Browsing by Subject "COST"

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  • Richardson, Dominique; Itkonen, Jaakko; Nievas, Julia; Urtti, Arto; Casteleijn, Marco G. (2018)
    The use of living cells for the synthesis of pharmaceutical proteins, though state-of-the-art, is hindered by its lengthy process comprising of many steps that may affect the protein’s stability and activity. We aimed to integrate protein expression, purification, and bioconjugation in small volumes coupled with cell free protein synthesis for the target protein, ciliary neurotrophic factor. Split-intein mediated capture by use of capture peptides onto a solid surface was efficient at 89–93%. Proof-of-principle of light triggered release was compared to affinity chromatography (His6 fusion tag coupled with Ni-NTA). The latter was more efficient, but more time consuming. Light triggered release was clearly demonstrated. Moreover, we transferred biotin from the capture peptide to the target protein without further purification steps. Finally, the target protein was released in a buffer-volume and composition of our choice, omitting the need for protein concentration or changing the buffer. Split-intein mediated capture, protein trans splicing followed by light triggered release, and bioconjugation for proteins synthesized in cell free systems might be performed in an integrated workflow resulting in the fast production of the target protein.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Kouvonen, Anne; Mauramo, Elina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Lallukka, Tea (2022)
    Background Disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances are associated with certain unhealthy food habits such as inadequate consumption of fruit and vegetables. This study examined whether multiple socioeconomic measures are consistently associated with a variety of food habits. Methods We examined associations of 2 childhood and 6 adult socioeconomic measures with 8 recommended food habits among 19-39-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The data were collected in 2017 via online and mailed surveys. Our sample consisted of 4621 employees (80% women). The analyses included adjusted binary logistic regression models. Results More advantaged socioeconomic circumstances were positively associated with the recommended consumption of vegetables, fruit or berries, dark bread, skimmed milk products, fish, and cooking oil, but not consistently with red or processed meat and fat spread. All socioeconomic measures were positively associated with having several (6-8) recommended food habits after gender and age adjustments. The strongest associations were found for participant's education, occupational class, and current financial difficulties. These associations remained after adjustments of childhood and adult socioeconomic measures, although especially participant's education attenuated the associations for occupational class. Conclusions The consistent associations between multiple childhood and adult socioeconomic measures and food habits found among employees highlight the need for improving food habits among people with disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances in particular. Financial barriers together with social aspects of adhering to healthy diets should be considered in future dietary interventions and policy actions.
  • Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Harris, Kathryn; Zoumpoulaki, Alexia; Filetti, Marco; Bowman, Howard (2021)
    Studies have shown that presenting own-name stimuli on the fringe of awareness in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) generates a P3 component and provides an accurate and countermeasure resistant method for detecting identity deception (Bowman et al., 2013, 2014). The current study investigates how effective this Fringe-P3 method is at detecting recognition of familiar name stimuli with lower salience (i.e., famous names) than own name stimuli, as well as its accuracy with multi-item stimuli (i.e., first and second name pairs presented sequentially). The results demonstrated a highly significant ERP difference between famous and non-famous names at the group level and a detectable P3 for famous names for 86% of participants at the individual level. This demonstrates that the Fringe-P3 method can be used for detecting name stimuli other than own-names and for multi-item stimuli, thus further supporting the method's potential usefulness in forensic applications such as in detecting recognition of accomplices. (c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lundberg, Johan; Cars, Thomas; Lööv, Sven-Åke; Söderling, Jonas; Tiihonen, Jari; Leval, Amy; Gannedahl, Anna; Björkholm, Carl; Själin, Mikael; Hellner, Clara (2022)
    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent condition and a significant contributor to global disability. The vast majority of MDD is handled by primary care, but most real-life studies on MDD only include data from secondary care. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the total clinical and societal burden of incident MDD including data from all healthcare levels in a large well-defined western European healthcare region. Methods Population-wide observational study included healthcare data from Region Stockholm, Sweden's largest region with approximately 2.4 million inhabitants. All patients in Region Stockholm having their first unipolar MDD episode between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018, were included. The sample also included matched study population controls. Outcomes were psychiatric and non-psychiatric comorbid conditions, antidepressant therapy use, healthcare resource utilization, work loss, and all-cause mortality. Results In the study period, 137,822 patients in Region Stockholm were diagnosed with their first unipolar MDD episode. Compared with matched controls, MDD patients had a higher burden of non-psychiatric and psychiatric comorbid conditions, 3.2 times higher outpatient healthcare resource utilization and 8.6 times more work loss. MDD was also associated with a doubled all-cause mortality compared with matched controls (HR: 2.2 [95% CI: 2.0-2.4]). Conclusions The high mortality, morbidity, healthcare resource utilization, and work loss found in this study confirms that MDD is associated with individual suffering and low functioning leading to substantial costs for patients and society. These findings should motivate additional efforts in improving outcomes for MDD patients.
