Browsing by Subject "COXSACKIEVIRUS B3"

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  • Abdelnabi, Rana; Geraets, James A.; Ma, Yipeng; Mirabelli, Carmen; Flatt, Justin W.; Domanska, Ausra; Delang, Leen; Jochmans, Dirk; Kumar, Timiri Ajay; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Leyssen, Pieter; Butcher, Sarah J.; Neyts, Johan (2019)
    Rhino- and enteroviruses are important human pathogens, against which no antivirals are available. The best-studied inhibitors are capsid binders that fit in a hydrophobic pocket of the viral capsid. Employing a new class of entero-/rhinovirus inhibitors and by means of cryo-electron microscopy (EM), followed by resistance selection and reverse genetics, we discovered a hitherto unknown druggable pocket that is formed by viral proteins VP1 and VP3 and that is conserved across entero-/rhinovirus species. We propose that these inhibitors stabilize a key region of the virion, thereby preventing the conformational expansion needed for viral RNA release. A medicinal chemistry effort resulted in the identification of analogues targeting this pocket with broad-spectrum activity against Coxsackieviruses B (CVBs) and compounds with activity against enteroviruses (EV) of groups C and D, and even rhinoviruses (RV). Our findings provide novel insights in the biology of the entry of entero-/rhinoviruses and open new avenues for the design of broad-spectrum antivirals against these pathogens.
  • Hankaniemi, Minna M.; Baikoghli, Mo A.; Stone, Virginia M.; Xing, Li; Väätäinen, Outi; Soppela, Saana; Sioofy-Khojine, Amirbabak; Saarinen, Niila V. V.; Ou, Tingwei; Anson, Brandon; Hyöty, Heikki; Marjomäki, Varpu; Flodström-Tullberg, Malin; Cheng, R. Holland; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Laitinen, Olli H. (2020)
    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) enteroviruses are common pathogens that can cause acute and chronic myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, aseptic meningitis, and they are hypothesized to be a causal factor in type 1 diabetes. The licensed enterovirus vaccines and those currently in clinical development are traditional inactivated or live attenuated vaccines. Even though these vaccines work well in the prevention of enterovirus diseases, new vaccine technologies, like virus-like particles (VLPs), can offer important advantages in the manufacturing and epitope engineering. We have previously produced VLPs for CVB3 and CVB1 in insect cells. Here, we describe the production of CVB3-VLPs with enhanced production yield and purity using an improved purification method consisting of tangential flow filtration and ion exchange chromatography, which is compatible with industrial scale production. We also resolved the CVB3-VLP structure by Cryo-Electron Microscopy imaging and single particle reconstruction. The VLP diameter is 30.9 nm on average, and it is similar to Coxsackievirus A VLPs and the expanded enterovirus cell-entry intermediate (the 135s particle), which is similar to 2 nm larger than the mature virion. High neutralizing and total IgG antibody levels, the latter being a predominantly Th2 type (IgG1) phenotype, were detected in C57BL/6J mice immunized with non-adjuvanted CVB3-VLP vaccine. The structural and immunogenic data presented here indicate the potential of this improved methodology to produce highly immunogenic enterovirus VLP-vaccines in the future.