m telescope is expected to be deeper and to detect about 70,000 clusters. When combined with the latter, CORE would reach a limiting mass of M-500 similar to 2-3 x 10(13)M(circle dot) and detect 220,000 clusters (5 sigma detection limit). Cosmological constraints from CORE cluster counts alone are competitive with other scheduled large scale structure surveys in the 2020's for measuring the dark energy equation of-state parameters w(0) and w(a) (sigma(w0) = 0.28, sigma(wa) = 0.31). In combination with primary CMB constraints, CORE cluster counts can further reduce these error bars on w(0) and w(a) to 0.05 and 0.13 respectively, and constrain the sum of the neutrino masses, Sigma m(nu), to 39 meV (1 sigma). The wide frequency coverage of CORE, 60-600 GHz, will enable measurement of the relativistic thermal SZE by stacking clusters. Contamination by dust emission from the clusters, however, makes constraining the temperature of the intracluster medium difficult. The kinetic SZE pairwise momentum will be extracted with S/N = 70 in the foreground cleaned CMB map. Measurements of T-CMB (z) using CORE clusters will establish competitive constraints on the evolution of the CMB temperature: (1 + z)(1-beta), with an uncertainty of sigma(beta) less than or similar to 2.7 x 10(-3) at low redshift (z less than or similar to 1). The wide frequency coverage also enables clean extraction of a map of the diffuse SZE signal over the sky, substantially reducing contamination by foregrounds compared to the Planck SZE map extraction. Our analysis of the one-dimensional distribution of Compton-y values in the simulated map finds an order of magnitude improvement in constraints on sigma(8) over the Planck result, demonstrating the potential of this cosmological probe with CORE.
  • Haines, C. P.; Finoguenov, A.; Smith, G. P.; Babul, A.; Egami, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Okabe, N.; Pereira, M. J.; Bianconi, M.; Mcgee, S. L.; Ziparo, F.; Campusano, L. E.; Loyola, C. (2018)
    Galaxy clusters are expected to form hierarchically in a Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) universe, growing primarily through mergers with lower mass clusters and the continual accretion of group-mass haloes. Galaxy clusters assemble late, doubling their masses since z similar to 0.5, and so the outer regions of clusters should be replete with accreting group-mass systems. We present an XMM-Newton survey to search for X-ray groups in the infall regions of 23 massive galaxy clusters (<M-200 > similar to 10(15)M(circle dot)) at z similar to 0.2, identifying 39 X-ray groups that have been spectroscopically confirmed to lie at the cluster redshift. These groups have mass estimates in the range 2 x 10(13)-7 x 10(14)M(circle dot), and group-to-cluster mass ratios as low as 0.02. The comoving number density of X-ray groups in the infall regions is similar to 25x higher than that seen for isolated X-ray groups from the XXL survey. The average mass per cluster contained within these X-ray groups is 2.2 x 10(14)M(circle dot), or 19 +/- 5 per cent of the mass within the primary cluster itself. We estimate that similar to 10(15)M(circle dot) clusters increase their masses by 16 +/- 4 per cent between z = 0.223 and the present day due to the accretion of groups with M-200 >= 10(13.2)M(circle dot). This represents about half of the expected mass growth rate of clusters at these late epochs. The other half is likely to come from smooth accretion of matter not bound within haloes. The mass function of the infalling X-ray groups appears significantly top heavy with respect to that of 'field' X-ray systems, consistent with expectations from numerical simulations, and the basic consequences of collapsed massive dark matter haloes being biased tracers of the underlying large-scale density distribution.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Klein, M.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2020)
    We perform the calibration of the X-ray luminosity-mass scaling relation on a sample of 344 CODEX clusters with z <0.66 using the dynamics of their member galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up measurements have been obtained from the SPIDERS survey, leading to a sample of 6658 red member galaxies. We use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses, assuming an NFW mass profile and analysing a broad range of anisotropy profiles. With a scaling relation of the form L-X proportional to A(X)M(200c)(BX) E(z)(2)(1 + z)(gamma x), we find best-fitting parameters A(X) = 0.62(-0.06)(+0.05) (+/- 0.06) x 10(44) erg s(-)(1), B-X = 2.35(-0.18)(+0.21)(+/- 0.09), gamma(X) = -2.77(-1.05)(+1.06)(+/- 0.79), where we include systematic uncertainties in parentheses and for a pivot mass and redshift of 3 x 10(14) M-circle dot and 0.16, respectively. We compare our constraints with previous results, and we combine our sample with the SPT SZE-selected cluster subsample observed with XMM-Newton extending the validity of our results to a wider range of redshifts and cluster masses.
  • Räsänen, Syksy; Bolejko, Krzysztof; Finoguenov, Alexis (2015)
    We present a new test of the validity of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, based on comparing the distance from redshift 0 to z(1) and from z(1) to z(2) to the distance from 0 to z(2). If the Universe is described by the FLRWmetric, the comparison provides a model-independent measurement of spatial curvature. The test relies on geometrical optics, it is independent of the matter content of the Universe and the applicability of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. We apply the test to observations, using the Union2.1 compilation of supernova distances and Sloan Lens ACS Survey galaxy strong lensing data. The FLRW metric is consistent with the data, and the spatial curvature parameter is constrained to be -1.22 <Omega(K0) <0.63, or -0.08 <Omega(K0) <0.97 with a prior from the cosmic microwave background and the local Hubble constant, though modeling of the lenses is a source of significant systematic uncertainty.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)