Browsing by Subject "CPP"

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  • Herkkola, Hennariia (Helsingfors universitet, 2018)
    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is located in the ventral striatum and plays a critical role in drug addiction. NAc receives dopaminergic projections from ventral tegmental area (VTA) which is activated after administration of various abused drugs. Activation of VTA increases the release of dopamine in NAc. Increased dopamine levels induce the release of acetylcholine from striatal cholinergic interneurons. These cholinergic interneurons have been related to the development of addiction and other emotion-related disorders such as depression. Previous studies have shown that a lesion of cholinergic interneurons led to an increase in morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice. Moreover, an activation of cholinergic interneurons by designer receptors (DREADD) has reduced food consumption motivated by food restriction. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether accumbal cholinergic interneurons mediate alcohol- and morphine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor activity. The activation of cholinergic interneurons was controlled using DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) technology. DREADDs are G protein-coupled receptors. Cellular function and activation can be modulated by these receptors. DREADDs are activated by an otherwise inert synthetic ligand, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Fluorescent protein, mCherry, is attached to DREADDs so that the expression of receptors in brain tissue can be observed. Cre-spesific adeno-associated viruses (AAV) with DREADD gene were injected bilaterally to the nucleus accumbens of ChATcre mice in stereotactic surgery. The effects of alcohol and morphine were tested with conditioned place preference procedure. Mice were divided to three groups after DREADDs: activating receptor Gq (n = 10), inhibiting receptor Gi (n = 9) and control mC (n = 9). There were both male and female mice in every group. Alcohol did not induce conditioned place preference in any group. The locomotor activity of mice significantly increased after alcohol injection compared to saline injection. However, cholinergic interneurons had no effect on the increased locomotor activity. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference was expressed in every group but there were no significant differences between DREADDs and control group when the first 15 minutes and the whole 30 minutes of the place preference test was analysed. Though, Gq-receptor seemed to decrease the place preference compared to control group when the place preference test was observed in five minute intervals. Morphine also significantly increased the locomotor activity of mice, but there were no differences between the groups. Sex had no influence on the place preference, but female mice were more active than male mice during the alcohol conditioning and the alcohol place preference test. The locomotor activity of female mice also increased more than the activity of male mice after morphine injection. The effect of accumbal cholinergic interneurons on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference remained unclear. Activation of cholinergic interneurons suppressed morphine-induced conditioned place preference compared to control group but not enough so that the effect could be seen during the whole place preference test. The mice were same in the morphine test as in the alcohol test so the mice were conditioned to alcohol before morphine and therefore the results of morphine-induced conditioned place preference are not reliable.
  • Phadke, Ketaki Vasant; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Ilomäki, Irma; Kankare, Elina; Geneid, Ahmed; Svec, Jan G. (2020)
    Purpose. The present study aimed at measuring the smoothed and non-smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS and CPP) in teachers who considered themselves to have normal voice but some of them had laryngeal pathology. The changes of CPP, CPPS, sound pressure level (SPL) and perceptual ratings with different voice tasks were investigated and the influence of vocal pathology on these measures was studied. Method. Eighty-four Finnish female primary school teachers volunteered as participants. Laryngoscopically, 52.4% of these had laryngeal changes (39.3% mild, 13.1% disordered). Sound recordings were made for phonations of comfortable sustained vowel, comfortable speech, and speech produced at increased loudness level as used during teaching. CPP, CPPS and SPL values were extracted using Praat software for all three voice samples. Sound samples were also perceptually evaluated by five voice experts for overall voice quality (10 point scale from poor to excellent) and vocal firmness (10 point scale from breathy to pressed, with normal in the middle). Results. The CPP, CPPS and SPL values were significantly higher for vowels than for comfortable speech and for loud speech compared to comfortable speech (P <0.001). Significant correlations were found between SPL and cepstral measures. The loud speech was perceived to be firmer and have a better voice quality than comfortable speech. No significant relationships of the laryngeal pathology status with cepstral values, perceptual ratings, or voice SPLs were found (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Neither the acoustic measures (CPP, CPPS, and SPL) nor the perceptual evaluations could clearly distinguish teachers with laryngeal changes from laryngeally healthy teachers. Considering no vocal complaints of the subjects, the data could be considered representative of teachers with functionally healthy voice.