  • Mars, Nina; Kerola, Anne M.; Kauppi, Markku J.; Pirinen, Matti; Elonheimo, Outi; Sokka-Isler, Tuulikki (2022)
    Objective: To identify the patterns of healthcare resource utilization and unmet needs of persistent disease activity, pain, and physical disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by cluster analysis. Method: Patients attending the Jyvaskyla Central Hospital rheumatology unit, Finland, were, from 2007, prospectively enrolled in a clinical database. We identified all RA patients in 2010-2014 and combined their individual-level data with well-recorded administrative data on all public healthcare contacts in fiscal year 2014. We ran agglomerative hierarchical clustering (Ward's method), with 28-joint Disease Activity Score with three variables, Health Assessment Questionnaire index, pain (visual analogue scale 0-100), and total annual health service-related direct costs (euro) as clustering variables. Results: Complete-case analysis of 939 patients derived four clusters. Cluster C1 (remission and low costs, 550 patients) comprised relatively young patients with low costs, low disease activity, and minimal disability. C2 (chronic pain, disability, and fatigue, 269 patients) included those with the highest pain and fatigue levels, and disability was fairly common. C3 (inflammation, 97 patients) had rather high mean costs and the highest average disease activity, but lower average levels of pain and less disability than C2, highlighting the impact of effective treatment. C4 (comorbidities and high costs, 23 patients) was characterized by exceptionally high costs incurred by comorbidities. Conclusions: The majority of RA patients had favourable outcomes and low costs. However, a large group of patients was distinguished by chronic pain, disability, and fatigue not unambiguously linked to disease activity. The highest healthcare costs were linked to high disease activity or comorbidities.
  • Kivelä, Laura; Euren, Anna; Repo, Marleena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2022)
    PurposeWe evaluated adherence to a gluten-free diet and associated factors in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood. MethodsComprehensive medical data on 955 pediatric celiac disease patients was collected and study questionnaires sent to 559 who were now adults. All variables were compared between strictly adherent and non-adherent patients. ResultsAltogether 237 adults (median age 27 years, 69% women) responded to the questionnaires a median of 18 (range 3-51) years after the childhood diagnosis. Altogether 78% were reportedly adherent and 22% non-adherent. The non-adherent patients had more concomitant type 1 diabetes (18% vs. 4%, p = 0.003), whereas the groups did not differ in demographic data or clinical and histological features at diagnosis, or in short-term dietary adherence. In adulthood, non-adherent patients found gluten-free diet more challenging (39% vs. 17%, p < 0.001) and had higher prevalence (39% vs. 19%, p = 0.004) and severity of symptoms. The main motivation factors for dietary adherence were attempts to avoid symptoms and complications, but these were considered less important and price of gluten-free products more important among non-adherent patients. Adherent and non-adherent patients did not differ in socioeconomic or lifestyle factors, comorbidities other than type 1 diabetes, self-reported general health, health concerns, follow-up, or in quality of life. ConclusionMost originally pediatric celiac disease patients reported strict dietary adherence in adulthood. However, particularly those with concomitant type 1 diabetes, persistent symptoms or financial issues may require attention during the transition from pediatric to adult care.
