Browsing by Subject "CREATIVITY"

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  • Alnajjar, Khalid; Toivonen, Hannu (2021)
    In advertising, slogans are used to enhance the recall of the advertised product by consumers and to distinguish it from others in the market. Creating effective slogans is a resource-consuming task for humans. In this paper, we describe a novel method for automatically generating slogans, given a target concept (e.g. car) and an adjectival property to express (e.g. elegant) as input. Additionally, a key component in our approach is a novel method for generating nominal metaphors, using a metaphor interpretation model, to allow generating metaphorical slogans. The method for generating slogans extracts skeletons from existing slogans. It then fills a skeleton in with suitable words by utilizing multiple linguistic resources (such as a repository of grammatical relations, and semantic and language models) and genetic algorithms to optimize multiple objectives such as semantic relatedness, language correctness and usage of rhetorical devices. We evaluate the metaphor and slogan generation methods by running crowdsourced surveys. On a 5-point Likert scale, we ask online judges to evaluate whether the generated metaphors, along with three other metaphors generated using different methods, highlight the intended property. The slogan generation method is evaluated by asking crowdsourced judges to rate generated slogans from five perspectives: (1) how well is the slogan related to the topic, (2) how correct is the language of the slogan, (3) how metaphoric is the slogan, (4) how catchy, attractive and memorable is it and (5) how good is the slogan overall. Similarly, we evaluate existing expert-made slogans. Based on the evaluations, we analyze the method and provide insights regarding existing slogans. The empirical results indicate that our metaphor generation method is capable of producing apt metaphors. Regarding the slogan generator, the results suggest that the method has successfully produced at least one effective slogan for every evaluated input.
  • Sinervo, Stiina; Sormunen, Kati; Kangas, Kaiju; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle; Korhonen, Tiina; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita (2021)
    The study focuses on examining elementary pupils' (N = 42, 11-13 years old) reflections on collaborative design processes, team collaboration and their co-inventions. Digital and traditional fabrication technologies were used in a 2-year co-invention project containing approximately 16 sessions during year 1 and 11 sessions in year 2. Between the two project periods, the pupils were asked to write a structured essay about their co-invention and design process, and in year 2 they kept journal notes in each team's design-folder. Each pupil's structured essay was analyzed with qualitative content analysis that focused on three main aspects: (1) description of the co-invention, (2) progress of the co-invention process and (3) quality of collaboration. Based on the essay analysis, we constructed a "Co-invention Table" with five categories: user, conceptual design, technical design, appearance, and construction. The nature of the 13 pupil-teams' co-inventions varied greatly, and these co-inventions were divided according to three main functions: (1) improving cleanliness, (2) providing reminders or (3) addressing well-being. The essays provided information on how creative ideas were generated and how critical thinking and evaluation of ideas were crucial in improving ideas for further development. The collaboration was dependent on everyone's active and equal participation into work and the importance of an adequate division of the labor was highlighted.
  • Pernia-Espinoza, Alpha; Sodupe-Ortega, Enrique; Pecina-Marqueta, Sergio; Martinez-Banares, Sergio; Sanz Garcia, Andres; Blanco-Fernandez, Julio (UNIVERSITAT POLITECNICA DE VALENCIA, 2017)
    Nowadays, in addition to the expected technical knowledge, labor markets demand engineers with personal, interpersonal and system building skills, according to the CDIO (Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate) syllabus. But the current higher education systems are mostly teaching theoretical concepts rather than practical or applied cases. Makerspaces could become a bridge between universities and industry, particularly in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) careers. Makerspaces, also known as hackerspaces, hack labs, and fab labs, are open-access spaces where tools, machines and knowledge are shared with the purpose of implementing an idea. This communication evaluates the current status of the makerspaces at the world's top 10 universities in engineering and three of the most well-known Spanish ones, as well as the new campus makerspace created at the University of La Rioja. All the information was collected from universities' websites. Most of these reviewed universities have created outstanding makerspaces generally for the entire academic community. The Spanish 'Maker UPV' has been exceptionally successful promoting activities and projects in spite of the lack of resources reported. Lastly, the implementation of a new makerspace at the University of La Rioja (UR-Maker) is described with information about its organization, funding sources and activities already performed. This experience can represent an attractive guide for the academic community as other universities can explore the creation of new makerspaces on their own campus.