  • Hessen, Erik; Hokkanen, Laura; Ponsford, Jennie; van Zandvoort, Martine; Watts, Ann; Evans, Jonathan; Haaland, Kathleen Y. (2018)
    Objective: This work aimed to review main competency requirements from training models in countries with well-established specialties in clinical neuropsychology and to extract core competencies that likely will apply to clinical neuropsychologists regardless of regional and cultural context. Method: We reviewed standards for post-graduate training in clinical neuropsychology from countries in Europe, Australia, and North America based on existing literature, presentations at international conferences, and from description of the training models from national psychological or neuropsychological associations. Results: Despite differences, the reviewed models share similar core competencies considered necessary for a specialty in clinical neuropsychology: (1) In-depth knowledge of general psychology including clinical psychology (post-graduate level), ethical, and legal standards. (2) Expert knowledge about clinically relevant brain-behavioral relationships. (3) Comprehensive knowledge about, and skills in, related clinical disciplines. (4) In-depth knowledge about and skills in neuropsychological assessment, including decision-making and diagnostic competency according to current classification of diseases. (5) Competencies in the area of diversity and culture in relation to clinical neuropsychology. (6) Communication competency of neuropsychological findings and test results to relevant and diverse audiences. (7) Knowledge about and skills in psychological and neuropsychological intervention, including treatment and rehabilitation. Conclusions: All the models have undergone years of development in accordance with requirements of national health care systems in different parts of the world. Despite differences, the common core competency requirements across different regions of the world suggest generalizability of these competencies. We hope this summary can be useful as countries with less established neuropsychology training programs develop their models.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Baffigo-Torre, Virginia; Estela Sacieta-Carbajo, Luisa; Olivari-Heredia, Jacqueline; Falcon-Lizaraso, Yolanda; Huber Mallma-Torres, Juan; Elera-Florez, Humberto; Hernesniemi, Juha (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Economic, cultural, and geographical reasons usually limit the access to specialized health centers in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Peruvian health system indicators still highlight significant unmet clinical need for neurosurgical patients. Our project is to develop the first highly specialized neurosurgical center in the EsSalud hospital of Trujillo, with the goal to improve the treatment of neurosurgical diseases in that region, thus optimizing their outcomes while decreasing expensive and risky patients transfer to the neurosurgical departments in the capital district. METHODS: After an initial center evaluation, 2 neurosurgeons and 2 nurses from the Helsinki University Central Hospital provided the microneurosurgical training for the local team. Moreover, our team worked closely with the local staff to develop standardized protocols for surgical procedures and postoperative management. RESULTS: From February to May 2016, 59 surgeries were performed in the new Neurosurgical Center, including cerebrovascular and skull-base cases that were never performed before in Trujillo. Moreover, the first "Cerebral Bypass and Vascular Microsurgery Live Course" was held in Trujillo in May 2016. After we left, the local team continued to work following the same protocols we introduced, and built up together. CONCLUSIONS: An effective and adequate operative skill transfer to the local staff may be accomplished in a reasonable amount of time, thus guaranteeing a longlasting improvement of neurosurgical care, while minimizing expenditures on personnel and capital. We believe that this is possible following a general microsurgical philosophy that can be simplified as follows: "simple, clean, fast, and preserving normal anatomy."
  • Hiltunen, Teppo; Cairns, Johannes; Frickel, Jens; Jalasvuori, Matti; Laakso, Jouni; Kaitala, Veijo; Kuenzel, Sven; Karakoc, Emre; Becks, Lutz (2018)
    Recognizing when and how rapid evolution drives ecological change is fundamental for our understanding of almost all ecological and evolutionary processes such as community assembly, genetic diversification and the stability of communities and ecosystems. Generally, rapid evolutionary change is driven through selection on genetic variation and is affected by evolutionary constraints, such as tradeoffs and pleiotropic effects, all contributing to the overall rate of evolutionary change. Each of these processes can be influenced by the presence of multiple environmental stressors reducing a population's reproductive output. Potential consequences of multistressor selection for the occurrence and strength of the link from rapid evolution to ecological change are unclear. However, understanding these is necessary for predicting when rapid evolution might drive ecological change. Here we investigate how the presence of two stressors affects this link using experimental evolution with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and its predator Tetrahymena thermophila. We show that the combination of predation and sublethal antibiotic concentrations delays the evolution of anti-predator defence and antibiotic resistance compared with the presence of only one of the two stressors. Rapid defence evolution drives stabilization of the predator-prey dynamics but this link between evolution and ecology is weaker in the two-stressor environment, where defence evolution is slower, leading to less stable population dynamics. Tracking the molecular evolution of whole populations over time shows further that mutations in different genes are favoured under multistressor selection. Overall, we show that selection by multiple stressors can significantly alter eco-evolutionary dynamics and their predictability.
  • Tarvainen, Timo; Siren, Jukka; Kokkola, Arto; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Importance Both hydrocortisone and pasireotide have been shown in randomized clinical trials to be effective in reducing postoperative complications of pancreatic surgery, but to date no randomized clinical trial has evaluated the effectiveness of pasireotide compared with hydrocortisone. Objective To assess the noninferiority of hydrocortisone compared with pasireotide in reducing complications after partial pancreatectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants A noninferiority, parallel-group, individually randomized clinical trial was conducted at a single academic center between May 19, 2016, and December 17, 2018. Outcome collectors and analyzers were blinded. A total of 281 patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy were assessed for inclusion. Patients younger than 18 years, those allergic to hydrocortisone or pasireotide, patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with hard pancreas or dilated pancreatic duct, and patients not eventually undergoing partial pancreatectomy were excluded. Modified intention-to-treat analysis was used in determination of the results. Interventions Treatment included pasireotide, 900 mu g, subcutaneously twice a day for 7 days or hydrocortisone, 100 mg, intravenously 3 times a day for 3 days. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) score within 30 days. The noninferiority limit was set to 9 CCI points. Results Of the 281 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.8 years) assessed for eligibility, 168 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.6 years) were randomized and 126 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analyses. Sixty-three patients received pasireotide (35 men [56%]; median [interquartile range] age, 64 [56-70] years) and 63 patients received hydrocortisone (25 men [40%]; median [interquartile range] age, 67 [56-73] years). The mean (SD) CCI score was 23.94 (17.06) in the pasireotide group and 30.11 (20.47) in the hydrocortisone group (mean difference, -6.16; 2-sided 90% CI, -11.73 to -0.60), indicating that hydrocortisone was not noninferior. Postoperative pancreatic fistula was detected in 34 patients (54%) in the pasireotide group and 39 patients (62%) in the hydrocortisone group (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.68-2.82; P = .37). One patient in the pasireotide group and 2 patients in the hydrocortisone group died within 30 days. In subgroup analyses of patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy, the CCI score was a mean of 10.3 points lower (mean [SD], 16.03 [11.94] vs 26.28 [21.76]; 2-sided 95% CI, -19.34 to -2.12; P = .03) and postoperative pancreatic fistula rate was lower (37% vs 67%; P = .02) in the pasireotide group compared with the hydrocortisone group. Conclusions and Relevance In this study, hydrocortisone was not noninferior compared with pasireotide in patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy. Pasireotide may be more effective than hydrocortisone in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy.