  • Gyllenberg, David; Ristikari, Tiina; Kelleher, Ian; Kääriälä, Antti; Gissler, Mika (2022)
    Objective: It is unclear whether there are differences between specific school subject performance and later psychiatric disorders. We examined whether mean grade point average (MGPA) and specific school subjects associated with diagnoses of nonaffective psychoses, bipolar disorder and depression. Methods: In this register-based study, we studied the Finnish population born in 1987 who had available MGPA and six specific school grades (age = 15.4–16.4 years; n = 50,508). Grades were analyzed with smoothing splines. Covariates included sex, urbanicity, parental education level and parental diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Outcomes were incident nonaffective psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression diagnosed in specialized services until year 2015 (age = 28.0–28.9 years). Results: During the follow-up, 727 individuals were diagnosed with nonaffective psychoses, 489 with bipolar disorder and 3492 with depression. MGPA was inversely associated with all outcomes. In multivariate models including specific school subjects and covariates, the school subject with largest risk ratios (RR) was Physical Education (RR and Bonferroni-corrected confidence interval [CI] at −1.5 SD: nonaffective psychoses 1.63, 1.36–1.95; bipolar disorder 1.64, 1.30–2.05; depression 1.72, 1.53–1.93). Higher grades in Art were associated with nonaffective psychoses and depression (RR and Bonferroni-corrected CI at +1.5 SD: nonaffective psychoses 1.48, 1.11–1.96; depression 1.22, 1.07–1.38). Conclusion: There was a robust association between poorer scores on Physical Education and risk for psychosis, bipolar disorder and depression. Higher grades in Art were also associated with risk for later disorders. Subject specific school performance may be more informative about mental disorder risk than overall school performance.
  • Wang, Chia-Chi; Niemi, Hannele; Cheng, Chih-Ling; Cheng, Ying-Yao (2017)
    This study validated learning progression in scientific imagination and compared the performance of Taiwanese and Finnish elementary school students on scientific imagination tasks. A total of 150 5th and 6th graders completed the Scientific Imagination Test-Verbal (SIT-Verbal). Multiple analyses related to the validity of the SIT-Verbal were conducted using the Rasch partial credit model. Differences in scientific imagination due to gender and country of residence were assessed using t-tests. The results indicated that the various components of scientific imagination were hierarchically ordered, except for conceptualisation/organisation/formation. No differences in scientific imagination due to gender or country of residence were observed. Suggestions for future research are offered. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Graziotin, Daniel; Fagerholm, Fabian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka (2018)
    The growing literature on affect among software developers mostly reports on the linkage between happiness, software quality, and developer productivity. Understanding happiness and unhappiness in all its components – positive and negative emotions and moods – is an attractive and important endeavor. Scholars in industrial and organizational psychology have suggested that understanding happiness and unhappiness could lead to cost-effective ways of enhancing working conditions, job performance, and to limiting the occurrence of psychological disorders. Our comprehension of the consequences of (un)happiness among developers is still too shallow, being mainly expressed in terms of development productivity and software quality. In this paper, we study what happens when developers are happy and unhappy while developing software. Qualitative data analysis of responses given by 317 questionnaire participants identified 42 consequences of unhappiness and 32 of happiness. We found consequences of happiness and unhappiness that are beneficial and detrimental for developers’ mental well-being, the software development process, and the produced artifacts. Our classification scheme, available as open data enables new happiness research opportunities of cause-effect type, and it can act as a guideline for practitioners for identifying damaging effects of unhappiness and for fostering happiness on the job.