  • Söderlund, Tim P.; Kuorikoski, Joonas M (2017)
    Background and purpose: Post-operative follow-up after internal fixation of fractures is a common practice. The goal of this study was to evaluate the necessity of a routine follow-up visit after internal fixation of a proximal femoral fracture. Our hypothesis is that these follow-up visits do not result in a change in the treatment plan, but add an extra cost to the health care system and lead to the purposeless utilisation of limited resources. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 428 consecutive patients (431 fractures) with a scheduled outpatient clinic visit after internal fixation of proximal femoral fractures in a single hospital during years 2012-2013. We noted any changes in the patients' treatment plans based on the first follow-up visits, including scheduled visits up to ten weeks after internal fixation. Results: None of the patients showed signs of infection, implant failure or loss of reduction requiring reoperation at the scheduled follow-up visit. In only one (0.23%) visit a change in treatment plan was made as a result of the scheduled follow-up visit (decision to remove the distal screws from the long intramedullary nail to obtain dynamic compression). Scheduled visits did not occur for the following reasons, death (11.8%), visit to emergency department prior scheduled visit (3.2%), and not known (3.9%). Conclusions: The first scheduled visit within ten weeks after internal fixation of a proximal femoral fracture leads to no changes in treatment. We recommend considering the need of these follow-up visits. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Gakidou, Emmanuela; Afshin, Ashkan; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Komal; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Kivimaki, Mika; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD Risk Factors Collaborators (2017)
    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124.1 million DALYs [95% UI 111.2 million to 137.0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122.2 million DALYs [110.3 million to 133.3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83.0 million DALYs [78.3 million to 87.7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89.9 million DALYs [80.9 million to 98.2 million]), high body-mass index (64.8 million DALYs [44.4 million to 87.6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63.8 million DALYs [53.2 million to 76.3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9.3% (6.9-11.6) decline in deaths and a 10.8% (8.3-13.1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14.9% (12.7-17.5) of deaths and 6.2% (3.9-8.7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of deaths and 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27.3% (24.9-29.7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Interpretation Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Takala, Jukka; Moser, André; Reinikainen, Matti; Varpula, Tero; Raj, Rahul; Jakob, Stephan M. (2022)
    Purpose: The resource use of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients likely differ from other ICU patients. We evaluated the relevance of these patient groups on overall ICU resource use. Methods: Secondary analysis of 69,862 patients in 17 ICUs in Finland, Estonia, and Switzerland in 2015–2017. Direct costs of care were allocated to patients using daily Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) scores and ICU length of stay (LOS). The ratios of observed to severity-adjusted expected resource use (standardized resource use ratios; SRURs), direct costs and outcomes were assessed before and after excluding cardiac surgery or cardiac and neurosurgery. Results: Cardiac surgery and neurosurgery, performed only in university hospitals, represented 22% of all ICU admissions and 15–19% of direct costs. Cardiac surgery and neurosurgery were excluded with no consistent effect on SRURs in the whole cohort, regardless of cost separation method. Excluding cardiac surgery or cardiac surgery plus neurosurgery had highly variable effects on SRURs of individual university ICUs, whereas the non-university ICU SRURs decreased. Conclusions: Cardiac and neurosurgery have major effects on the cost structure of multidisciplinary ICUs. Extending SRUR analysis to patient subpopulations facilitates comparison of resource use between ICUs and may help to optimize resource allocation.
  • Ramula, Satu; Öst, Markus; Lindén, Andreas; Karell, Patrik; Kilpi, Mikael (2018)
    In contrast to theoretical predictions of even adult sex ratios, males are dominating in many bird populations. Such bias among adults may be critical to population growth and viability. Nevertheless, demographic mechanisms for biased adult sex ratios are still poorly understood. Here, we examined potential demographic mechanisms for the recent dramatic shift from a slight female bias among adult eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) to a male bias (about 65% males) in the Baltic Sea, where the species is currently declining. We analysed a nine-year dataset on offspring sex ratio at hatching based on molecularly sexed ducklings of individually known mothers. Moreover, using demographic data from long-term individual-based capture-recapture records, we investigated how sex-specific survival at different ages after fledgling can modify the adult sex ratio. More specifically, we constructed a stochastic two-sex matrix population model and simulated scenarios of different survival probabilities for males and females. We found that sex ratio at hatching was slightly female-biased (52.8%) and therefore unlikely to explain the observed male bias among adult birds. Our stochastic simulations with higher survival for males than for females revealed that despite a slight female bias at hatching, study populations shifted to a male-biased adult sex ratio (> 60% males) in a few decades. This shift was driven by prime reproductive-age individuals(>5-year-old), with sex-specific survival of younger age classes playing a minor role. Hence, different age classes contributed disproportion ally to population dynamics. We argue that an alternative explanation for the observed male dominance among adults sex-biased dispersal can be considered redundant and is unlikely, given the ecology of the species. The present study highlights the importance of considering population structure and age-specific vital rates when assessing population dynamics and management targets.
  • Lajunen, Antti; Kivekas, Klaus; Vepsalainen, Jari; Tammi, Kari (2020)
    Different estimations have been presented for the amount of electric vehicles in the future. These estimations rarely take into account any realistic dynamics of the vehicle fleet. The objective of this paper is to analyze recently presented future scenarios about the passenger vehicle fleet estimations and create a foundation for the development of a fleet estimation model for passenger cars dedicated to the Finnish vehicle market conditions. The specific conditions of the Finnish light-duty vehicle fleet are taken into account as boundary conditions for the model development. The fleet model can be used for the estimation of emissions-optimal future vehicle fleets and the evaluation of the carbon dioxide emissions of transportation. The emission analysis was done for four different scenarios of the passenger vehicle fleet development in Finland. The results show that the high average age of the fleet and high number of older gasoline vehicles will slow down the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions during the next five to ten years even with a high adoption rate of electric vehicles. It can be concluded that lowering the average age, increasing biofuel mixing ratios, and increasing the amount of rechargeable electric vehicles are the most effective measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions of the Finnish passenger vehicle fleet in the future.
  • Koskinen, Anni; Myller, Jyri; Mattila, Petri; Penttila, Matti; Silvola, Juha; Alastalo, Ismo; Huhtala, Heini; Hytonen, Maija; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna (2016)
    Conclusion This is the first controlled study of balloon sinuplasty's long-term efficacy with the follow-up time over 5 years. The results are in accordance with a previous 2-year-follow-up study. Both techniques retained the efficacy and patient satisfaction on average 6 years after the surgery. Background Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and balloon sinuplasty are considered as a treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) after a failure of conservative therapy. High cost and lack of long-term follow-up studies restrain the use of balloon sinuplasty. Objective The aim of this study was to compare long-term efficacy and satisfaction in CRS patients who had undergone maxillary sinus operation with either balloon sinuplasty or ESS technique. Previous or additional sinonasal operations were exclusion criteria. Materials and methods Study patients were recruited from 208 CRS-patients who underwent either ESS or balloon sinuplasty. Patients with nasal polyposis (gradus >= 2), previous sinonasal surgery, unilateral disease, or immune deficiency were excluded. Altogether 45 patients in the ESS group and 40 patients in the balloon group were included. Of these, 30 and 28, respectively, answered to a phone interview held on average 6 years after primary surgery. Symptom reduction and long-term satisfaction were evaluated by using symptom scores of 19 parameters altogether. Results Both groups experienced improvement in symptoms and were equally satisfied with the operation. The number of patient-reported acute exacerbations was higher among the balloon dilated patients. Also, the reduction of thick nasal discharge was less evident in the balloon sinuplasty group. Four patients in the balloon sinuplasty group underwent revision surgery. There were no revisions in the ESS group.
  • Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Colasanti, Roberto; Kozyrev, Danil A.; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kawashima, Akitsugu (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Pediatric moyamoya cases may be very arduous, even more so in a developing country, where access to specialized centers may be prevented by different factors. CASE DESCRIPTION: Herein we report a challenging case, which was managed in the new Neurosurgical Center of Trujillo, regarding the direct anastomosis between the left superficial temporal artery and a cortical branch of the left middle cerebral artery in a 8-year-old Peruvian boy with moyamoya disease. Postoperatively, the patient's motor deficits and aphasia improved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first performance of a direct revascularization for a pediatric moyamoya case in Peru. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of highly specialized neurosurgical centers in the main strategic places of developing countries may allow optimal treatment of neurosurgical patients with complex diseases.
  • Biancari, Fausto; Santoro, Grazia; Provenzano, Federica; Savarese, Leonardo; Iorio, Francesco; Giordano, Salvatore; Zebele, Carlo; Speziale, Giuseppe (2022)
    The results of current studies are not conclusive on the efficacy of incisional negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for the prevention of sternal wound infection (SWI) after adult cardiac surgery. A systematic review of the literature was performed through PubMed, Scopus and Google to identify studies which investigated the efficacy of NPWT to prevent SWI after adult cardiac surgery. Available data were pooled using RevMan and Meta-analyst with random effect models. Out of 191 studies retrieved from the literature, ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. The quality of these studies was judged fair for three of them and poor for seven studies. Only one study was powered to address the efficacy of NPWT for the prevention of postoperative SWI. Pooled analysis of these studies showed that NPWT was associated with lower risk of any SWI (4.5% vs. 9.0%, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.84, I-2 48%), superficial SWI (3.8% vs. 4.4%, RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.29-1.36, I-2 65%), and deep SWI (1.8% vs. 4.7%, RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26-0.74, I-2 0%), but such a difference was not statistically significant for superficial SWI. When only randomized and alternating allocated studies were included, NPWT was associated with a significantly lower risk of any SWI (3.3% vs. 16.5%, RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.62, I-2 0%), superficial SWI (2.6% vs. 12.4%, RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.69, I-2 0%), and deep SWI (1.2% vs. 4.8%, RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03-0.95, I-2 0%). This pooled analysis showed that NPWT may prevent postoperative SWI after adult cardiac surgery. NPWT is expected to be particularly useful in patients at risk for surgical site infection and may significantly reduce the burden of resources needed to treat such a complication. However, the methodology of the available studies was judged as poor for most of them. Further studies are needed to obtain conclusive results on the potential benefits of this preventative strategy.
  • Kontturi, Antti; Kekomäki, Satu; Soini, Hanna; Ollgren, Jukka; Salo, Eeva (2021)
    Introduction: In 2006, the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination policy in Finland changed from universal to selective. Aim: We assessed the impact of the policy change on tuberculosis (TB) morbidity in children under 5 years and epidemiological trends of paediatric TB in Finland. Methods: We conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective registry study of all newly diagnosed active TB cases younger than 15 years in Finland from 1995 to 2015 by linking data from the National Infectious Diseases Register, Finnish Care Register for Health Care, medical patient records and Finnish Population Information System. We compared the TB incidence rate ratio of under 5 year-olds with universal and selective BCG vaccinations with a Poisson log-linear model and analysed incidence trends among those younger than 15 years with a negative binomial model. Results: We identified 139 paediatric TB cases: 50 native (including 24 second-generation migrants) and 89 foreign-born children. The TB rate of under 5 year-olds remained stable after changing to selective BCG vaccination (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72.3). TB rate in the native population under 15 years increased slightly (IRR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11). Discussion: Paediatric TB cases in Finland were concentrated in families with migrant background from high-TB incidence countries. The native TB morbidity in under 5-year-olds did not increase after the BCG policy revision, suggesting that selective vaccinations can prevent TB in the most vulnerable age group in low-incidence settings. Second-generation migrants under 15 years in Finland with high TB risk are probably increasing.